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Simbrinza Disease Interactions

There are 10 disease interactions with Simbrinza (brimonidine / brinzolamide ophthalmic).

Major

Topical sulfonamides (applies to Simbrinza) hematologic toxicity

Major Potential Hazard, Low plausibility. Applicable conditions: Bone Marrow Depression/Low Blood Counts

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. The use of sulfonamides has been associated with hematologic toxicity, including methemoglobinemia, sulfhemoglobinemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia, eosinophilia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, purpura, clotting disorder, thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and hypoprothrombinemia. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting blood dyscrasias or bone marrow suppression. Complete blood counts should be obtained regularly during prolonged therapy (>2 weeks), and patients should be instructed to immediately report any signs or symptoms suggestive of blood dyscrasia such as fever, sore throat, local infection, bleeding, pallor, dizziness, or jaundice.

References

  1. Barak S, Shaked Y, Bar A, Samra Y (1989) "Drug-induced post-surgical hemorrhage resulting from trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole." Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 18, p. 206-7
  2. Chan M, Beale D, Moorhead J (1980) "Acute megaloblastosis due to cotrimoxazole." Br J Clin Pract, 34, p. 87-8
  3. Damergis J, Stoker J, Abadie J (1983) "Methemoglobinemia after sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim therapy." JAMA, 249, p. 590-1
  4. Kuipers EJ, Vellenga E, de Wolf JT, Hazenberg BP (1992) "Sulfasalazine induced agranulocytosis treated with GM-CSF." J Rheumatol, 19, p. 621-2
  5. Youssef PP, Bertouch JV (1992) "Sulphasalazine induced aplastic anaemia." Aust N Z J Med, 22, p. 391-2
  6. Keisu M, Ekman E (1992) "Sulfasalazine associated agranulocytosis in sweden 1972-1989: clinical features, and estimation of its incidence." Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 43, p. 215-8
  7. Jacobson IM, Kelsey PB, Blyden GT, Demirjian ZN, Isselbacher KJ (1985) "Sulfasalazine-induced agranulocytosis." Am J Gastroenterol, 80, p. 118-21
  8. Wheelan KR, Cooper B, Stone MJ (1982) "Multiple haematologic abnormalities associated with sulfasalazine." Ann Intern Med, 97, p. 726-7
  9. Pena JM, Gonzalez-Garcia JJ, Garcia-Alegria J, Barbado FJ, Vazquez JJ (1985) "Thrombocytopenia and sulfasalazine." Ann Intern Med, 102, p. 277-8
  10. Davies GE, Palek J (1980) "Selective erythroid and magakaryocytic aplasia after sulfasalazine administration." Arch Intern Med, 140, p. 1122
  11. Guillemin F, Aussedat R, Guerci A, Lederlin P, Trechot P, Pourel J (1989) "Fatal agranulocytosis in sulfasalazine treated rheumatoid arthritis." J Rheumatol, 16, p. 1166-7
  12. Mitrane MP, Singh A, Seibold JR (1986) "Cholestasis and fatal agranulocytosis complicating sulfasalazine therapy: case report and review of the literature." J Rheumatol, 13, p. 969-72
  13. Mechanick JI (1985) "Coombs' positive hemolytic anemia following sulfasalazine therapy in ulcerative colitis: case reports, review, and discussion of pathogenesis." Mt Sinai J Med, 52, p. 667-70
  14. Betkowski AS, Lubin A (1993) "Sulfamethoxazole-related antiplatelet antibody." Blood, 82, p. 1683
  15. Gales BJ, Gales MA (1993) "Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor for sulfasalazine-induced agranulocytosis." Ann Pharmacother, 27, p. 1052-4
  16. (2022) "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfiSOXAZOLE)." Roche Laboratories
  17. (2001) "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc
  18. (2001) "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co., Inc
  19. (2001) "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  20. "Product Information. Sodium Sulamyd (sulfacetamide sodium ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation
  21. "Product Information. Sultrin Triple Sulfa (triple sulfa topical)." Janssen Pharmaceuticals
  22. (2001) "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  23. (2022) "Product Information. AVC (sulfanilamide topical)." Aventis Pharmaceuticals
View all 23 references
Major

Topical sulfonamides (applies to Simbrinza) hypersensitivity reactions

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Allergies, Asthma, HIV Infection

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. The use of sulfonamides is associated with large increases in the risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and other serious dermatologic reactions, although these phenomena are rare as a whole. Hepatitis, pneumonitis, and interstitial nephritis have also occurred in association with sulfonamide hypersensitivity. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with severe allergies, bronchial asthma or AIDS, since these patients may be at increased risk for potentially severe hypersensitivity reactions. Patients should be instructed to promptly report signs and symptoms that may precede the onset of cutaneous manifestations of the Stevens-Johnson syndrome, such as high fever, severe headache, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, urethritis, and balanitis. Sulfonamide therapy should be stopped at once if a rash develops.

References

  1. Johnson M, Goodwin D, Shands J (1990) "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole anaphylactoid reactions in patients with AIDS: case reports and literature review." Pharmacotherapy, 10, p. 413-16
  2. Hofer T, Becker EW, Weigand K, Berg PA (1992) "Demonstration of sensititzed lymphocytes to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ofloxacin in a patient with cholestatic hepatitis." J Hepatol, 15, p. 262-3
  3. Stevenson D, Christie D, Haas J (1978) "Hepatic injury in a child caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Pediatrics, 61, p. 864-6
  4. Smith E, Light J, Filo R, Yum M (1980) "Interstitial nephritis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in renal transplant recipients." JAMA, 244, p. 360-1
  5. Whittington R (1989) "Toxic epidermal necrolysis and co-trimoxazole." Lancet, 2, p. 574
  6. Kelly W, Dooley D, Lattuada C, Smith C (1992) "A severe, unusual reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus." Clin Infect Dis, 14, p. 1034-9
  7. Horak J, Mertl L, Hrabal P (1984) "Severe liver injuries due to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and sulfamethoxydiazine." Hepatogastroenterology, 31, p. 199-200
  8. Gibson J (1982) "Recurrent trimethoprim-associated fixed skin eruption." Br Med J, 284, p. 1529-30
  9. Holdcroft C, Ellison R (1991) "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole reaction simulating pneumocystis carinii pneumonia." AIDS, 5, p. 1029-42
  10. Steinbrecher U, Mishkin S (1981) "Sulfamethoxazole-induced hepatic injury." Dig Dis Sci, 26, p. 756-9
  11. Rudra T, Webb D, Evans A (1989) "Acute tubular necrosis following co-trimoxazole therapy." Nephron, 53, p. 85-6
  12. Ulstad D, Ampel N, Shon B, Galgiani JN, Cutcher AB (1989) "Reaction after re-exposure to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Chest, 95, p. 937-8
  13. Heer M, Altorfer J, Burger H, Walti M (1985) "Bullous esophageal lesions due to co-trimoxazole: an immune-mediated process?" Gastroenterology, 88, p. 1954-7
  14. Pisanty S, Brayer L (1965) "Erythema multiforme-like eruption due to sulfadiazine." J Dent Med, 20, p. 154-7
  15. Robson M, Levi J, Dolberg L, Rosenfeld J (1970) "Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis following sulfadiazine therapy." Isr J Med Sci, 6, p. 561-6
  16. Goadsby P, Donaghy A, Lloyd A, Wakefield D (1987) "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sulfadiazine-associated acute renal failure." Ann Intern Med, 107, p. 783-4
  17. Carbone L, Bendixen B, Appel G (1988) "Sulfadiazine-associated obstructive nephropathy occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Am J Kidney Dis, 12, p. 72-5
  18. Tenant-Flowers M, Boyle M, Carey D, et al. (1991) "Sulphadiazine desenitization in patients with AIDS and cerebral toxoplasmosis." AIDS, 5, p. 311-5
  19. Leroux JL, Ghezail M, Chertok P, Blotman F (1992) "Hypersensitivity reactions to sulfasalazine: skin rash, fever, hepatitis and activated lymphocytes." Clin Exp Rheumatol, 10, p. 427
  20. Kanner RS, Tedesco FJ, Kalser MH (1978) "Azulfidine- (sulfasalazine-) induced hepatic injury." Am J Dig Dis, 23, p. 956-8
  21. Losek JD, Werlin SL (1981) "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Dis Child, 135, p. 1070-2
  22. Fich A, Schwartz J, Braverman D, Zifroni A, Rachmilewitz D (1984) "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Gastroenterol, 79, p. 401-2
  23. Yaffe BH, Korelitz BI (1983) "Sulfasalazine pneumonitis." Am J Gastroenterol, 78, p. 493-4
  24. Ribe J, Benkov KJ, Thung SN, Shen SC, LeLeiko NS (1986) "Fatal massive hepatic necrosis: a probable hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine." Am J Gastroenterol, 81, p. 205-8
  25. Averbuch M, Halpern Z, Hallak A, Topilsky M, Levo Y (1985) "Sulfasalazine pneumonitis." Am J Gastroenterol, 80, p. 343-5
  26. Gabazza EC, Taguchi O, Yamakami T, Machishi M, Ibata H, Suzuki S, Matsumoto K, Kitagawa T, Yamamoto J (1992) "Pulmonary infiltrates and skin pigmentation associated with sulfasalazine." Am J Gastroenterol, 87, p. 1654-7
  27. Poland GA, Love KR (1986) "Marked atypical lymphocytosis, hepatitis, and skin rash in sulfasalazine drug allergy." Am J Med, 81, p. 707-8
  28. Hamadeh MA, Atkinson J, Smith LJ (1992) "Sulfasalazine-induced pulmonary disease." Chest, 101, p. 1033-7
  29. Williams T, Eidus L, Thomas P (1982) "Fibrosing alveolitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and sulfasalazine therapy." Chest, 81, p. 766-8
  30. Valcke Y, Pauwels R, Van der Straeten M (1987) "Bronchoalveolar lavage in acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by sulfasalazine." Chest, 92, p. 572-3
  31. Taffet SL, Das KM (1983) "Sulfasalazine. Adverse effects and desensitization." Dig Dis Sci, 28, p. 833-42
  32. Pearl RK, Nelson RL, Prasad ML, Orsay CP, Abcarian H (1986) "Serious complications of sulfasalazine." Dis Colon Rectum, 29, p. 201-2
  33. Sotolongo RP, Neefe LI, Rudzki C, Ishak KG (1978) "Hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine with severe hepatotoxicity." Gastroenterology, 75, p. 95-9
  34. Wang KK, Bowyer BA, Fleming CR, Schroeder KW (1984) "Pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia associated with sulfasalazine." Mayo Clin Proc, 59, p. 343-6
  35. Haines JD, Jr (1986) "Hepatotoxicity after treatment with sulfasalazine." Postgrad Med, 79, 193-4,
  36. Faintuch J, Mott CB, Machado MC (1985) "Pancreatitis and pancreatic necrosis during sulfasalazine therapy." Int Surg, 70, p. 271-2
  37. Marinos G, Riley J, Painter DM, McCaughan GW (1992) "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure." J Clin Gastroenterol, 14, p. 132-5
  38. Namias A, Bhalotra R, Donowitz M (1981) "Reversible sulfasalazine-induced granulomatous hepatitis." J Clin Gastroenterol, 3, p. 193-8
  39. Gremse DA, Bancroft J, Moyer MS (1989) "Sulfasalazine hypersensitivity with hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia, and erythroid hypoplasia." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 9, p. 261-3
  40. Marinac JS, Stanford JF (1993) "A severe hypersensitive reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus." Clin Infect Dis, 16, p. 178-9
  41. Rubin R (1994) "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure and necrotizing pancreatitis." Am J Gastroenterol, 89, p. 789-91
  42. Roujeau JC, Kelly JP, Naldi L, et al. (1995) "Medication use and the risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis." N Engl J Med, 333, p. 1600-7
  43. Kawada A, Kobayashi T, Noguchi H, Hiruma M, Ishibashi A, Marshall J (1996) "Fixed drug eruption induced by sulfasalazine." Contact Dermatitis, 34, p. 155-6
  44. (2022) "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfiSOXAZOLE)." Roche Laboratories
  45. (2001) "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc
  46. (2001) "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co., Inc
  47. (2001) "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  48. "Product Information. Sodium Sulamyd (sulfacetamide sodium ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation
  49. "Product Information. Sultrin Triple Sulfa (triple sulfa topical)." Janssen Pharmaceuticals
  50. (2001) "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  51. (2022) "Product Information. AVC (sulfanilamide topical)." Aventis Pharmaceuticals
View all 51 references
Major

Topical sulfonamides (applies to Simbrinza) porphyria

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility.

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with porphyria, since these drugs can precipitate an acute attack. The use of oral sulfonamides is considered contraindicated in patients with porphyria.

References

  1. (2022) "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfiSOXAZOLE)." Roche Laboratories
  2. (2001) "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc
  3. (2001) "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co., Inc
  4. (2001) "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  5. "Product Information. Sodium Sulamyd (sulfacetamide sodium ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation
  6. "Product Information. Sultrin Triple Sulfa (triple sulfa topical)." Janssen Pharmaceuticals
  7. (2001) "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  8. (2022) "Product Information. AVC (sulfanilamide topical)." Aventis Pharmaceuticals
View all 8 references
Moderate

Ophthalmic alpha-2 adrenergics (applies to Simbrinza) cardiovascular

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility. Applicable conditions: Cardiovascular Disease, Cerebrovascular Insufficiency, Hypotension

Topically applied alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing rare but clinically significant systemic effects. In the central nervous system, alpha adrenergic stimulation causes an inhibition of sympathetic vasomotor centers, resulting in decreased peripheral resistance and bradycardia. While the commercially available agents in the U.S. (apraclonidine and brimonidine) are hydrophilic and do not readily distribute across the ocular-blood barrier into the CNS, prolonged use may increase the risk of systemic effects. There have been occasional reports of bradycardia, chest heaviness or burning, palpitation, reduced blood pressure, and orthostatic hypotension when apraclonidine 1% was administered once or twice a day for 4 weeks to individuals not undergoing laser surgery. Therapy with ophthalmic alpha-2 adrenergic agents should be administered cautiously in patients with severe, uncontrolled cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, coronary or cerebrovascular insufficiency, recent myocardial infarction, chronic renal failure, Raynaud's disease, thromboangiitis obliterans, and a predisposition for orthostatic hypotension.

References

  1. Sridharrao B, Badrinath SS (1989) "Efficacy and safety of apraclonidine in patients undergoing anterior segment laser surgery." Br J Ophthalmol, 73, p. 884-7
  2. King MH, Richards DW (1990) "Near syncope and chest tightness after administration of apraclonidine before argon laser iridotomy." Am J Ophthalmol, 110, p. 308-9
  3. Coleman AL, Robin AL, Pollack IP, Rudikoff MT, Enger C, Mayer PR (1990) "Cardiovascular and intraocular pressure effects and plasma concentrations of apraclonidine." Arch Ophthalmol, 108, p. 1264-7
  4. "Product Information. Iopidine (apraclonidine ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc
  5. Nordlund JR, Pasquale LR, Robin AL, Rudikoff MT, Ordman J, Chen KS, Walt J (1995) "The cardiovascular, pulmonary, and ocular hypotensive effects of 0.2% brimonidine." Arch Ophthalmol, 113, p. 77-83
  6. (2001) "Product Information. Alphagan (brimonidine ophthalmic)." Allergan Inc
View all 6 references
Moderate

Ophthalmic alpha-2 adrenergics (applies to Simbrinza) depression

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility.

Topically applied alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing rare but clinically significant systemic effects. Depression has infrequently been associated with the ocular use of these drugs due to their inhibiting effect on the sympathetic nervous system. Depressed patients should be monitored for exacerbation of their condition during therapy with ophthalmic alpha-2 adrenergic agents.

References

  1. "Product Information. Iopidine (apraclonidine ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc
  2. (2001) "Product Information. Alphagan (brimonidine ophthalmic)." Allergan Inc
Moderate

Ophthalmic alpha-2 adrenergics (applies to Simbrinza) renal/liver

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Renal Dysfunction, Liver Disease

Topically applied alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are systemically absorbed, with the potential for producing rare but clinically significant systemic effects. There are limited data concerning the pharmacokinetic disposition or the clinical use of these drugs in patients with renal and/or liver disease. Therapy with ophthalmic alpha-2 adrenergic agents should be administered cautiously in patients with significantly impaired renal or hepatic function.

References

  1. "Product Information. Iopidine (apraclonidine ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc
  2. (2001) "Product Information. Alphagan (brimonidine ophthalmic)." Allergan Inc
Moderate

Topical sulfonamides (applies to Simbrinza) crystalluria

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility. Applicable conditions: Dehydration, Diarrhea, Vomiting

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. The use of sulfonamides has been associated with crystalluria due to precipitation of the sulfonamide and/or its N4-acetyl metabolite in the urinary tract. Renal toxicity such as uro- and nephrolithiasis, nephritis, toxic nephrosis, hematuria, proteinuria, and elevated BUN and creatinine has been reported. Hydration and adequate urinary output (> 1.5 L/day) should be maintained during sulfonamide administration. Patients who are dehydrated (e.g., due to severe diarrhea or vomiting) may be at increased risk for the development of crystalluria and lithiasis and should be encouraged to consume additional amounts of liquid. Renal function tests and urinalysis should be performed regularly during prolonged therapy (> 2 weeks).

References

  1. Robson M, Levi J, Dolberg L, Rosenfeld J (1970) "Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis following sulfadiazine therapy." Isr J Med Sci, 6, p. 561-6
  2. Sahai J, Heimberger R, Collins K, Kaplowitz L, Polk R (1988) "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a reminder." Am J Med, 84, p. 791-2
  3. Simon D, Brosius F, Rothstein D (1990) "Sulfadiazine crystalluria revisited." Arch Intern Med, 150, p. 2379-84
  4. Molina J, Belenfant X, Doco-Lecompte T, et al. (1991) "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis." AIDS, 5, p. 587-9
  5. Sasson JP, Dratch PL, Shortsleeve MJ (1992) "Renal US findings in sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria." Radiology, 185, p. 739-40
  6. Hein R, Brunkhorst R, Thon WF, Schedel I, Schmidt RE (1993) "Symptomatic sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients: a report of two cases." Clin Nephrol, 39, p. 254-6
  7. Erturk E, Casemento JB, Guertin KR, Kende AS (1994) "Bilateral acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis associated with chronic sulfasalazine therapy." J Urol, 151, p. 1605-6
  8. (2022) "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfiSOXAZOLE)." Roche Laboratories
  9. (2001) "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc
  10. (2001) "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co., Inc
  11. (2001) "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  12. "Product Information. Sodium Sulamyd (sulfacetamide sodium ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation
  13. "Product Information. Sultrin Triple Sulfa (triple sulfa topical)." Janssen Pharmaceuticals
  14. (2001) "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  15. (2022) "Product Information. AVC (sulfanilamide topical)." Aventis Pharmaceuticals
View all 15 references
Moderate

Topical sulfonamides (applies to Simbrinza) liver disease

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility.

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. Hepatotoxicity, including jaundice, diffuse hepatocellular necrosis, hypersensitivity hepatitis and hepatic failure, has rarely been reported in patients receiving sulfonamides. In addition, sulfonamides are partially metabolized by the liver and may accumulate in patients with hepatic impairment. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with liver disease.

References

  1. Kowdley K, Keeffe E, Fawaz K (1992) "Prolonged cholestasis due to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Gastroenterology, 102, p. 2148-50
  2. Hofer T, Becker EW, Weigand K, Berg PA (1992) "Demonstration of sensititzed lymphocytes to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ofloxacin in a patient with cholestatic hepatitis." J Hepatol, 15, p. 262-3
  3. Stevenson D, Christie D, Haas J (1978) "Hepatic injury in a child caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole." Pediatrics, 61, p. 864-6
  4. Horak J, Mertl L, Hrabal P (1984) "Severe liver injuries due to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and sulfamethoxydiazine." Hepatogastroenterology, 31, p. 199-200
  5. Steinbrecher U, Mishkin S (1981) "Sulfamethoxazole-induced hepatic injury." Dig Dis Sci, 26, p. 756-9
  6. Alberti-Flor JJ, Hernandez ME, Ferrer JP, Howell S, Jeffers L (1989) "Fulminant liver failure and pancreatitis associated with the use of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim." Am J Gastroenterol, 84, p. 1577-9
  7. Ransohoff D, Jacobs G (1981) "Terminal hepatic failure following a small dose of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim." Gastroenterology, 80, p. 816-9
  8. Hekster C, Vree T (1982) "Clinical pharmacokinetics of sulphonamides and their N4-acetyl derivatives." Antibiot Chemother, 31, p. 22-118
  9. Madsen S (1966) "A comparative study of the excretion of sulfonamide-metabolites in cases of renal failure and hepatitis." Chemotherapy, 11, p. 1-9
  10. Andreasen F, Elsborg L, Husted S, Thomsen O (1978) "Pharmacokinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 14, p. 57-67
  11. Ortengren B, Fellner H, Bergan T (1979) "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. Part 2: Comparative pharmacokinetics of five sulphonamides." Infection, 7 Suppl 4, s367-70
  12. Stachowska B, Senczuk W (1987) "Studies on kinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim excretion in man." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol, 25, p. 81-5
  13. Ortengren B, Magni L, Bergan T (1979) "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. part 3: pharmacokinetic characterization of sulphadiazine and sulphamethoxazole." Infection, 7, s371-81
  14. Bergan T, Brodwall EK (1972) "Human pharmacokinetics of a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination." Acta Med Scand, 192, p. 483-92
  15. Kremers P, Duvivier J, Heusghem C (1974) "Pharmacokinetic studies of co-trimoxazole in man after single and repeated doses." J Clin Pharmacol, 14, p. 112-7
  16. Patel RB, Welling PG (1980) "Clinical pharmacokinetics of co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole)." Clin Pharmacokinet, 5, p. 405-23
  17. Khan AK, Truelove SC, Aronson JK (1982) "The disposition and metabolism of sulphasalazine (salicylazosulphapyridine) in man." Br J Clin Pharmacol, 13, p. 523-8
  18. Klotz U (1985) "Clinical pharmacokinetics of sulphasalazine, its metabolites and other prodrugs of 5-aminosalicylic acid." Clin Pharmacokinet, 10, p. 285-302
  19. Leroux JL, Ghezail M, Chertok P, Blotman F (1992) "Hypersensitivity reactions to sulfasalazine: skin rash, fever, hepatitis and activated lymphocytes." Clin Exp Rheumatol, 10, p. 427
  20. Kanner RS, Tedesco FJ, Kalser MH (1978) "Azulfidine- (sulfasalazine-) induced hepatic injury." Am J Dig Dis, 23, p. 956-8
  21. Losek JD, Werlin SL (1981) "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Dis Child, 135, p. 1070-2
  22. Fich A, Schwartz J, Braverman D, Zifroni A, Rachmilewitz D (1984) "Sulfasalazine hepatotoxicity." Am J Gastroenterol, 79, p. 401-2
  23. Ribe J, Benkov KJ, Thung SN, Shen SC, LeLeiko NS (1986) "Fatal massive hepatic necrosis: a probable hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine." Am J Gastroenterol, 81, p. 205-8
  24. Poland GA, Love KR (1986) "Marked atypical lymphocytosis, hepatitis, and skin rash in sulfasalazine drug allergy." Am J Med, 81, p. 707-8
  25. Sotolongo RP, Neefe LI, Rudzki C, Ishak KG (1978) "Hypersensitivity reaction to sulfasalazine with severe hepatotoxicity." Gastroenterology, 75, p. 95-9
  26. Haines JD, Jr (1986) "Hepatotoxicity after treatment with sulfasalazine." Postgrad Med, 79, 193-4,
  27. Marinos G, Riley J, Painter DM, McCaughan GW (1992) "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure." J Clin Gastroenterol, 14, p. 132-5
  28. Namias A, Bhalotra R, Donowitz M (1981) "Reversible sulfasalazine-induced granulomatous hepatitis." J Clin Gastroenterol, 3, p. 193-8
  29. Gremse DA, Bancroft J, Moyer MS (1989) "Sulfasalazine hypersensitivity with hepatotoxicity, thrombocytopenia, and erythroid hypoplasia." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 9, p. 261-3
  30. Rubin R (1994) "Sulfasalazine-induced fulminant hepatic failure and necrotizing pancreatitis." Am J Gastroenterol, 89, p. 789-91
  31. Schroder H, Campbell DE (1972) "Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of salicylazosulfapyridine in man." Clin Pharmacol Ther, 13, p. 539-51
  32. Simma B, Meister B, Deutsch J, Sperl W, Fend F, Ofner D, Margreiter R, Vogel W (1995) "Fulminant hepatic failure in a child as a potential adverse effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole." Eur J Pediatr, 154, p. 530-3
  33. (2022) "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfiSOXAZOLE)." Roche Laboratories
  34. (2001) "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc
  35. (2001) "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co., Inc
  36. (2001) "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  37. "Product Information. Sodium Sulamyd (sulfacetamide sodium ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation
  38. "Product Information. Sultrin Triple Sulfa (triple sulfa topical)." Janssen Pharmaceuticals
  39. (2001) "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  40. (2022) "Product Information. AVC (sulfanilamide topical)." Aventis Pharmaceuticals
View all 40 references
Moderate

Topical sulfonamides (applies to Simbrinza) renal dysfunction

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility.

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. Once absorbed, sulfonamides and their metabolites are eliminated by the kidney. Patients with renal impairment may be at greater risk for adverse effects from sulfonamides due to decreased drug clearance. Additionally, sulfonamides may cause renal toxicity secondary to crystalluria, including uro- and nephrolithiasis, nephritis, toxic nephrosis, hematuria, proteinuria, and elevated BUN and creatinine. Hydration and adequate urinary output (> 1.5 L/day) should be maintained during sulfonamide administration. Renal function tests and urinalysis should be performed regularly during prolonged therapy (> 2 weeks). Some manufacturers of topical sulfonamide products do not recommend their use in patients with impaired renal function.

References

  1. Smith E, Light J, Filo R, Yum M (1980) "Interstitial nephritis caused by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in renal transplant recipients." JAMA, 244, p. 360-1
  2. Rudra T, Webb D, Evans A (1989) "Acute tubular necrosis following co-trimoxazole therapy." Nephron, 53, p. 85-6
  3. Cryst C, Hammar S (1988) "Acute granulomatous interstitial nephritis due to co-trimoxazole." Am J Nephrol, 8, p. 483-8
  4. Robson M, Levi J, Dolberg L, Rosenfeld J (1970) "Acute tubulo-interstitial nephritis following sulfadiazine therapy." Isr J Med Sci, 6, p. 561-6
  5. Goadsby P, Donaghy A, Lloyd A, Wakefield D (1987) "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sulfadiazine-associated acute renal failure." Ann Intern Med, 107, p. 783-4
  6. Sahai J, Heimberger R, Collins K, Kaplowitz L, Polk R (1988) "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a reminder." Am J Med, 84, p. 791-2
  7. Carbone L, Bendixen B, Appel G (1988) "Sulfadiazine-associated obstructive nephropathy occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Am J Kidney Dis, 12, p. 72-5
  8. Christin S, Baumelou A, Bahri S, Ben Hmida M, Deray G, Jacobs C (1990) "Acute renal failure due to sulfadiazine in patients with AIDS." Nephron, 55, p. 233-4
  9. Simon D, Brosius F, Rothstein D (1990) "Sulfadiazine crystalluria revisited." Arch Intern Med, 150, p. 2379-84
  10. Molina J, Belenfant X, Doco-Lecompte T, et al. (1991) "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis." AIDS, 5, p. 587-9
  11. Marques L, Silva M, Madeira E, Santos O (1992) "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron, 62, p. 361
  12. Hekster C, Vree T (1982) "Clinical pharmacokinetics of sulphonamides and their N4-acetyl derivatives." Antibiot Chemother, 31, p. 22-118
  13. Adam W, Dawborn J (1970) "Urinary excretion and plasma levels of sulphonamides in patients with renal impairment." Australas Ann Med, 19, p. 250-4
  14. Madsen S (1966) "A comparative study of the excretion of sulfonamide-metabolites in cases of renal failure and hepatitis." Chemotherapy, 11, p. 1-9
  15. Andreasen F, Elsborg L, Husted S, Thomsen O (1978) "Pharmacokinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 14, p. 57-67
  16. Bergan T, Brodwall E, Vik-Mo H, Anstad U (1979) "Pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim in patients with varying renal function." Infection, 7, s382-7
  17. Ortengren B, Fellner H, Bergan T (1979) "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. Part 2: Comparative pharmacokinetics of five sulphonamides." Infection, 7 Suppl 4, s367-70
  18. Stachowska B, Senczuk W (1987) "Studies on kinetics of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim excretion in man." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol, 25, p. 81-5
  19. Ohnhaus EE, Spring P (1975) "Elimination kinetics of sulfadiazine in patients with normal and impaired renal function." J Pharmacokinet Biopharm, 3, p. 171-9
  20. Ortengren B, Magni L, Bergan T (1979) "Development of sulphonamide-trimethoprim combinations for urinary tract infections. part 3: pharmacokinetic characterization of sulphadiazine and sulphamethoxazole." Infection, 7, s371-81
  21. Bergan T, Brodwall EK (1972) "Human pharmacokinetics of a sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combination." Acta Med Scand, 192, p. 483-92
  22. Adam WR, Henning M, Dawborn JK (1973) "Excretion of trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole in patients with renal failure." Aust N Z J Med, 3, p. 383-7
  23. Kremers P, Duvivier J, Heusghem C (1974) "Pharmacokinetic studies of co-trimoxazole in man after single and repeated doses." J Clin Pharmacol, 14, p. 112-7
  24. Rieder J, Schwartz DE, Fernex M, et al. (1974) "Pharmacokinetics of the antibacterial combination sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim in patients with normal or impaired kidney function." Antibiot Chemother, 18, p. 148-98
  25. Bergan T, Brodwall EK, Vik-Mo H, Anstad U (1979) "Pharmacokinetics of sulphadiazine, sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim in patients with varying renal function." Infection, 7, s382-7
  26. Patel RB, Welling PG (1980) "Clinical pharmacokinetics of co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole)." Clin Pharmacokinet, 5, p. 405-23
  27. Vergin H, Ferber H, Zimmermann I, Neurath GB (1981) "Single and multiple dose kinetics of co-tetroxazine and co-trimoxazole in patients." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol, 19, p. 350-7
  28. Cohen M, Pocelinko R (1973) "Renal transport mechanisms for the excretion of sulfisoxazole." J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 185, p. 703-12
  29. Shermantine M, Gambertoglio J, Amend W, Vincenti F, Oie S (1985) "Pharmacokinetics of sulfisoxazole in renal transplant patients." Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 28, p. 535-9
  30. Dwarakanath AD, Michael J, Allan RN (1992) "Sulphasalazine-induced renal failure." Gut, 33, p. 1006-7
  31. Marques LP, Silva MT, Madeira EP, Santos OR (1992) "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron, 62, p. 361
  32. Sasson JP, Dratch PL, Shortsleeve MJ (1992) "Renal US findings in sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria." Radiology, 185, p. 739-40
  33. Farinas MC, Echevarria S, Sampedro I, Gonzalez A, Perez del Molino A, Gonzalez-Macias J (1993) "Renal failure due to sulphadiazine in AIDS patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis." J Intern Med, 233, p. 365-7
  34. Hein R, Brunkhorst R, Thon WF, Schedel I, Schmidt RE (1993) "Symptomatic sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients: a report of two cases." Clin Nephrol, 39, p. 254-6
  35. Erturk E, Casemento JB, Guertin KR, Kende AS (1994) "Bilateral acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis associated with chronic sulfasalazine therapy." J Urol, 151, p. 1605-6
  36. Becker K, Jablonowski H, Haussinger D (1996) "Sulfadiazine-associated nephrotoxicity in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Medicine, 75, p. 185-94
  37. (2022) "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfiSOXAZOLE)." Roche Laboratories
  38. (2001) "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc
  39. (2001) "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co., Inc
  40. (2001) "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  41. "Product Information. Sodium Sulamyd (sulfacetamide sodium ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation
  42. "Product Information. Sultrin Triple Sulfa (triple sulfa topical)." Janssen Pharmaceuticals
  43. (2001) "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  44. (2022) "Product Information. AVC (sulfanilamide topical)." Aventis Pharmaceuticals
View all 44 references
Moderate

Topical sulfonamides (applies to Simbrinza) urinary obstruction

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility. Applicable conditions: Urinary Retention

Sulfonamides may be systemically absorbed when applied to the skin, eye, or mucosal membranes. Once absorbed, sulfonamides are excreted and concentrated in the urine. Therapy with topical sulfonamides should be administered cautiously in patients with urinary obstruction or retention, since excessive drug accumulation may occur. These patients may also be at increased risk for sulfonamide crystalluria, which may be associated with renal toxicity such as uro- and nephrolithiasis, nephritis, toxic nephrosis, hematuria, proteinuria, and elevated BUN and creatinine. A urinary output of at least 1.5 L/day should be maintained during sulfonamide administration. Renal function tests and urinalysis should be performed regularly during prolonged therapy (> 2 weeks).

References

  1. Sahai J, Heimberger R, Collins K, Kaplowitz L, Polk R (1988) "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a reminder." Am J Med, 84, p. 791-2
  2. Carbone L, Bendixen B, Appel G (1988) "Sulfadiazine-associated obstructive nephropathy occurring in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome." Am J Kidney Dis, 12, p. 72-5
  3. Simon D, Brosius F, Rothstein D (1990) "Sulfadiazine crystalluria revisited." Arch Intern Med, 150, p. 2379-84
  4. Molina J, Belenfant X, Doco-Lecompte T, et al. (1991) "Sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria in AIDS patients with toxoplasma encephalitis." AIDS, 5, p. 587-9
  5. Marques L, Silva M, Madeira E, Santos O (1992) "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron, 62, p. 361
  6. Marques LP, Silva MT, Madeira EP, Santos OR (1992) "Obstructive renal failure due to therapy with sulfadiazine in an AIDS patient." Nephron, 62, p. 361
  7. Sasson JP, Dratch PL, Shortsleeve MJ (1992) "Renal US findings in sulfadiazine-induced crystalluria." Radiology, 185, p. 739-40
  8. Hein R, Brunkhorst R, Thon WF, Schedel I, Schmidt RE (1993) "Symptomatic sulfadiazine crystalluria in AIDS patients: a report of two cases." Clin Nephrol, 39, p. 254-6
  9. Erturk E, Casemento JB, Guertin KR, Kende AS (1994) "Bilateral acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis associated with chronic sulfasalazine therapy." J Urol, 151, p. 1605-6
  10. (2022) "Product Information. Gantrisin (sulfiSOXAZOLE)." Roche Laboratories
  11. (2001) "Product Information. Azopt (brinzolamide ophthalmic)." Alcon Laboratories Inc
  12. (2001) "Product Information. Trusopt (dorzolamide ophthalmic)." Merck & Co., Inc
  13. (2001) "Product Information. Klaron (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  14. "Product Information. Sodium Sulamyd (sulfacetamide sodium ophthalmic)." Schering Corporation
  15. "Product Information. Sultrin Triple Sulfa (triple sulfa topical)." Janssen Pharmaceuticals
  16. (2001) "Product Information. Sulfacet-R (sulfacetamide sodium topical)." Dermik Laboratories/Aventis
  17. (2022) "Product Information. AVC (sulfanilamide topical)." Aventis Pharmaceuticals
View all 17 references

Simbrinza drug interactions

There are 368 drug interactions with Simbrinza (brimonidine / brinzolamide ophthalmic).

Simbrinza alcohol/food interactions

There is 1 alcohol/food interaction with Simbrinza (brimonidine / brinzolamide ophthalmic).


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Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.