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Chloramphenicol Disease Interactions

There are 3 disease interactions with chloramphenicol.

Major

Antibiotics (applies to chloramphenicol) colitis

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Colitis/Enteritis (Noninfectious)

Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), formerly pseudomembranous colitis, has been reported with almost all antibacterial drugs and may range from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. The most common culprits include clindamycin and lincomycin. Antibacterial therapy alters the normal flora of the colon, leading to overgrowth of C difficile, whose toxins A and B contribute to CDAD development. Morbidity and mortality are increased with hypertoxin-producing strains of C difficile; these infections can be resistant to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea after antibacterial use. Since CDAD has been reported to occur more than 2 months after antibacterial use, careful medical history is necessary. Therapy with broad-spectrum antibacterials and other agents with significant antibacterial activity should be administered cautiously in patients with history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis; pseudomembranous colitis (generally characterized by severe, persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps, and sometimes associated with the passage of blood and mucus), if it occurs, may be more severe in these patients and may be associated with flares in underlying disease activity. Antibacterial drugs not directed against C difficile may need to be stopped if CDAD is suspected or confirmed. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C difficile, and surgical evaluation should be started as clinically indicated.

References

  1. "Product Information. Omnipen (ampicillin)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories (2002):
  2. "Product Information. Ceftin (cefuroxime)." Glaxo Wellcome (2002):
  3. "Product Information. Zinacef (cefuroxime)." Glaxo Wellcome (2002):
  4. "Product Information. Cleocin (clindamycin)." Pharmacia and Upjohn (2002):
  5. "Product Information. Macrobid (nitrofurantoin)." Procter and Gamble Pharmaceuticals (2002):
  6. "Product Information. Macrodantin (nitrofurantoin)." Procter and Gamble Pharmaceuticals (2002):
  7. "Product Information. Amoxil (amoxicillin)." SmithKline Beecham (2001):
  8. "Product Information. Merrem (meropenem)." Astra-Zeneca Pharmaceuticals (2001):
  9. "Product Information. Coly-Mycin M Parenteral (colistimethate)." Parke-Davis (2001):
  10. "Product Information. Lincocin (lincomycin)." Pharmacia and Upjohn (2001):
  11. "Product Information. Cubicin (daptomycin)." Cubist Pharmaceuticals Inc (2003):
  12. "Product Information. Xifaxan (rifaximin)." Salix Pharmaceuticals (2004):
  13. "Product Information. Doribax (doripenem)." Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical (2007):
  14. "Product Information. Penicillin G Procaine (procaine penicillin)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc (2009):
  15. "Product Information. Vibativ (telavancin)." Theravance Inc (2009):
  16. "Product Information. Teflaro (ceftaroline)." Forest Pharmaceuticals (2010):
  17. "Product Information. Penicillin G Sodium (penicillin G sodium)." Sandoz Inc (2022):
  18. "Product Information. Dalvance (dalbavancin)." Durata Therapeutics, Inc. (2014):
  19. "Product Information. Orbactiv (oritavancin)." The Medicines Company (2014):
  20. "Product Information. Bicillin C-R (benzathine penicillin-procaine penicillin)." A-S Medication Solutions (2017):
  21. "Product Information. Baxdela (delafloxacin)." Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. (2017):
  22. "Product Information. Polymyxin B Sulfate (polymyxin B sulfate)." AuroMedics Pharma LLC (2022):
  23. "Product Information. Zemdri (plazomicin)." Achaogen (2018):
  24. "Product Information. Seysara (sarecycline)." Allergan Inc (2018):
  25. "Product Information. Nuzyra (omadacycline)." Paratek Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (2018):
  26. "Product Information. Aemcolo (rifamycin)." Aries Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (2018):
  27. "Product Information. Fetroja (cefiderocol)." Shionogi USA Inc (2019):
  28. "Product Information. Biaxin (clarithromycin)." AbbVie US LLC (2019):
  29. "Product Information. Zithromax (azithromycin)." Pfizer U.S. Pharmaceuticals Group (2021):
  30. "Product Information. E.E.S.-400 Filmtab (erythromycin)." Arbor Pharmaceuticals (2018):
View all 30 references
Major

Chloramphenicol (applies to chloramphenicol) bone marrow suppression

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Bone Marrow Depression/Low Blood Counts

Chloramphenicol may cause bone marrow depression and other hematologic toxicities, which can be irreversible or reversible. The former type is independent of dose and results in aplastic anemia with a high rate of mortality, generally from hemorrhage or infection. It has been reported following both systemic and topical administration of chloramphenicol and has an estimated incidence of 1 in 25,000 to 1 in 40,000 courses of therapy. Bone marrow aplasia or hypoplasia may occur after a single dose but more often develops weeks or months after the drug has been discontinued. A reversible myelosuppression occurs much more frequently and is characterized by anemia, vacuolation of red blood cells, decreased reticulocyte count, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, increased serum iron concentrations, and increased serum iron-binding capacity. It is dose-dependent, occurring regularly at chloramphenicol dosages exceeding 4 g/day (in adults) or at plasma drug concentrations >= 25 mcg/mL, and usually responds to withdrawal of the drug. Therapy with chloramphenicol should be administered cautiously, if at all, in patients with preexisting blood dyscrasias and/or bone marrow depression. Complete blood counts and differential reticulocyte counts should be performed in all patients prior to initiating therapy and approximately every 2 days during therapy. Marked depression of blood counts and/or development of other hematologic abnormalities may be indication for withdrawal of chloramphenicol therapy.

References

  1. Abrams SM, Degnan TJ, Vinciguerra V "Marrow aplasia following topical application of chloramphenicol eye ointment." Arch Intern Med 140 (1980): 576-7
  2. Calderwood SB, Moellering RC "Common adverse effects of antibacterial agents on major organ systems." Surg Clin North Am 60 (1980): 65-81
  3. Del Giacco GS, Petrini MT, Jannelli S, Carcassi U "Fatal bone marrow hypoplasia in a shepherd using chloramphenicol spray." Lancet 1 (1981): 945
  4. Farber BF, Brody JP "Rapid development of aplastic anemia after intravenous chloramphenicol and cimetidine therapy." South Med J 74 (1981): 1257-8
  5. Fraunfelder FT, Bagby GC, Kelly DJ "Fatal aplastic anemia following topical administration of ophthalmic chloramphenicol." Am J Ophthalmol 93 (1982): 356-60
  6. Alavi JB "Aplastic anemia associated with intravenous chloramphenicol." Am J Hematol 15 (1983): 375-9
  7. West BC, DeVault GA Jr, Clement JC, Williams DM "Aplastic anemia associated with parenteral chloramphenicol: review of 10 cases, including the second case of possible increased risk with cimetidine." Rev Infect Dis 10 (1988): 1048-51
  8. "Product Information. Chloromycetin (chloramphenicol)." Parke-Davis (2002):
  9. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  10. Doona M, Walsh JB "Use of chloramphenicol as topical eye medication: time to cry halt? bone marrow aplasia also occurs with ocular use." BMJ 310 (1995): 1217-8
View all 10 references
Major

Chloramphenicol (applies to chloramphenicol) renal/liver disease

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Renal Dysfunction

Chloramphenicol is primarily inactivated by glucuronyl transferase in the liver and eliminated in the urine as both parent drug and metabolites. In adults with normal renal and hepatic function, only 5% to 15% of a dose of chloramphenicol is excreted unchanged by the kidney, but approximately 30% is excreted when chloramphenicol is administered intravenously as the sodium succinate ester. However, the fraction of drug excreted unchanged may be highly variable, especially in neonates and children. Therapy with chloramphenicol should be administered cautiously in patients with significantly impaired renal and/or hepatic function, since drug accumulation may occur in such patients. The dosage should be reduced based on the degree of impairment as well as plasma drug concentrations.

References

  1. Azzollini F, Gazzaniga A, Lodola E, Natangelo R "Elimination of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol in subjects with cirrhosis of the liver." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 6 (1972): 130-4
  2. Koup JR, Lau AH, Brodsky B, Slaughter RL "Chloramphenicol pharmacokinetics in hospitalized patients." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 15 (1979): 651-7
  3. Slaughter RL, Pieper JA, Cerra FB, et al. "Chloramphenicol sodium succinate kinetics in critically ill patients." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1979): 69-77
  4. Nahata MC, Powell DA "Bioavailability and clearance of chloramphenicol after intravenous chloramphenicol succinate." Clin Pharmacol Ther 30 (1981): 368-72
  5. Narang AP, Dattta DV, Nath N, Mathur VS "Pharmacokinetic study of chloramphenicol in patients with liver disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 20 (1981): 479-83
  6. Burke JT, Wargin WA, Sheretz RJ, et al. "Pharmacokinetics of intravenous chloramphenicol sodium succinate in adult patients with normal renal and hepatic function." J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 10 (1982): 601-14
  7. "Product Information. Chloromycetin (chloramphenicol)." Parke-Davis (2002):
View all 7 references

Chloramphenicol drug interactions

There are 466 drug interactions with chloramphenicol.


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Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.