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Soma Compound with Codeine (aspirin / carisoprodol / codeine) Disease Interactions

There are 28 disease interactions with Soma Compound with Codeine (aspirin / carisoprodol / codeine):

Major

Aspirin (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Coagulation

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Coagulation Defect, Bleeding, Thrombocytopathy, Thrombocytopenia, Vitamin K Deficiency

The use of aspirin is contraindicated in patients with significant active bleeding or hemorrhagic disorders such as hemophilia, von Willebrand's disease, or telangiectasia. Aspirin interferes with coagulation by irreversibly inhibiting platelet aggregation and prolonging bleeding time. The non-aceylated salicylates (i.e. salicylate salts such as sodium or magnesium salicylate) do not demonstrate these effects and may be appropriate substitutions in these patients. However, all salicylates can interfere with the action of vitamin K and induce a dose-dependent alteration in hepatic synthesis of coagulation factors VII, IX and X. At usual recommended dosages, a slight increase in prothrombin time (PT) may occur. Therapy with salicylates, especially aspirin, should be administered with extreme caution in patients with hypoprothrombinemia, vitamin K deficiency, thrombocytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, severe hepatic impairment, or anticoagulant use.

References

  1. Buerke M, Pittroff W, Meyer J, Darius H "Aspirin therapy: optimized platelet inhibition with different loading and maintenance doses." Am Heart J 130 (1995): 465-72
  2. Ferraris VA, Ferraris SP "Preoperative aspirin ingestion increases operative blood loss after coronary artery bypass grafting - update." Ann Thorac Surg 59 (1995): 1036-7
  3. "Product Information. Ecotrin (aspirin)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  4. Patrono C "Aspirin as an antiplatelet drug." N Engl J Med 330 (1994): 1287-94
  5. Moroz LA "Increased blood fibrinolytic activity after aspirin ingestion." N Engl J Med 296 (1977): 525-9
  6. Garg SK, Sarker CR "Aspirin-induced thrombocytopenia on an immune basis." Am J Med Sci 267 (1974): 129-32
  7. "Product Information. Bayer aspirin (aspirin)." Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  8. Bochner F, Williams DB, Morris PM, Siebert DM, Lloyd JV "Pharmacokinetics of low-dose oral modified release, soluble and intravenous aspirin in man, and effects on platelet function." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1988): 287-94
  9. Sbarbaro JA, Bennett RM "Aspirin hepatotoxicity and disseminated intravascular coagulation." Ann Intern Med 86 (1977): 183-5
  10. Colwell JA "Aspirin and risk of hemorrhagic stroke." JAMA 282 (1999): 731-2
  11. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  12. Petty GW, Brown RD, Whisnant JP, Sicks JD, O'Fallon WM, Wiebers DO "Frequency of major complications of aspirin, warfarin, and intravenous heparin for secondary stroke prevention: a population study." Ann Intern Med 130 (1999): 14-22
  13. Hirsh J, Dalen JE, Fuster V, Harker LB, Patrono C, Roth G "Aspirin and other platelet-active drugs: the relationship among dose, effectiveness, and side effects." Chest 108 Suppl (1995): s247-57
  14. He J, Whelton PK, Vu B, Klag MJ "Aspirin and risk of hemorrhagic stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials." JAMA 280 (1998): 1930-35
View all 14 references
Major

Carisoprodol (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Porphyria

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Porphyria

The use of carisoprodol is contraindicated in patients with acute intermittent porphyria. Carisoprodol is partially metabolized to the pharmacologically active meprobamate, which has been reported to precipitate acute attacks of porphyria in susceptible patients.

References

  1. Hazen PG "Pseudoporphyria in a patient receiving carisoprodol/aspirin therapy." J Am Acad Dermatol 31 (1994): 500
  2. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, eds. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed." New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Health Professionals Division (1998):
  3. "Product Information. Soma (carisoprodol)." Meda Pharmaceuticals, Somerset, NJ.
Major

Narcotic Analgesics (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Impaired Gi Motility

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Constipation, Gastrointestinal Obstruction, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Intestinal Anastomoses

Narcotic (opioid) analgesic agents increase smooth muscle tone in the gastrointestinal tract and decrease peristalsis, which can lead to elevated intraluminal pressure, spasm, and constipation following prolonged use. In patients with severe or acute inflammatory bowel disease, the decrease in colonic motility may induce toxic megacolon. Therapy with opioids should be administered cautiously in patients with gastrointestinal obstruction, constipation, inflammatory bowel disease, or recent gastrointestinal tract surgery. Gastrointestinal effects appear to be the most pronounced with morphine.

References

  1. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  2. White MJ, Berghausen EJ, Dumont SW, Tsueda K, Schroeder JA, Vogel RL, Heine MF, Huang KC "Side effects during continuous epidural infusion of morphine and fentanyl." Can J Anaesth 39 (1992): 576-82
  3. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Nubain (nalbuphine)." Endo Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  5. "Product Information. Dalgan (dezocine)." Astra USA, Westborough, MA.
  6. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  7. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  8. "Product Information. MS Contin (morphine)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  9. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol nasal)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  10. Kreek MJ, Hartman N "Chronic use of opioids and antipsychotic drugs: side effects, effects on endogenous opioids, and toxicity." Ann N Y Acad Sci 398 (1982): 151-72
  11. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  12. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol)." Allscrips Pharmaceutical Company, Vernon Hills, IL.
  13. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  14. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  15. Thorn SE, Wattwil M, Kallander A "Effects of epidural morphine and epidural bupivacaine on gastroduodenal motility during the fasted state and after food intake." Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 38 (1994): 57-62
  16. Bellville JW, Forrest WH, Elashoff J, Laska E "Evaluating side effects of analgesics in a cooperative clinical study." Clin Pharmacol Ther 9 (1968): 303-13
  17. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  18. "Product Information. Fentanyl Oralet (fentanyl)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  19. Bennett MWR, Shah MV, Bembridge JL "A comparison of the effect on gastric emptying of alfentanil or morphine given during anaesthesia for minor surgery." Anaesthesia 49 (1994): 155-6
  20. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  21. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  22. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  23. "Product Information. Orlaam (levomethadyl acetate)" Roxanne Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  24. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  25. "Product Information. Buprenex (buprenorphine)." Reckitt and Colman Pharmaceutical, Richmond, VA.
  26. "Product Information. Talwin NX (pentazocine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
View all 26 references
Major

Narcotic Analgesics (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Infectious Diarrhea

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Infectious Diarrhea/Enterocolitis/Gastroenteritis

Narcotic (opioid) analgesic agents may prolong and/or worsen diarrhea associated with organisms that invade the intestinal mucosa, such as toxigenic E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, and pseudomembranous colitis due to broad-spectrum antibiotics. These agents decrease gastrointestinal motility, which may delay the excretion of infective gastroenteric organisms and/or their toxins. Other symptoms and complications such as fever, shedding of organisms and extraintestinal illness may also be increased or prolonged. Therapy with opioids should be avoided or administered cautiously in patients with infectious diarrhea, particularly that due to pseudomembranous enterocolitis or enterotoxin-producing bacteria or if accompanied by high fever, pus, or blood in the stool.

References

  1. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Dalgan (dezocine)." Astra USA, Westborough, MA.
  3. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol nasal)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  5. "Product Information. MS Contin (morphine)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  6. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  8. "Product Information. Orlaam (levomethadyl acetate)" Roxanne Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  9. "Product Information. Nubain (nalbuphine)." Endo Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  10. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  11. "Product Information. Fentanyl Oralet (fentanyl)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  12. Bennett MWR, Shah MV, Bembridge JL "A comparison of the effect on gastric emptying of alfentanil or morphine given during anaesthesia for minor surgery." Anaesthesia 49 (1994): 155-6
  13. "Product Information. Talwin NX (pentazocine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  14. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  15. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  16. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  17. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  18. White MJ, Berghausen EJ, Dumont SW, Tsueda K, Schroeder JA, Vogel RL, Heine MF, Huang KC "Side effects during continuous epidural infusion of morphine and fentanyl." Can J Anaesth 39 (1992): 576-82
  19. "Product Information. Buprenex (buprenorphine)." Reckitt and Colman Pharmaceutical, Richmond, VA.
  20. Thorn SE, Wattwil M, Kallander A "Effects of epidural morphine and epidural bupivacaine on gastroduodenal motility during the fasted state and after food intake." Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 38 (1994): 57-62
  21. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol)." Allscrips Pharmaceutical Company, Vernon Hills, IL.
  22. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  23. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  24. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  25. Kreek MJ, Hartman N "Chronic use of opioids and antipsychotic drugs: side effects, effects on endogenous opioids, and toxicity." Ann N Y Acad Sci 398 (1982): 151-72
  26. Bellville JW, Forrest WH, Elashoff J, Laska E "Evaluating side effects of analgesics in a cooperative clinical study." Clin Pharmacol Ther 9 (1968): 303-13
View all 26 references
Major

Narcotic Analgesics (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Narcotic (opioid) analgesic agents are extensively metabolized by the liver, and several of them (e.g., codeine, hydrocodone, meperidine, methadone, morphine, propoxyphene) have active metabolites that are further converted to inactive substances. The serum concentrations of these agents and their metabolites may be increased and the half-lives prolonged in patients with impaired hepatic function. Therapy with opioids should be administered cautiously and initiated at reduced dosages in patients with liver disease. Subsequent doses should be titrated based on individual response rather than a fixed dosing schedule.

References

  1. "Product Information. Ultiva (remifentanil)." Mylan Institutional (formally Bioniche Pharma USA Inc), Canonsburg, PA.
  2. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  3. "Product Information. Nubain (nalbuphine)." Endo Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  4. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  5. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol)." Allscrips Pharmaceutical Company, Vernon Hills, IL.
  6. "Product Information. Sufenta (sufentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  7. Westmoreland CL, Hoke JF, Sebel PS, Hug CC Jr, Muir KT "Pharmacokinetics of remifentanil (GI87084B) and its major metabolite (GI90291) in patients undergoing elective inpatient surgery." Anesthesiology 79 (1993): 893-903
  8. Osborne R, Joel S, Trew D, Slevin M "Morphine and metabolite behavior after different routes of morphine administration: demonstration of the importance of the active metabolite morphine-6-glucoronide." Clin Pharmacol Ther 47 (1990): 12-9
  9. Yun CH, Wood M, Wood AJ, Guengerich FP "Identification of the pharmacogenetic determinants of alfentanil metabolism: cytochrome P-450 3A4: an explanation of the variable elimination clearance." Anesthesiology 77 (1992): 467-74
  10. McClain DA, Hug CC, Jr "Intravenous fentanyl kinetics." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 106-14
  11. Yue QY, Hasselstrom J, Svensson JO, Sawe J "Pharmacokinetics of codeine and its metabolites in Caucasian healthy volunteers: comparisons between extensive and poor hydroxylators of debrisoquine." Br J Clin Pharmacol 31 (1991): 635-42
  12. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  13. Poyhia R, Seppala T, Olkkola KT, Kalso E "The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of oxycodone after intramuscular and oral administration to healthy subjects." Br J Clin Pharmacol 33 (1992): 617-21
  14. Flanagan RJ, Johnston A, White AS, Crome P "Pharmacokinetics of dextropropoxyphene and nordextropropoxyphene in young and elderly volunteers after single and multiple dextropropoxyphene dosage." Br J Clin Pharmacol 28 (1989): 463-9
  15. Haberer JP, Schoeffler P, Couderc E, Duvaldestin P "Fentanyl pharmacokinetics in anaesthetized patients with cirrhosis." Br J Anaesth 54 (1982): 1267-70
  16. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  17. "Product Information. Talwin NX (pentazocine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  18. Dershwitz M, Hoke JF, Rosow CE, Michalowski P, Connors PM, Muir KT, Dienstag JL "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil in volunteer subjects with severe liver disease." Anesthesiology 84 (1996): 812-20
  19. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  20. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  21. Chen ZR, Somogy AA, Reynolds G, Bochner F "Disposition and metabolism of codeine after single and chronic doses in one poor and seven extensive metabolisers." Br J Clin Pharmacol 31 (1991): 381-90
  22. Beckett AH, Vaughan DP, Essien EE "N-Oxidation--an important route in the metabolism of methadone in man." J Pharm Pharmacol 24 (1972): 244
  23. "Product Information. Buprenex (buprenorphine)." Reckitt and Colman Pharmaceutical, Richmond, VA.
  24. Cone EJ, Darwin WD, Gorodetzky CW, Tan T "Comparative metabolism of hydrocodone in man, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, and dog." Drug Metab Dispos 6 (1978): 488-93
  25. Hagen N, Thirlwell MP, Dhaliwal HS, Babul N, Harsanyi Z, Darke AC "Steady-state pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone and hydromorphone-3-glucuronide in cancer patients after immediate and controlled-release hydromorphone." J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1995): 37-44
  26. Glare PA, Walsh TD "Clinical pharmacokinetics of morphine." Ther Drug Monit 13 (1991): 1-23
  27. Leow KP, Smith MT, Williams B, Cramond T "Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxycodone in patients with cancer." Clin Pharmacol Ther 52 (1992): 487-95
  28. Kreek MJ, Fanizza AM, et al "Methadone disposition in patients with chronic liver disease." Clin Pharmacol Ther 30 (1981): 353-62
  29. Otton SV, Schadel M, Cheung SW, Kaplan HL, Busto UE, Sellers EM "CYP2D6 phenotype determines the metabolic conversion of hydrocodone to hydromorphone." Clin Pharmacol Ther 54 (1993): 463-72
  30. "Product Information. Orlaam (levomethadyl acetate)" Roxanne Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  31. Dershwitz M, Randel GI, Rosow CE, Fragen RJ, Connors PM, Librojo ES, Shaw DL, Peng AW, Jamerson BD "Initial clinical experience with remifentanil, a new opioid metabolized by esterases." Anesth Analg 81 (1995): 619-23
  32. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  33. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  34. Parab PV, Ritschel WA, Coyle DE, et al "Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone after intravenous, peroral and rectal administration to human subjects." Biopharm Drug Dispos 9 (1988): 187-99
  35. McHorse TS, Klotz U, Wilkinson G, Schenker S "Impaired elimination of meperidine in patients with liver disease." Trans Assoc Am Physicians 87 (1974): 281-7
  36. Gram LF, Schou J, Way WL, et al "delta-Propoxyphene kinetics after single oral and intravenous doses in man." Clin Pharmacol Ther 26 (1979): 473-82
  37. Hasselstrom J, Eriksson S, Persson A, Rane A, Svensson JO, Sawe J "The metabolism and bioavailability of morphine in patients with severe liver cirrhosis." Br J Clin Pharmacol 29 (1990): 289-97
  38. Hill HF, Coda BA, Tanaka A, Schaffer R "Multiple-dose evaluation of intravenous hydromorphone pharmacokinetics in normal human subjects." Anesth Analg 72 (1991): 330-6
  39. Neal EA, Meffin PJ, Gregory PB, Blaschke TF "Enhanced bioavailability and decreased clearance of analgesics in patients with cirrhosis." Gastroenterology 77 (1979): 96-102
  40. "Product Information. MS Contin (morphine)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  41. Poyhia R, Olkkola KT, Seppala T, Kalso E "The pharmacokinetics of oxycodone after intravenous injection in adults." Br J Clin Pharmacol 32 (1991): 516-8
  42. Beckett AH, Taylor JF, Casy AF, Hassan MM "The biotransformation of methadone in man: synthesis and identification of a major metabolite." J Pharm Pharmacol 20 (1968): 754-62
  43. Bower S, Sear JW, Roy RC, Carter RF "Effects of different hepatic pathologies on disposition of alfentanil in anaesthetized patients." Br J Anaesth 68 (1992): 462-5
  44. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  45. Goromaru T, Matsuura H, Yoshimura N, Miyawaki T, Sameshima T, Miyao J, Furuta T, Baba S "Identification and quantitative determination of fentanyl metabolites in patients by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry." Anesthesiology 61 (1984): 73-7
  46. Pond SM, Tong T, Benowitz NL, et al "Presystemic metabolism of meperidine to normeperidine in normal and cirrhotic subjects." Clin Pharmacol Ther 30 (1981): 183-8
  47. "Product Information. Dalgan (dezocine)." Astra USA, Westborough, MA.
  48. Hasselstrom J, Sawe J "Morphine pharmacokinetics and metabolism in humans. Enterohepatic cycling and relative contribution of metabolites to active opioid concentrations." Clin Pharmacokinet 24 (1993): 344-54
  49. Novick DM, Kreek MJ, Arns PA, et al "Effect of severe alcoholic liver disease on the disposition of methadone in maintenance patients." Alcohol Clin Exp Res 9 (1985): 349
  50. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  51. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  52. "Product Information. Alfenta (alfentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  53. Giacomini KM, Giacomini JC, Gibson TP, Levy G "Propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene plasma concentrations after oral propoxyphene in cirrhotic patients with and without surgically constructed portacaval shunt." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 417-24
  54. Cone EJ, Darwin WD, Gorodetzky CW "Comparative metabolism of codeine in man, rat, dog, guinea-pig and rabbit: identification of four new metabolites." J Pharm Pharmacol 31 (1979): 314-7
  55. Mazoit J-X, Sandouk P, Zetlaoui P, Scherrmann J-M "Pharmacokinetics of unchanged morphine in normal and cirrhotic subjects." Anesth Analg 66 (1987): 293-8
  56. Dixon R, Crews T, Inturrisi C, Foley K "Levorphanol: pharmacokinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations in patients with pain." Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 41 (1983): 3-17
  57. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  58. Leow KP, Smith MT, Watt JA, Williams BE, Cramond T "Comparative oxycodone pharmacokinetics in humans after intravenous, oral, and rectal administration." Ther Drug Monit 14 (1992): 479-84
View all 58 references
Major

Narcotic Analgesics (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Prematurity

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Prematurity/Underweight in Infancy

The use of narcotic (opioid) analgesic agents is contraindicated in premature infants. These agents may cross the immature blood-brain barrier to a greater extent than in adults, resulting in disproportionate respiratory depression.

References

  1. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  2. "Multum Information Services, Inc. Expert Review Panel"
Major

Narcotic Analgesics (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Renal Dysfunction

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

Although narcotic (opioid) analgesic agents are generally metabolized by the liver, renal impairment can alter the elimination of these agents and their metabolites (some of which are pharmacologically active), resulting in drug accumulation and increased risk of toxicity. Therapy with opioids should be administered cautiously and initiated at reduced dosages in patients with significantly impaired renal function. Subsequent doses should be titrated based on individual response rather than a fixed dosing schedule.

References

  1. Hanna MH, D'Costa F, Peat SJ, Fung C, Venkat N, Zilkha TR, Davies S "Morphine-6-glucuronide disposition in renal impairment." Br J Anaesth 70 (1993): 511-4
  2. Bechtel WD, Sinterhauf K "Plasma level and renal excretion of [3H] codeine phosphate in man and in the dog." Arzneimittelforschung 28 (1978): 308-11
  3. Wolff J, Bigler D, Christensen CB, et al "Influence of renal function on the elimination of morphine and morphine glucoronides." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 34 (1988): 353-7
  4. Aitkenhead AR, Vater M, Achola K, Cooper CM, Smith G "Pharmacokinetics of single-dose i.v. morphine in normal volunteers and patients with end-stage renal failure." Br J Anaesth 56 (1984): 813-9
  5. Charuvastra VC, Ouren J "Renal failure and treatment of a methadone maintenance patient." Med J Aust 09/24/77 (1977): 433-4
  6. Chan K, Jennings F, Orme ML "Pharmacokinetics of low-dose intravenous pethidine in patients with renal dysfunction." J Clin Pharmacol 27 (1987): 516-22
  7. "Product Information. Buprenex (buprenorphine)." Reckitt and Colman Pharmaceutical, Richmond, VA.
  8. Leow KP, Smith MT, Williams B, Cramond T "Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxycodone in patients with cancer." Clin Pharmacol Ther 52 (1992): 487-95
  9. Matske GR, Chan GL, Abraham PA "Codeine dosage in renal failure." Clin Pharm 5 (1986): 15-6
  10. Poyhia R, Olkkola KT, Seppala T, Kalso E "The pharmacokinetics of oxycodone after intravenous injection in adults." Br J Clin Pharmacol 32 (1991): 516-8
  11. Findlay JW, Butz RF, Welch RM "Codeine kinetics as determined by radioimmunoassay." Clin Pharmacol Ther 22 (1977): 439-46
  12. Drayer DE "Active drug metabolites and renal failure." Am J Med 62 (1977): 486-9
  13. Guy DR, Awni WM, Findlay JW, et al "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of codeine in end-stage renal disease." Clin Pharmacol Ther 43 (1988): 63-71
  14. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  15. Kreek MJ, Schecter AJ, Gutjahr CL, et al "Methadone use in patients with chronic renal failure." Drug Alcohol Depend 5 (1980): 197-205
  16. Glare PA, Walsh TD "Clinical pharmacokinetics of morphine." Ther Drug Monit 13 (1991): 1-23
  17. "Product Information. MS Contin (morphine)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  18. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  19. "Product Information. Orlaam (levomethadyl acetate)" Roxanne Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  20. "Product Information. Nubain (nalbuphine)." Endo Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  21. Drayer DE "Pharmacologically active drug metabolites: therapeutic and toxic activities, plasma and urine data in man, accumulation in renal failure." Clin Pharmacokinet 1 (1976): 426-43
  22. Barnes JN, Williams AJ, Tomson MJ, et al "Dihydrocodeine in renal failure: further evidence for an important role of the kidney in the handling of opioid drugs." Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 290 (1985): 740-2
  23. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  24. Baselt RC, Casarett LJ "Urinary excretion of methadone in man." Clin Pharmacol Ther 13 (1972): 64-70
  25. "Product Information. Dalgan (dezocine)." Astra USA, Westborough, MA.
  26. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  27. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  28. "Product Information. Alfenta (alfentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  29. Wolfert AI, Sica DA "Narcotic usage in renal failure." Int J Artif Organs 11 (1988): 411-5
  30. Leow KP, Smith MT, Watt JA, Williams BE, Cramond T "Comparative oxycodone pharmacokinetics in humans after intravenous, oral, and rectal administration." Ther Drug Monit 14 (1992): 479-84
  31. Hill HF, Coda BA, Tanaka A, Schaffer R "Multiple-dose evaluation of intravenous hydromorphone pharmacokinetics in normal human subjects." Anesth Analg 72 (1991): 330-6
  32. Gram LF, Schou J, Way WL, et al "delta-Propoxyphene kinetics after single oral and intravenous doses in man." Clin Pharmacol Ther 26 (1979): 473-82
  33. Giacomini KM, Gibson TP, Levy G "Plasma protein binding of d-propoxyphene in normal subjects and anephric patients." J Clin Pharmacol 18 (1978): 106-9
  34. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol)." Allscrips Pharmaceutical Company, Vernon Hills, IL.
  35. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  36. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  37. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  38. Verbeeck RK, Branch RA, Wilkinson GR "Drug metabolites in renal failure: pharmacokinetic and clinical implications." Clin Pharmacokinet 6 (1981): 329-45
  39. "Product Information. Sufenta (sufentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  40. "Product Information. Ultiva (remifentanil)." Mylan Institutional (formally Bioniche Pharma USA Inc), Canonsburg, PA.
  41. Gibson TP, Giacomini KM, Briggs WA, Whitman W, Levy G "Propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene plasma concentrations in the anephric patient." Clin Pharmacol Ther 27 (1980): 665-70
  42. Sjogren P, Dragsted L, Christensen CB "Myoclonic spasms during treatment with high doses of intravenous morphine in renal failure." Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 37 (1993): 780-2
  43. Dixon R, Crews T, Inturrisi C, Foley K "Levorphanol: pharmacokinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations in patients with pain." Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 41 (1983): 3-17
  44. Inturrisi CE "Disposition of narcotics in patients with renal disease." Am J Med 62 (1977): 528-9
  45. Flanagan RJ, Johnston A, White AS, Crome P "Pharmacokinetics of dextropropoxyphene and nordextropropoxyphene in young and elderly volunteers after single and multiple dextropropoxyphene dosage." Br J Clin Pharmacol 28 (1989): 463-9
  46. Parab PV, Ritschel WA, Coyle DE, et al "Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone after intravenous, peroral and rectal administration to human subjects." Biopharm Drug Dispos 9 (1988): 187-99
  47. Sawe J, Odar-Cederlof I "Kinetics of morphine in patients with renal failure." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 32 (1987): 377-82
  48. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  49. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  50. Chauvin M, Sandouk P, Scherrmann JM, Farinotti R, Strumza P, Duvaldestin P "Morphine pharmacokinetics in renal failure." Anesthesiology 66 (1987): 327-31
  51. "Product Information. Talwin NX (pentazocine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  52. Covington EC, Gonsalves-Ebrahim L, Currie KO, et al "Severe respiratory depression from patient-controlled analgesia in renal failure." Psychosomatics 30 (1989): 226-8
  53. Dhonneur G, Gilton A, Sandouk P, Scherrmann JM, Duvaldestin P "Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of morphine and morphine glucuronides after oral morphine - the influence of renal failure." Anesthesiology 81 (1994): 87-93
  54. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  55. Poyhia R, Seppala T, Olkkola KT, Kalso E "The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of oxycodone after intramuscular and oral administration to healthy subjects." Br J Clin Pharmacol 33 (1992): 617-21
  56. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
View all 56 references
Major

Nsaids (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Asthma

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Asthma

Approximately 10% of patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma, characterized by nasal polyposis, pansinusitis, eosinophilia, and precipitation of asthma and rhinitis attacks after ingestion of aspirin. The use of aspirin in these patients has been associated with severe bronchospasm and fatal anaphylactoid reactions. Since cross-sensitivity has been noted between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), therapy with any NSAID should be avoided in asthmatic patients with a history of aspirin or other NSAID sensitivity, and administered cautiously in all patients with preexisting asthma. Prior to initiating therapy with NSAIDs, patients should be questioned about previous allergic-type reactions to these agents. Salicylate salts, salsalate, salicylamide, and acetaminophen may be appropriate alternatives in patients with a history of NSAID-induced bronchospasm, since cross-sensitivity to these agents appears to be low. However, cross-sensitivity has been demonstrated occasionally with high dosages of these agents (e.g., acetaminophen >= 1000 mg), thus it may be appropriate to initiate therapy with low dosages and increase gradually. There is some evidence suggesting that COX-2 inhibitors may be safely used in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma, although the labeling for these products contraindicate such use. If necessary, aspirin desensitization may also be attempted in some patients under medical surveillance.

References

  1. "Product Information. Naprosyn (naproxen)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  2. Stevenson DD, Hougham AJ, Schrank PJ, Goldlust MB, Wilson RR "Salsalate cross-sensitivity in aspirin-sensitive patients with asthma." J Allergy Clin Immunol 86 (1990): 749-58
  3. Stevenson DD, Simon RA "Lack of cross-reactivity between rofecoxib and aspirin in aspirin-sensitive patients with asthma." J Allerg Clin Immunol 108 (2001): 47-51
  4. "Product Information. Motrin (ibuprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  5. Lewis RV "Severe asthma after naproxen." Lancet 05/30/87 (1987): 1270
  6. "Product Information. Voltaren (diclofenac)." Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Feldene (piroxicam)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  8. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, eds. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed." New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Health Professionals Division (1998):
  9. "Product Information. Clinoril (sulindac)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  10. "Product Information. Ansaid (flurbiprofen)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  11. Settipane RA, Stevenson DD "Cross sensitivity with acetaminophen in aspirin-sensitive subjects with asthma." J Allergy Clin Immunol 84 (1989): 26-33
  12. "Product Information. Vioxx (rofecoxib)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  13. Carmona MJ, Blanca M, Garcia A, Fernandez S, Burgos F, Miranda A, Vega JM, Garcia J "Intolerance to piroxicam in patients with adverse reactions to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs." J Allergy Clin Immunol 90 (1992): 873-9
  14. Szczeklik A, Stevenson DD "Aspirin-induced asthma: Advances in pathogenesis and management." J Allerg Clin Immunol 104 (1999): 5-13
  15. "Product Information. Mobic (meloxicam)" Boehringer-Ingelheim, Ridgefield, CT.
  16. Israel E, Fischer AR, Rosenberg MA, Lilly CM, Callery JC, Shapiro J, Cohn J, Rubin P, Drazen JM "The pivotal role of 5-lipoxygenase products in the reaction of aspirin-sensitive asthmatics to aspirin." Am Rev Respir Dis 148 (1993): 1447-51
  17. Haddow GR, Riley E, Isaacs R, McSharry R "Ketorolac, nasal polyposis, and bronchial asthma: a cause for concern." Anesth Analg 76 (1993): 420-2
  18. Nasser SMS, Lee TH "Aspirin-induced early and late asthmatic responses." Clin Exp Allergy 25 (1995): 1-3
  19. Cohen RD, Bateman ED, Potgieter PD "Near-fatal bronchospasm in an asthmatic patient following ingestion of flurbiprofen. A case report." S Afr Med J 61 (1982): 803
  20. Chan TY "Severe asthma attacks precipitated by NSAIDs." Ann Pharmacother 29 (1995): 199
  21. "Product Information. Bextra (valdecoxib)." Pharmacia Corporation, Peapack, NJ.
  22. Schreuder G "Ketoprofen: possible idiosyncratic acute bronchospasm." Med J Aust 152 (1990): 332-3
  23. Lee TH "Mechanism of bronchospasm in aspirin-sensitive asthma." Am Rev Respir Dis 148 (1993): 1442-3
  24. Ayres JG, Fleming DM, Whittington RM "Asthma death due to ibuprofen." Lancet 05/09/87 (1987): 1082
  25. Shapiro N "Acute angioedema after ketorolac ingestion - report of case." J Oral Maxillofac Surg 52 (1994): 626-7
  26. "Product Information. Daypro (oxaprozin)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  27. Dahlen B, Szczeklik A, Murray HH "Celecoxib in patients with asthma and aspirin intolerance." N Engl J Med 344 (2000): 142
  28. "Product Information. Indocin (indomethacin)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  29. Lee TH "Mechanism of aspirin sensitivity." Am Rev Respir Dis 145 (1992): s34-6
  30. "Product Information. Celebrex (celecoxib)." Searle, Chicago, IL.
  31. Salberg DJ, Simon MR "Severe asthma induced by naproxen: a case report and review of the literature." Ann Allergy 45 (1980): 372-5
  32. "Product Information. Tolectin (tolmetin)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  33. "Product Information. Relafen (nabumetone)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  34. Zikowski D, Hord AH, Haddox JD, Glascock J "Ketorolac-induced bronchospasm." Anesth Analg 76 (1993): 417-9
  35. "Product Information. Nalfon (fenoprofen)." Xspire Pharma, Ridgeland, MS.
  36. "Product Information. Orudis (ketoprofen)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  37. Woessner KM, Simon RA, Stevenson DD "The safety of celecoxib in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma." Arthritis Rheum 46 (2002): 2201-6
  38. "Product Information. Lodine (etodolac)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
View all 38 references
Major

Opiate Agonists (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Acute Alcohol Intoxication

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Acute Alcohol Intoxication

The use of opiate agonists is contraindicated in patients with acute alcohol intoxication exhibiting depressed vital signs. The central nervous system depressant effects of opiate agonists may be additive with those of alcohol. Severe respiratory depression and death may occur. Therapy with opiate agonists should be administered cautiously in patients who might be prone to acute alcohol intake.

References

  1. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  2. "Product Information. MS Contin (morphine)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  3. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  5. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  6. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  8. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  9. "Multum Information Services, Inc. Expert Review Panel"
  10. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  11. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  12. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  13. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  14. "Product Information. Sublimaze (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  15. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
View all 15 references
Major

Opiate Agonists (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Drug Dependence

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Alcoholism, Drug Abuse/Dependence

Opiate agonists have the potential to cause dependence and abuse. Tolerance as well as physical and psychological dependence can develop after prolonged use. Abrupt cessation, reduction in dosage, or administration of an opiate antagonist such as naloxone may precipitate withdrawal symptoms. In patients who have developed tolerance to an opiate agonist, overdosage can still produce respiratory depression and death, and cross-tolerance usually will occur with other agents in the class. Addiction-prone individuals, such as those with a history of alcohol or substance abuse, should be under careful surveillance or medical supervision when treated with opiate agonists. It may be prudent to refrain from dispensing large quantities of medication to these patients. After prolonged use or if dependency is suspected, withdrawal of opiate therapy should be undertaken gradually using a dosage-tapering schedule.

References

  1. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Sublimaze (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  3. Fishbain DA, Goldberg M, Rosomoff RS, Rosomoff H "Atypical withdrawal syndrome (organic delusional syndrome) secondary to oxycodone detoxification ." J Clin Psychopharmacol 8 (1988): 441-2
  4. Strode SW "Propoxyphene dependence and withdrawal." Am Fam Physician 32 (1985): 105-8
  5. Morrison AB "Toxicity and abuse of hydrocodone bitartrate." Can Med Assoc J 120 (1979): 1338
  6. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  9. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  10. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  11. Azorlosa JL, Stitzer ML, Greenwald MK "Opioid physical dependence development - effects of single versus repeated morphine pretreatments and of subjects opioid exposure history." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 114 (1994): 71-80
  12. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  13. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  14. Salguero CH, Villarreal JE, Hug CC Jr, Domino EF "Propoxyphene dependence." JAMA 210 (1969): 135-6
  15. "Product Information. MS Contin (morphine)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  16. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  17. Whittington RM "Dextropropoxyphene addiction." Lancet 2 (1979): 743-4
  18. Collins GB, Kiefer KS "Propoxyphene dependence: an update." Postgrad Med 70 (1981): 57-61
  19. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  20. Miser AW, Chayt KJ, Sandlund JT, Cohen PS, Dothage JA, Miser JS "Narcotic withdrawal syndrome in young adults after the therapeutic use of opiates." Am J Dis Child 140 (1986): 603-4
  21. Hedenmalm K "A case of severe withdrawal syndrome due to dextropropoxyphene." Ann Intern Med 123 (1995): 473
  22. Wall R, Linford SM, Akhter MI "Addiction to Distalgesic (dextropropoxyphene)." Br Med J 280 (1980): 1213-4
  23. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  24. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  25. Claghorn JL, Schoolar JC "Propoxyphene hydrochloride, a drug of abuse." JAMA 196 (1966): 1089-91
  26. Ng B, Alvear M "Dextropropoxyphene addiction--a drug of primary abuse." Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 19 (1993): 153-8
View all 26 references
Major

Opiate Agonists (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Hypotension

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hypotension, Shock, Dehydration

Opiate agonists can induce vasodilation and significant hypotension, particularly when given in high dosages and/or by rapid intravenous administration. Opiate analgesics cause vasodilatation that may exacerbate hypotension and hypoperfusion and, therefore, are contraindicated in circulatory shock. At therapeutic analgesic dosages, ambulatory patients are more likely to experience dizziness and hypotension than patients who are confined to bed. However, orthostatic hypotension may occur in supine patients upon rising. Therapy with opiate agonists should be administered cautiously and initiated at reduced dosages in patients with hypovolemia, or a predisposition to hypotension. When given by intramuscular or subcutaneous administration, clinicians should also be aware that impaired perfusion in these patients may prevent complete absorption of the drug. With repeated injections, an excessive amount may be absorbed suddenly if normal circulation is reestablished.

References

  1. Cox RG "Hypoxaemia and hypotension after intravenous codeine phosphate." Can J Anaesth 41 (1994): 1211-3
  2. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  3. "Product Information. Fentanyl Oralet (fentanyl)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  4. "Product Information. Orlaam (levomethadyl acetate)" Roxanne Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  5. Sebel PS, Bovill JG, Boekhorst RA, Rog N "Cardiovascular effects of high-dose fentanyl anaesthesia." Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 26 (1982): 308-15
  6. "Product Information. Sublimaze (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  8. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  9. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  10. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  11. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  12. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  13. "Product Information. MS Contin (morphine)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  14. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  15. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  16. "Product Information. Sufenta (sufentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  17. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  18. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  19. "Product Information. Alfenta (alfentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  20. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  21. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  22. "Product Information. Ultiva (remifentanil)." Mylan Institutional (formally Bioniche Pharma USA Inc), Canonsburg, PA.
  23. Parke TJ, Nandi PR, Bird KJ, Jewkes DA "Profound hypotension following intravenous codeine phosphate: three case reports and some recommendations." Anaesthesia 47 (1992): 852-4
View all 23 references
Major

Opiate Agonists (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Intracranial Pressure

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Head Injury, Brain/Intracranial Tumor, Cerebral Vascular Disorder

The hypoventilation associated with administration of opiate agonists, particularly by the intravenous route, can induce cerebral hypoxia and vasodilatation with resultant increase in intracranial pressure. Opiate agonists should not be used in patients with suspected or known head injury or increased intracranial pressure. Also, clinicians treating such patients should be aware that opiate agonists may interfere with the evaluation of CNS function, especially with respect to consciousness levels, respiratory status, and pupillary changes.

References

  1. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  2. "Product Information. Alfenta (alfentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Fentanyl Oralet (fentanyl)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  5. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  6. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  7. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Orlaam (levomethadyl acetate)" Roxanne Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  9. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  10. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  11. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  12. "Product Information. MS Contin (morphine)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  13. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  14. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  15. "Product Information. Ultiva (remifentanil)." Mylan Institutional (formally Bioniche Pharma USA Inc), Canonsburg, PA.
  16. "Product Information. Sublimaze (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  17. "Product Information. Sufenta (sufentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  18. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  19. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  20. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
View all 20 references
Major

Opiate Agonists (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Respiratory Depression

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Altered Consciousness, Asphyxia, Brain/Intracranial Tumor, Cerebral Vascular Disorder, Head Injury, Pulmonary Impairment, Respiratory Arrest

Opiate agonists may produce significant central nervous system and respiratory depression of varying duration, particularly when given in high dosages and/or by rapid intravenous administration. Apnea may result from decreased respiratory drive as well as increased airway resistance, and rigidity of respiratory muscles may occur during rapid IV administration or when these agents are used in the induction of anesthesia. At therapeutic analgesic dosages, the respiratory effects are usually not clinically important except in patients with preexisting pulmonary impairment. Therapy with opiate agonists should be avoided or administered with extreme caution and initiated at reduced dosages in patients with severe CNS depression; sleep apnea; hypoxia, anoxia, or hypercapnia; upper airway obstruction; chronic pulmonary insufficiency; a limited ventilatory reserve; or other respiratory disorders. In the presence of excessive respiratory secretions, the use of opiate agonists may also be problematic because they decrease ciliary activity and reduce the cough reflex. Caution is also advised in patients who may be at increased risk for respiratory depression, such as comatose patients or those with head injury, intracranial lesions, or intracranial hypertension. Clinical monitoring of pulmonary function is recommended, and equipment for resuscitation should be immediately available if parenteral or neuraxial routes are used. Naloxone may be administered to reverse clinically significant respiratory depression, which may be prolonged depending on the opioid agent, cumulative dose, and route of administration.

References

  1. Redpath JB, Pleuvry BJ "Double-blind comparison of the respiratory and sedative effects of codeine phosphate and (+/-)-glaucine phosphate in human volunteers." Br J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1982): 555-8
  2. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  3. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  4. Hudson RJ "Apnoea and unconsciousness after apparent recovery from alfentanil- supplemented anaesthesia." Can J Anaesth 37 (1990): 255-7
  5. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  6. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  7. Amin HM, Sopchak AM, Esposito BF, Henson LG, Batenhorst RL, Fox AW, Camporesi EM "Naloxone-induced and spontaneous reversal of depressed ventilatory responses to hypoxia during and after continuous infusion of remifentanil or alfentanil." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 274 (1995): 34-9
  8. Morley AD "Profound respiratory depression with morphine patient-controlled analgesia in an elderly patient." Anaesth Intensive Care 24 (1996): 287
  9. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  10. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  11. Brockway MS, Noble DW, Sharwood-Smith GH, McClure JH "Profound respiratory depression after extradural fentanyl." Br J Anaesth 64 (1990): 243-5
  12. Jackson FW "Fentanyl and the wooden chest." Gastroenterology 106 (1994): 820-1
  13. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  14. Elloway R, Sherman S, Maas L, et al "Meperidine-induced bronchospasm." Gastrointest Endosc 38 (1992): 93
  15. Comstock MK, Carter JG, Moyers JR, Stevens WC "Rigidity and hypercarbia associated with high dose fentanyl induction of anesthesia." Anesth Analg 60 (1981): 362-3
  16. Kreek MJ, Hartman N "Chronic use of opioids and antipsychotic drugs: side effects, effects on endogenous opioids, and toxicity." Ann N Y Acad Sci 398 (1982): 151-72
  17. Harper MH, Hickey RF, Cromwell TH, Linwood S "The magnitude and duration of respiratory depression produced by fentanyl and fentanyl plus droperidol in man." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 199 (1976): 464-8
  18. "Product Information. Ultiva (remifentanil)." Mylan Institutional (formally Bioniche Pharma USA Inc), Canonsburg, PA.
  19. Varrassi G, Celleno D, Capogna G, et al. "Ventilatory effects of subarachnoid fentanyl in the elderly." Anaesthesia 47 (1992): 558-62
  20. Bellville JW, Forrest WH, Elashoff J, Laska E "Evaluating side effects of analgesics in a cooperative clinical study." Clin Pharmacol Ther 9 (1968): 303-13
  21. Covington EC, Gonsalves-Ebrahim L, Currie KO, et al "Severe respiratory depression from patient-controlled analgesia in renal failure." Psychosomatics 30 (1989): 226-8
  22. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  23. "Product Information. Sufenta (sufentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  24. Sackner MA "Effects of hydrocodone bitartrate on breathing pattern of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and restrictive lung disease." Mt Sinai J Med 51 (1984): 222-6
  25. Sandler AN, Baxter AD, Katz J, Samson B, Friedlander M, Norman P, Koren G, Roger S, Hull K, Klein J "A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of transdermal fentanyl after abdominal hysterectomy: analgesic, respiratory, and pharmacokinetic effects." Anesthesiology 81 (1994): 1169-80
  26. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  27. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  28. Palmer CM "Early respiratory depression following intrathecal fentanyl-morphine combination." Anesthesiology 74 (1991): 1153-5
  29. "Product Information. Alfenta (alfentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  30. Rigg JR, Ilsley AH, Vedig AE "Relationship of ventilatory depression to steady-state blood pethidine concentrations." Br J Anaesth 53 (1981): 613-9
  31. "Product Information. MS Contin (morphine)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  32. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  33. "Product Information. Fentanyl Oralet (fentanyl)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  34. Bigler D, Eriksen J, Christensen CB "Prolonged respiratory depression caused by slow release morphine." Lancet 06/30/84 (1984): 1477
  35. "Product Information. Sublimaze (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  36. Noble DW, Morrison LM, Brockway MS, Mcclure JH "Respiratory depression after extradural fentanyl." Br J Anaesth 72 (1994): 251
  37. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  38. Eisenach JC "Respiratory depression following intrathecal opioids." Anesthesiology 75 (1991): 712
  39. Etches RC "Respiratory depression associated with patient-controlled analgesia - a review of eight cases." Can J Anaesth 41 (1994): 125-32
  40. Samuels SI, Rabinov W "Difficulty reversing drug-induced coma in a patient with sleep apnea." Anesth Analg 65 (1986): 1222-4
  41. Houghton IT, Aun CST, Wong YC, Chan K, Lau JTF, Oh TE "The respiratory depressant effect of morphine - a comparative study in three ethnic groups." Anaesthesia 49 (1994): 197-201
  42. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  43. Ogawa K, Iranami H, Yoshiyama T, Maeda H, Hatano Y "Severe respiratory depression after epidural morphine in a patient with myotonic dystrophy." Can J Anaesth 40 (1993): 968-70
  44. "Product Information. Orlaam (levomethadyl acetate)" Roxanne Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
View all 44 references
Major

Salicylates (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Gi Toxicity

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Peptic Ulcer, Duodenitis/Gastritis, Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage, Gastrointestinal Perforation, History - Peptic Ulcer, Alcoholism, Colitis/Enteritis (Noninfectious), Colonic Ulceration

Salicylates, particularly aspirin, can cause dose-related gastrointestinal bleeding and mucosal damage, which may occur independently of each other. Occult, often asymptomatic GI blood loss is quite common with usual dosages of aspirin and stems from the drug's local effect on the GI mucosa. During chronic therapy, this type of bleeding may occasionally produce iron deficiency anemia. In contrast, major upper GI bleeding rarely occurs except in patients with active peptic ulcers or recent GI bleeding. However, these patients generally do not experience greater occult blood loss than healthy patients following small doses of aspirin. Mucosal damage associated with the use of salicylates may lead to development of peptic ulcers with or without bleeding, reactivation of latent ulcers, and ulcer perforation. Therapy with salicylates and related agents such as salicylamide should be considered and administered cautiously in patients with a history of GI disease or alcoholism, particularly if they are elderly and/or debilitated, since such patients may be more susceptible to the GI toxicity of these drugs and seem to tolerate ulceration and bleeding less well than other individuals. Extreme caution and thorough assessment of risks and benefits are warranted in patients with active or recent GI bleeding or lesions. Whenever possible, especially if prolonged use is anticipated, treatment with non-ulcerogenic agents should be attempted first. If salicylates are used, close monitoring for toxicity is recommended. Some adverse GI effects may be minimized by administration with high dosages of antacids, use of enteric-coated or extended-release formulations, and/or concurrent use of a histamine H2-receptor antagonist or a cytoprotective agent such as misoprostol. Patients with active peptic ulceration or GI bleeding treated with salicylates should generally be administered a concomitant anti-ulcer regimen.

References

  1. Lanas A, Serrano P, Bajador E, Esteva F, Benito R, Sainz R "Evidence of aspirin use in both upper and lower gastrointestinal perforation." Gastroenterology 112 (1997): 683-9
  2. Savon JJ, Allen ML, Dimarino AJ, Hermann GA, Krum RP "Gastrointestinal blood loss with low dose (325 mg) plain and enteric-coated aspirin administration." Am J Gastroenterol 90 (1995): 581-5
  3. "Product Information. Salflex (salsalate)." Carnrick Laboratories Inc, Cedar Knolls, NJ.
  4. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  5. Stalnikowiczdarvasi R "Gastrointestinal bleeding during low-dose aspirin administration for prevention of arterial occlusive events: a critical analysis." J Clin Gastroenterol 21 (1995): 13-6
  6. Marks RD "Aspirin use and fecal occult blood testing." Am J Med 100 (1996): 596-7
  7. Mehta S, Dasarathy S, Tandon RK, Mathur M, Malaviya AN "A prospective randomized study of the injurious effects of aspirin and naproxen on the gastroduodenal mucosa in patients with rheumatoid arthritis." Am J Gastroenterol 87 (1992): 996-1000
  8. Naschitz JE, Yeshurun D, Odeh M, Bassan H, Rosner I, Stermer E, Levy N "Overt gastrointestinal bleeding in the course of chronic low-dose aspirin administration for secondary prevention of arterial occlusive disease." Am J Gastroenterol 85 (1990): 408-11
  9. Bergmann JF, Chassany O, Geneve J, Abiteboul M, Caulin C, Segrestaa JM "Endoscopic evaluation of the effect of ketoprofen, ibuprofen and aspirin on the gastroduodenal mucosa." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 42 (1992): 685-8
  10. Weil J, Colinjones D, Langman M, Lawson D, Logan R, Murphy M, Rawlins M, Vessey M, Wainwright P "Prophylactic aspirin and risk of peptic ulcer bleeding." BMJ 310 (1995): 827-30
  11. "Product Information. Ecotrin (aspirin)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  12. Graham DY, Smith JL "Aspirin and the stomach." Ann Intern Med 104 (1986): 390-8
  13. Roderick PJ, Wilkes HC, Meade TW "The gastrointestinal toxicity of aspirin: an overview of randomised controlled trials." Br J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1993): 219-26
  14. Wilcox CM, Shalek KA, Cotsonis G "Striking prevalence of over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti- inflammatory drug use in patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage." Arch Intern Med 154 (1994): 42-6
  15. Prichard PJ, Kitchingman GK, Walt RP, Daneshmend TK, Hawkey CJ "Human gastric mucosal bleeding induced by low dose aspirin, but not warfarin." BMJ 298 (1989): 493-6
  16. Silagy CA, McNeil JJ, Donnan GA, Tonkin AM, Worsam B, Campion K "Adverse effects of low-dose aspirin in a healthy elderly population." Clin Pharmacol Ther 54 (1993): 84-9
  17. Sabesin SM, Boyce HW Jr, King CE, Mann JA, Ruoff G, Wall E "Comparative evaluation of gastrointestinal intolerance produced by plain and tri-buffered aspirin tablets." Am J Gastroenterol 83 (1988): 1220-5
  18. Greenberg PD, Cello JP, Rockey DC "Asymptomatic chronic gastrointestinal blood loss in patients taking aspirin or warfarin for cardiovascular disease." Am J Med 100 (1996): 598-604
  19. Levy M, Miller DR, Kaufman DW, Siskind V, Schwingl P, Rosenberg L, Strom B, Shapiro S "Major upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Relation to the use of aspirin and other nonnarcotic analgesics." Arch Intern Med 148 (1988): 281-5
View all 19 references
Major

Salicylates (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Renal Dysfunction

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

Salicylate and its metabolites are eliminated almost entirely by the kidney. Therapy with salicylate drugs should be administered cautiously in patients with renal impairment, especially if it is severe. Reduced dosages may be necessary to avoid drug accumulation. Clinical monitoring of renal function is recommended during prolonged therapy, since the use of salicylate drugs has rarely been associated with renal toxicities, including elevations in serum creatinine, renal papillary necrosis, and acute tubular necrosis with renal failure. Most of the data have been derived from experience with aspirin but may apply to other salicylates as well. In patients with impaired renal function, aspirin has caused reversible and sometimes marked decreases in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Adverse renal effects have usually reversed rapidly following withdrawal of aspirin therapy.

References

  1. "Product Information. Rexolate (sodium thiosalicylate)" Hyrex Pharmaceuticals, Memphis, TN.
  2. Carmichael J, Shankel SW "Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on prostaglandins and renal function." Am J Med 78 (1985): 992-1000
  3. "Product Information. Ecotrin (aspirin)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  4. Riegger GA, Kahles HW, Elsner D, Kromer EP, Kochsiek K "Effects of acetylsalicylic acid on renal function in patients with chronic heart failure." Am J Med 90 (1991): 571-5
  5. Kimberly RP, Plotz PH "Aspirin-induced depression of renal function." N Engl J Med 296 (1977): 418-24
  6. Maher JF "Analgesic nephropathy. Observations, interpretations, and perspective on the low incidence in America." Am J Med 76 (1984): 345-8
  7. Wen SF, Parthasarathy R, Iliopoulos O, Oberley TD "Acute renal failure following binge drinking and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs." Am J Kidney Dis 20 (1992): 281-5
  8. Muther RS, Potter DM, Bennett WM "Aspirin-induced depression of glomerular filtration rate in normal humans: role of sodium balance." Ann Intern Med 94 (1981): 317-21
  9. "Product Information. Salflex (salsalate)." Carnrick Laboratories Inc, Cedar Knolls, NJ.
  10. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  11. Whelton A "Renal effects of over-the-counter analgesics." J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1995): 454-63
View all 11 references
Major

Salicylates (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Reye's Syndrome

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Influenza, Varicella-Zoster

The use of salicylates, primarily aspirin, in children with varicella infections or influenza-like illnesses has been associated with an increased risk of Reye's syndrome. Although a causal relationship has not been established, the majority of evidence to date seems to support the association. Most authorities, including the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, recommend avoiding the use of salicylates in children and teenagers with known or suspected varicella or influenza and during presumed outbreaks of influenza. If antipyretic or analgesic therapy is indicated under these circumstances, acetaminophen may be an appropriate alternative. The same precautions should also be observed with related agents such as salicylamide or diflunisal because of their structural and pharmacological similarities to salicylate.

References

  1. Belay ED, Bresee JS, Holman RC, Khan AS, Shahriari A, Schonberger LB "Reye's syndrome in the United States from 1981 through 1997." N Engl J Med 340 (1999): 1377-82
  2. "Product Information. Salflex (salsalate)." Carnrick Laboratories Inc, Cedar Knolls, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Ecotrin (aspirin)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  4. "Product Information. Rexolate (sodium thiosalicylate)" Hyrex Pharmaceuticals, Memphis, TN.
  5. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Infectious Diseases; Peter G, ed. "Red BooK: Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 24th" Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics (1997):
  6. Hasking GJ, Duggan JM "Encephalopathy from bismuth subsalicylate." Med J Aust 2 (1982): 167
  7. Epidemiology Office, Divisiion of Viral and Rickettsial Diseasses, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control. "Leads from the MMWR. Reye syndrome surveillance--United States, 1987 and 1988." JAMA 261 (1989): 3520,
  8. Behrman R, Kliegman R, Arvin A, Nelson W, eds. "Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 15th ed." Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company (1996):
  9. "Product Information. Pepto-Bismol (bismuth subsalicylate)." Procter and Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Cincinnati, OH.
View all 9 references
Moderate

Carisoprodol (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Drug Dependence

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Alcoholism, Drug Abuse/Dependence

Carisoprodol is partially metabolized to meprobamate, a pharmacologically active agent with known addictive potential. According to the manufacturer, abrupt cessation of carisoprodol 100 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 times the recommended daily adult dosage) was associated with mild withdrawal symptoms such as abdominal cramps, insomnia, headache, nausea and chills in some study subjects. In clinical use, psychological dependence and abuse have been rare. Nevertheless, therapy with carisoprodol should be administered cautiously in addiction-prone individuals, such as those with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. It may be prudent to refrain from dispensing large quantities of medication to these patients.

References

  1. Morse RM, Chua L "Carisoprodol dependence: a case report." Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 5 (1978): 527-30
  2. "Product Information. Soma (carisoprodol)." Meda Pharmaceuticals, Somerset, NJ.
  3. Elder NC "Abuse of skeletal muscle relaxants." Am Fam Physician 44 (1991): 1223-6
  4. Luehr JG, Meyerle KA, Larson EW "Mail-order (veterinary) drug dependence." JAMA 263 (1990): 657
View all 4 references
Moderate

Carisoprodol (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Renal/Liver Disease

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease, Renal Dysfunction

Carisoprodol is primarily converted in the liver to several metabolites, one of which (meprobamate) is pharmacologically active. The metabolites and a small amount of the parent drug are excreted in the urine. Patients with impaired renal and/or hepatic function may be at greater risk for adverse effects due to drug and metabolite accumulation. Therapy with carisoprodol should be administered cautiously in such patients.

References

  1. "Product Information. Soma (carisoprodol)." Meda Pharmaceuticals, Somerset, NJ.
Moderate

Narcotic Analgesics (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Adrenal Insufficiency

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Adrenal Insufficiency

Patients with Addison's disease may have increased risk of respiratory depression and prolonged CNS depression associated with the use of narcotic (opioid) analgesic agents. Conversely, these agents may cause or potentiate adrenal insufficiency. Therapy with opioids should be administered cautiously and initiated at reduced dosages in patients with adrenocortical insufficiency. Subsequent doses should be titrated based on individual response rather than a fixed dosing schedule.

References

  1. "Product Information. Orlaam (levomethadyl acetate)" Roxanne Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  2. "Product Information. Roxanol (morphine)." Roxane Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  3. "Product Information. Fentanyl Oralet (fentanyl)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  4. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, Wilson JD, Martin JB, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, eds. "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed." New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Health Professionals Division (1998):
  5. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  6. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  7. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol nasal)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  8. "Product Information. Alfenta (alfentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  9. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  10. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  11. "Product Information. Dalgan (dezocine)." Astra USA, Westborough, MA.
  12. "Product Information. Buprenex (buprenorphine)." Reckitt and Colman Pharmaceutical, Richmond, VA.
  13. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  14. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  15. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  16. "Product Information. Nubain (nalbuphine)." Endo Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  17. "Product Information. Talwin NX (pentazocine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  18. "Product Information. Sufenta (sufentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  19. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  20. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  21. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  22. "Product Information. Sublimaze (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  23. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol)." Allscrips Pharmaceutical Company, Vernon Hills, IL.
  24. "Product Information. Ultiva (remifentanil)." Mylan Institutional (formally Bioniche Pharma USA Inc), Canonsburg, PA.
  25. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  26. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
View all 26 references
Moderate

Narcotic Analgesics (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Biliary Spasm

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Biliary Obstruction, Gallbladder Disease

Narcotic (opioid) analgesic agents increase smooth muscle tone in the biliary tract, which can lead to spasm and elevated biliary tract pressure, especially in the sphincter of Oddi. Biliary effects appear to be the most pronounced with morphine, although they do not always occur with therapeutic doses. Therapy with opioids should be administered cautiously in patients with biliary or gallbladder disease.

References

  1. "Product Information. Dalgan (dezocine)." Astra USA, Westborough, MA.
  2. Hey VM, Ostick DG, Mazumder JK, Lord WD "Pethidine, metoclopramide and the gastro-oesophageal sphincter." Anaesthesia 36 (1981): 173-6
  3. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  4. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  5. Daikos GK, Kosmidis JC "Propoxyphene jaundice." JAMA 232 (1975): 835
  6. "Product Information. MS Contin (morphine)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  7. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol nasal)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  8. McCammon RL, Viegas OJ, Stoelting RK, Dryden GE "Naloxone reversal of choledochoduodenal sphincter spasm associated with narcotic administration." Anesthesiology 48 (1978): 437
  9. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  10. Lang DW, Pilon RN "Naloxone reversal of morphine-induced biliary colic." Anesth Analg 59 (1980): 619-20
  11. "Product Information. Orlaam (levomethadyl acetate)" Roxanne Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  12. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  13. "Product Information. Nubain (nalbuphine)." Endo Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  14. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  15. Ford MJ, Kellett RJ, Busuttil A, Finlayson ND "Dextropropoxyphene and jaundice." Br Med J 2 (1977): 674
  16. "Product Information. Buprenex (buprenorphine)." Reckitt and Colman Pharmaceutical, Richmond, VA.
  17. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  18. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  19. Zsigmond EK, Vieira ZEG, Duarte B, Renigers SA, Hirota K "Double-blind placebo-controlled ultrasonographic confirmation of constriction of the common bile duct by morphine." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 31 (1993): 506-9
  20. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol)." Allscrips Pharmaceutical Company, Vernon Hills, IL.
  21. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  22. "Product Information. Sublimaze (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  23. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  24. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  25. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  26. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  27. Jones RM, Fiddian-Green R, Knight PR "Narcotic-induced choledochoduodenal sphincter spasm reversed by glucagon." Anesth Analg 59 (1980): 946-7
  28. "Product Information. Fentanyl Oralet (fentanyl)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  29. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  30. "Product Information. Talwin NX (pentazocine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
View all 30 references
Moderate

Narcotic Analgesics (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Hypothyroidism

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hypothyroidism, Panhypopituitarism

Patients with hypothyroidism may have increased risk of respiratory depression and prolonged CNS depression associated with the use of narcotic (opioid) analgesic agents. These agents may also exacerbate the effects of hypothyroidism such as lethargy, impaired mentation, depression, and constipation. Therapy with opioids should be administered cautiously and initiated at reduced dosages in patients with uncontrolled hypothyroidism or myxedema. Subsequent doses should be titrated based on individual response rather than a fixed dosing schedule.

References

  1. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  2. "Product Information. Talwin NX (pentazocine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  3. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  5. "Product Information. Sublimaze (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  6. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol)." Allscrips Pharmaceutical Company, Vernon Hills, IL.
  7. "Product Information. Sufenta (sufentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  8. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  9. "Product Information. Ultiva (remifentanil)." Mylan Institutional (formally Bioniche Pharma USA Inc), Canonsburg, PA.
  10. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  11. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  12. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  13. "Product Information. Fentanyl Oralet (fentanyl)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  14. "Product Information. Orlaam (levomethadyl acetate)" Roxanne Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  15. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  16. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  17. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  18. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  19. "Product Information. Alfenta (alfentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  20. "Product Information. Dalgan (dezocine)." Astra USA, Westborough, MA.
  21. "Product Information. Buprenex (buprenorphine)." Reckitt and Colman Pharmaceutical, Richmond, VA.
  22. "Product Information. Nubain (nalbuphine)." Endo Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  23. "Product Information. MS Contin (morphine)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  24. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol nasal)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  25. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
View all 25 references
Moderate

Narcotic Analgesics (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Seizure Disorders

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Seizures

Narcotic (opioid) analgesic agents may exacerbate seizures in patients with seizure disorders and, at higher dosages, have been reported to induce seizures in patients without previous history of seizures. The proconvulsant activity may be the greatest with meperidine, the active metabolite of which is thought to be responsible. Therapy with opioids should be administered cautiously in patients with or predisposed to seizures.

References

  1. Strong WE, Matson M "Probable seizure after alfentanil." Anesth Analg 68 (1989): 692-3
  2. Armstrong PJ, Bersten A "Normeperidine toxicity." Anesth Analg 65 (1986): 536-8
  3. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  5. "Product Information. Dalgan (dezocine)." Astra USA, Westborough, MA.
  6. "Product Information. Alfenta (alfentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol nasal)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  8. Sebel PS, Bovill JG "Fentanyl and convulsions." Anesth Analg 62 (1983): 858-9
  9. Smith NT, Benthuysen JL, Bickford RG, Sanford TJ, Blasco T, Duke PC, Head N, Dec-Silver H "Seizures during opioid anesthetic induction--are they opioid-induced rigidity?" Anesthesiology 71 (1989): 852-62
  10. Goroszeniuk T, Albin M, Jones RM "Generalized grand mal seizure after recovery from uncomplicated fentanyl-etomidate anesthesia." Anesth Analg 65 (1986): 979-81
  11. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  12. "Product Information. Buprenex (buprenorphine)." Reckitt and Colman Pharmaceutical, Richmond, VA.
  13. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  14. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol)." Allscrips Pharmaceutical Company, Vernon Hills, IL.
  15. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  16. Babul N, Darke AC "Putative role of hydromorphone metabolites in myoclonus." Pain 51 (1992): 260-1
  17. Hagmeyer KO, Mauro LS, Mauro VF "Meperidine-related seizures associated with patient-controlled analgesia pumps." Ann Pharmacother 27 (1993): 29-32
  18. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  19. "Product Information. Nubain (nalbuphine)." Endo Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  20. "Product Information. MS Contin (morphine)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  21. Stone PA, Macintyre PE, Jarvis DA "Norpethidine toxicity and patient controlled analgesia." Br J Anaesth 71 (1993): 738-40
  22. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  23. Safwat AM, Daniel D "Grand mal seizure after fentanyl administration." Anesthesiology 59 (1983): 78
  24. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  25. "Product Information. Talwin NX (pentazocine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  26. Mauro VF, Bonfiglio MF, Spunt AL "Meperidine-induced seizure in a patient without renal dysfunction or sickle cell anemia." Clin Pharm 5 (1986): 837-9
  27. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  28. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  29. "Product Information. Ultiva (remifentanil)." Mylan Institutional (formally Bioniche Pharma USA Inc), Canonsburg, PA.
  30. "Product Information. Sufenta (sufentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  31. Reutens DC, Stewart-Wynne EG "Norpethidine induced myoclonus in a patient with renal failure." J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 52 (1989): 1450-1
  32. "Product Information. Sublimaze (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  33. "Product Information. Orlaam (levomethadyl acetate)" Roxanne Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  34. Hoien AO "Another case of grand mal seizure after fentanyl administration." Anesthesiology 60 (1984): 387-8
  35. "Product Information. Fentanyl Oralet (fentanyl)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  36. Kaiko RF, Foley KM, Grabinski PY, et al "Central nervous system excitatory effects of meperidine in cancer patients." Ann Neurol 13 (1983): 180-5
  37. "Product Information. Roxanol (morphine)." Roxane Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  38. Rao TL, Mummaneni N, El-Etr AA "Convulsions: an unusual response to intravenous fentanyl administration." Anesth Analg 61 (1982): 1020-1
  39. Goetting MG, Thirman MJ "Neurotoxicity of meperidine." Ann Emerg Med 14 (1985): 1007-9
  40. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  41. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  42. Sjogren P, Dragsted L, Christensen CB "Myoclonic spasms during treatment with high doses of intravenous morphine in renal failure." Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 37 (1993): 780-2
  43. Benthuysen JL, Stanley TH "Concerning the possible nature of reported fentanyl seizures." Anesthesiology 62 (1985): 205
View all 43 references
Moderate

Narcotic Analgesics (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Urinary Retention

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Urinary Retention

Narcotic (opioid) analgesic agents may inhibit the urinary voiding reflex and increase the tone of the vesical sphincter in the bladder. Acute urinary retention requiring catheterization may occur, particularly in patients with prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture and in elderly patients. These agents may also decrease urine production via direct effects on the kidney and central stimulation of the release of vasopressin. Therapy with opioids should be administered cautiously in patients with or predisposed to urinary retention and/or oliguria. The effects on smooth muscle tone appear to be the most pronounced with morphine.

References

  1. "Product Information. Talwin NX (pentazocine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  2. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  3. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  4. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  5. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  6. Petersen TK, Husted SE, Rybro L, et al "Urinary retention during I.M. and extradural morphine analgesia." Br J Anaesth 54 (1982): 1175-8
  7. "Product Information. Buprenex (buprenorphine)." Reckitt and Colman Pharmaceutical, Richmond, VA.
  8. "Product Information. Orlaam (levomethadyl acetate)" Roxanne Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  9. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  10. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  11. "Product Information. Fentanyl Oralet (fentanyl)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  12. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol nasal)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  13. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  14. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  15. "Product Information. Alfenta (alfentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  16. "Product Information. Dalgan (dezocine)." Astra USA, Westborough, MA.
  17. "Product Information. Sublimaze (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  18. "Product Information. Ultiva (remifentanil)." Mylan Institutional (formally Bioniche Pharma USA Inc), Canonsburg, PA.
  19. "Product Information. Roxanol (morphine)." Roxane Laboratories Inc, Columbus, OH.
  20. Kreek MJ, Hartman N "Chronic use of opioids and antipsychotic drugs: side effects, effects on endogenous opioids, and toxicity." Ann N Y Acad Sci 398 (1982): 151-72
  21. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  22. "Product Information. Nubain (nalbuphine)." Endo Laboratories, Texarkana, TX.
  23. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  24. Petros JG, Mallen JK, Howe K, Rimm EB, Robillard RJ "Patient-controlled analgesia and postoperative urinary retention after open appendectomy." Surg Gynecol Obstet 177 (1993): 172-5
  25. "Product Information. Stadol (butorphanol)." Allscrips Pharmaceutical Company, Vernon Hills, IL.
  26. "Product Information. Sufenta (sufentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  27. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  28. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  29. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
View all 29 references
Moderate

Opiate Agonists (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Arrhythmias

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Arrhythmias

Opiate agonists have cholinergic activity. Large doses and/or rapid intravenous administration may produce bradycardia and arrhythmia via stimulation of medullary vagal nuclei. Unlike other agents in the class, meperidine also has anticholinergic activity and may cause either bradycardia or tachycardia. Therapy with opiate agonists should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of arrhythmias. Clinical monitoring of cardiovascular status is recommended during therapy. Bradycardia and other cholinergic effects produced by these agents may be controlled with atropine.

References

  1. "Product Information. Opium Tincture (opium)" Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  2. "Product Information. Darvon (propoxyphene)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  3. "Product Information. Duragesic Transdermal System (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  4. Hilgenberg JC, Johantgen WC "Bradycardia after intravenous fentanyl during subarachnoid anesthesia." Anesth Analg 59 (1980): 162-3
  5. "Product Information. MS Contin (morphine)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  6. "Product Information. Alfenta (alfentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Ultiva (remifentanil)." Mylan Institutional (formally Bioniche Pharma USA Inc), Canonsburg, PA.
  8. Blair JR, Pruett JK, Crumrine RS, Balser JJ "Prolongation of QT interval in association with the administration of large doses of opiates." Anesthesiology 67 (1987): 442-3
  9. "Product Information. Sublimaze (fentanyl)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  10. "Product Information. Kadian (morphine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  11. "Product Information. Sufenta (sufentanil)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
  12. "Product Information. Levo-Dromoran (levorphanol)." Roche Laboratories, Nutley, NJ.
  13. "Product Information. Dilaudid (hydromorphone)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  14. "Product Information. Demerol (meperidine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  15. "Product Information. Vicoprofen (hydrocodone-ibuprofen)." Knoll Pharmaceutical Company, Whippany, NJ.
  16. Heaney RM "Left bundle branch block associated with propoxyphene hydrochloride poisoning." Ann Emerg Med 12 (1983): 780-2
  17. "Product Information. OxyContin (oxycodone)." Purdue Frederick Company, Norwalk, CT.
  18. "Product Information. Calcidrine (codeine)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  19. "Product Information. Numorphan (oxymorphone)" Endo Laboratories LLC, Chadds Ford, PA.
  20. "Product Information. Dolophine (methadone)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
  21. Sebel PS, Bovill JG, Boekhorst RA, Rog N "Cardiovascular effects of high-dose fentanyl anaesthesia." Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 26 (1982): 308-15
View all 21 references
Moderate

Salicylates (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Anemia

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Anemia

Occult, often asymptomatic GI blood loss occurs quite frequently with the use of normal dosages of aspirin and stems from the drug's local effect on the GI mucosa. During chronic therapy, this type of bleeding may occasionally produce iron deficiency anemia. Other salicylates reportedly cause little or no GI blood loss at usual dosages, but may do so at high dosages. Prolonged therapy with salicylates, particularly aspirin, should be administered cautiously in patients with or predisposed to anemia. Periodic monitoring of hematocrit is recommended. The same precautions should also be observed with the use of related agents such as salicylamide because of their structural and pharmacological similarities to salicylate.

References

  1. Naschitz JE, Yeshurun D, Odeh M, Bassan H, Rosner I, Stermer E, Levy N "Overt gastrointestinal bleeding in the course of chronic low-dose aspirin administration for secondary prevention of arterial occlusive disease." Am J Gastroenterol 85 (1990): 408-11
  2. Savon JJ, Allen ML, Dimarino AJ, Hermann GA, Krum RP "Gastrointestinal blood loss with low dose (325 mg) plain and enteric-coated aspirin administration." Am J Gastroenterol 90 (1995): 581-5
  3. "Product Information. Salflex (salsalate)." Carnrick Laboratories Inc, Cedar Knolls, NJ.
  4. Stalnikowiczdarvasi R "Gastrointestinal bleeding during low-dose aspirin administration for prevention of arterial occlusive events: a critical analysis." J Clin Gastroenterol 21 (1995): 13-6
  5. Marks RD "Aspirin use and fecal occult blood testing." Am J Med 100 (1996): 596-7
  6. "Product Information. Ecotrin (aspirin)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  7. Prichard PJ, Kitchingman GK, Walt RP, Daneshmend TK, Hawkey CJ "Human gastric mucosal bleeding induced by low dose aspirin, but not warfarin." BMJ 298 (1989): 493-6
  8. Greenberg PD, Cello JP, Rockey DC "Asymptomatic chronic gastrointestinal blood loss in patients taking aspirin or warfarin for cardiovascular disease." Am J Med 100 (1996): 598-604
View all 8 references
Moderate

Salicylates (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Dialysis

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: hemodialysis

Salicylate and its metabolites are readily removed by hemodialysis and, to a lesser extent, by peritoneal dialysis. Doses should either be scheduled for administration after dialysis or supplemental doses be given after dialysis.

References

  1. "Product Information. Salflex (salsalate)." Carnrick Laboratories Inc, Cedar Knolls, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Rexolate (sodium thiosalicylate)" Hyrex Pharmaceuticals, Memphis, TN.
  3. "Product Information. Ecotrin (aspirin)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
Moderate

Salicylates (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ G-6-Pd Deficiency

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: G-6-PD Deficiency

Salicylates, particularly aspirin, may cause or aggravate hemolysis in patients with pyruvate kinase or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency. However, this effect has not been clearly established. Until more data are available, therapy with salicylates should be administered cautiously in patients with G-6-PD deficiency. The same precaution should also be observed with the use of related agents such as salicylamide because of their structural and pharmacological similarities to salicylate.

References

  1. "Product Information. Ecotrin (aspirin)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  2. "Product Information. Rexolate (sodium thiosalicylate)" Hyrex Pharmaceuticals, Memphis, TN.
  3. "Product Information. Salflex (salsalate)." Carnrick Laboratories Inc, Cedar Knolls, NJ.
Moderate

Salicylates (Includes Soma Compound with Codeine) ↔ Hepatotoxicity

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

The use of salicylates has occasionally been associated with acute, reversible hepatotoxicity, primarily manifested as elevations of serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and/or, rarely, bilirubin. Hepatic injury consistent with chronic active hepatitis has also been reported in a few patients, which resulted rarely in encephalopathy or death. Salicylate-induced hepatotoxicity appears to be dependent on serum salicylate concentration (> 25 mg/dL) and has occurred most frequently in patients with juvenile arthritis, active systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatic fever, or preexisting hepatic impairment. Therapy with salicylates, particularly when given in high dosages, should be administered cautiously in these patients, and periodic monitoring of liver function is recommended. The same precautions should also be observed with the use of related agents such as salicylamide because of their structural and pharmacological similarities to salicylate. A dosage reduction may be necessary if liver function abnormalities develop and serum salicylate concentration exceeds 25 mg/dL, although serum transaminase elevations may sometimes be transient and return to pretreatment values despite continued therapy without dosage adjustment.

References

  1. Wolfe JD, Metzger AL, Goldstein RC "Aspirin hepatitis." Ann Intern Med 80 (1974): 74-6
  2. "Product Information. Rexolate (sodium thiosalicylate)" Hyrex Pharmaceuticals, Memphis, TN.
  3. "Product Information. Salflex (salsalate)." Carnrick Laboratories Inc, Cedar Knolls, NJ.
  4. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  5. Patel DK, Hesse A, Ogunbona A, Notarianni LJ, Bennett PN "Metabolism of aspirin after therapeutic and toxic doses." Hum Exp Toxicol 9 (1990): 131-6
  6. Jorup-Ronstrom C, Beermann B, Wahlin-Boll E, Melander A, Britton S "Reduction of paracetamol and aspirin metabolism during viral hepatitis." Clin Pharmacokinet 11 (1986): 250-6
  7. Seaman WE, Ishak KG, Plotz PH "Aspirin-induced hepatotoxicity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus." Ann Intern Med 80 (1974): 1-8
  8. Sbarbaro JA, Bennett RM "Aspirin hepatotoxicity and disseminated intravascular coagulation." Ann Intern Med 86 (1977): 183-5
View all 8 references

Soma Compound with Codeine (aspirin / carisoprodol / codeine) drug Interactions

There are 1238 drug interactions with Soma Compound with Codeine (aspirin / carisoprodol / codeine)

Soma Compound with Codeine (aspirin / carisoprodol / codeine) alcohol/food Interactions

There are 2 alcohol/food interactions with Soma Compound with Codeine (aspirin / carisoprodol / codeine)

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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