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Amlodipine / hydrochlorothiazide / olmesartan Disease Interactions

There are 22 disease interactions with amlodipine / hydrochlorothiazide / olmesartan:

Major

Ar Antagonists (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Hypotension

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Dehydration, hemodialysis, Hyponatremia

Angiotensin II receptor (AR) antagonists can cause symptomatic hypotension in patients with an activated renin-angiotensin system, such as volume- and/or sodium-depleted patients. Therapy with AR antagonists should be administered cautiously in such patients and in those predisposed to hypovolemic or hyponatremic states (e.g., patients on diuretic therapy, especially if high doses were used or if recently instituted; those on dietary salt restriction; renal dialysis patients). Volume and/or sodium depletion should be corrected prior to initiating therapy with AR antagonists, and the patient should be hemodynamically stable. Ideally, patients at risk for excessive hypotension should initiate AR antagonist therapy under close medical supervision, preferably with a lower dose, and followed closely for the first 2 weeks of treatment and whenever the dosage of AR antagonist or diuretic is increased.

References

  1. "Product Information. Cozaar (losartan)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  2. Goldberg AI, Dunlay MC, Sweet CS "Safety and tolerability of losartan potassium, and angiotensin II receptor antagonist, compared with hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, felodipine ER, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of systemic hypertension." Am J Cardiol 75 (1995): 793-5
  3. Tikkanen I, Omvik P, Jensen HA "Comparison of the angiotensin II antagonist losartan with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril in patients with essential hypertension." J Hypertens 13 (1995): 1343-51
  4. Weir MR, Elkins M, Liss C, Vrecenak AJ, Barr E, Edelman JM "Efficacy, tolerability, and quality of life of losartan, alone or with hydrochlorothiazide, versus nifedipine GITS in patients with essential hypertension." Clin Ther 18 (1996): 411-28
  5. van den Meiracker AH, Admiraal PJ, Janssen JA, Kroodsma JM, de Ronde WA, Boomsma F, Sissmann J, Blankestijn PJ, Mulder PG, Man In 't Veld AJ "Hemodynamic and biochemical effects of the AT1 receptor antagonist irbesartan in hypertension." Hypertension 25 (1995): 22-9
  6. Gibbs CR, Ferner RE, Beevers DG "Angiotensin receptor antagonists - a new class of antihypertensive drug." J Clin Pharm Ther 21 (1996): 127-30
  7. Goldberg MR, Bradstreet TE, McWilliams EJ, Tanaka WK, Lipert S, Bjornsson TD, Waldman SA, Osborne B, Pivadori L, Lewis G, et al "Biochemical effects of losartan, a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist, on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in hypertensive patients." Hypertension 25 (1995): 37-46
  8. Ellis ML, Patterson H "A new class of antihypertensive therapy: angiotensin II receptor antagonists." Pharmacotherapy 16 (1996): 849-60
  9. Weber MA, Bryyny RL, Pratt JH, et al. "Blood pressure effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker, losartan." Arch Intern Med 155 (1995): 405-11
  10. Waeber B, Brunner HR "Angiotensin II antagonists: a new class of antihypertensive agent." Br J Clin Pract 50 (1996): 265-8
  11. "Product Information. Diovan (valsartan)." Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.
  12. Oparil S, Barr E, Elkins M, Liss C, Vrecenak A, Edelman J "Efficacy, tolerability, and effects on quality of life of losartan, alone or with hydrochlorothiazide, versus amlodipine, alone or with hydrochlorothiazide, in patients with essential hypertension." Clin Ther 18 (1996): 608-25
  13. Goldberg AI, Dunlay MC, Sweet CS "Safety and tolerability of losartan compared with atenolol, felodipine and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors." J Hypertens 13 Suppl (1995): s77-80
  14. McClellan KJ, Markham A "Telmisartan." Drugs 56 (1998): 1039-44
  15. Mcintyre M, Macfadyen RJ, Meredith PA, Menard J, Brunner HR, Insuasty J, Reid JL "Comparison of the oral angiotensin II receptor antagonist UP 269-6 or enalapril 20 mg on blood pressure and neurohormonal effects in salt-deplete man." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 25 (1995): 994-1000
  16. "Product Information. Benicar (olmesartan)." Sankyo Parke Davis, Parsippany, NJ.
  17. Waeber B, Burnier M, Nussberger J, Brunner HR "Experience with angiotensin II antagonists in hypertensive patients." Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 23 ( Suppl (1996): s142-6
  18. Holwerda NJ, Fogari R, Angeli P, et al. "Valsartan, a new angiotensin II antagonist for the treatment of essential hypertension: efficacy and safety compared with placebo and enalapril." J Hypertens 14 (1996): 1147-115
  19. Schaefer KL, Porter JA "Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: the prototype losartan." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 625-36
  20. Doig JK, MacFadyen RJ, Sweet CS, Lees KR, Reid JL "Dose-ranging study of the angiotensin type I receptor antagonist losartan (DuP753/MK954), in salt-deplete normal man." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 21 (1993): 732-8
  21. Karlberg BE, Lins LE, Hermansson K "Efficacy and safety of telmisartan, a selective AT(1) receptor antagonist, compared with enalapril in elderly patients with primary hypertension." J Hypertens 17 (1999): 293-302
  22. McIntyre M, MacFadyen RJ, Meredith PA, Brouard R, Reid JL "Dose-ranging study of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist irbesartan (SR 47436/BMS-186295) on blood pressure and neurohormona effects in salt-deplete men." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 28 (1996): 101-6
View all 22 references
Major

Ccbs (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Cardiogenic Shock/Hypotension

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Cardiogenic Shock, Hypotension

In general, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) should not be used in patients with hypotension (systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg) or cardiogenic shock. Due to potential negative inotropic and peripheral vasodilating effects, the use of CCBs may further depress cardiac output and blood pressure, which can be detrimental in these patients. The use of verapamil and diltiazem is specifically contraindicated under these circumstances.

References

  1. "Product Information. Calan (verapamil)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  2. Stehle G, Buss J, Eibach J, et al "Cardiogenic shock associated with verapamil in a patient with liver cirrhosis." Lancet 336 (1990): 1079
  3. "Product Information. Cardizem (diltiazem)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  4. "Product Information. Vascor (bepridil)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  5. Kubota K, Pearce GL, Inman WHW "Vasodilation-related adverse events in diltiazem and dihydropyridine calcium antagonists studied by prescription-event monitoring." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 48 (1995): 1-7
  6. Pahor M, Manto A, Pedone C, Carosella L, Guralnik JM, Carbonin P "Age and severe adverse drug reactions caused by nifedipine and verapamil." J Clin Epidemiol 49 (1996): 921-8
View all 6 references
Major

Ccbs (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Coronary Artery Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Ischemic Heart Disease

Increased frequency, duration, and/or severity of angina, as well as acute myocardial infarction, have rarely developed during initiation or dosage increase of calcium channel blockers (CCBs), particularly in patients with severe obstructive coronary artery disease and those treated with immediate-release formulations. The mechanism of this effect is not established. Therapy with CCBs should be administered cautiously in patients with significant coronary artery disease.

References

  1. Thomassen AR, Bagger JP, Nielsen TT "Hemodynamic and cardiac metabolic changes during nicardipine-induced myocardial ischemia." Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 14 (1988): 41-3
  2. Kloner RA "Nifedipine in ischemic heart disease." Circulation 92 (1995): 1074-8
  3. Manga P, Vythilingum "Unstable angina precipitated by nifedipine." S Afr Med J 66 (1984): 144
  4. Myrhed M, Wiholm B-E "Nifedipine: a survey of adverse effects." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 58 (1986): 133-6
  5. Lambert CR, Hill JA, Feldman RL, Pepine CJ "Myocardial ischemia during intravenous nicardipine administration." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): 844-5
  6. Abernathy DR, Schwrtz JB "Calcium-antagonist drugs." N Engl J Med 341 (1999): 1447-57
  7. Oei SG, Oei SK, Brolmann HAM "Myocardial infarction during nifedipine therapy for preterm labor." N Engl J Med 340 (1999): 154
  8. "Product Information. Cardene (nicardipine)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  9. Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Meyer JV "Nifedipine: dose-related increase in mortality in patients with coronary heart disease." Circulation 92 (1995): 1326-31
  10. Schanzenbacher P, Deeg P, Liebau G, Kochsiek K "Paradoxical angina after nifedipine: angiographic documentation." Am J Cardiol 53 (1984): 345-6
  11. "Product Information. Norvasc (amlodipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  12. Sia STB, MacDonald PS, Triester B, et al "Aggravation of myocardial ischaemia by nifedipine." Med J Aust 142 (1985): 48-50
  13. "Product Information. Procardia (nifedipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  14. "Product Information. Sular (nisoldipine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  15. Yusuf S "Calcium antagonists in coronary artery disease and hypertension: time for reevaluation?" Circulation 92 (1995): 1079-82
View all 15 references
Major

Ccbs (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are extensively metabolized by the liver. The half-lives of CCBs may be prolonged substantially in patients with severe hepatic impairment, with the potential for significant drug accumulation. In addition, the use of some CCBs has been associated with elevations in serum transaminases, both with and without concomitant elevations in alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. While these effects may be transient and reversible, several patients have developed cholestasis or hepatocellular injury that was proven by rechallenge. Therapy with CCBs should be administered cautiously and often at reduced dosages in patients with significantly impaired hepatic function. Periodic monitoring of liver function and for excessive pharmacologic effects (e.g., abnormal prolongation of PR interval) is advised, and the dosage adjusted if necessary.

References

  1. "Product Information. Calan (verapamil)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  2. "Product Information. Procardia (nifedipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  3. Regardh CG, Edgar B, Olsson R, Kendall M, Collste P, Shansky C "Pharmacokinetics of felodipine in patients with liver disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 36 (1989): 473-9
  4. Stern EH, Pitchon R, King BD, Wiener I "Possible hepatitis from verapamil." N Engl J Med 306 (1982): 612-3
  5. Elliott HL, Meredith PA "The clinical consequences of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of amlodipine." Postgrad Med J 67 (1991): s20-3
  6. Cotting J, Reichen J, Kutz K, Laplanche R, Nuesch E "Pharmacokinetics of isradipine in patients with chronic liver disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 38 (1990): 599-603
  7. "Product Information. Plendil (felodipine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  8. Graham D, Dow R, Hall D, Alexander O, Mroszczak E, Freedman A "The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of nicardipine hydrochloride in man." Br J Clin Pharmacol 20 (1985): s23-8
  9. Scherling D, Karl W, Ahr G, Ahr HJ, Wehinger E "Pharmacokinetics of nisoldipine. III. Biotransformation of nisoldipine in rat, dog, monkey, and man." Arzneimittelforschung 38 (1988): 1105-10
  10. Giacomini KM, Massoud N, Wong FM, Giacomini JC "Decreased binding of verapamil to plasma proteins in patients with liver disease." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 6 (1984): 924-8
  11. Babany G, Uzzan F, Larrey D, et al "Alcoholic-like liver lesions induced by nifedipine." J Hepatol 9 (1989): 252-5
  12. "Product Information. DynaCirc (isradipine)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  13. Ramsch KD, Graefe KH, Scherling D, et al "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of calcium-blocking agents nifedipine, nitrendipine, and nimodipine." Am J Nephrol 6 (1986): 73-80
  14. Dunselman PH, Edgar B "Felodipine clinical pharmacokinetics." Clin Pharmacokinet 21 (1991): 418-30
  15. Rush WR, Alexander O, Hall DJ, Cairncross L, Dow RJ, Graham DJ "The metabolism of nicardipine hydrochloride in healthy male volunteers." Xenobiotica 16 (1986): 341-9
  16. Kurosawa S, Kurosawa N, Owada E, et al "Pharmacokinetics of diltiazem in patients with liver cirrhosis." Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 10 (1990): 311-8
  17. Stopher DA, Beresford AP, Macrae PV, Humphrey MJ "The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of amlodipine in humans and animals." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 12 (1988): s55-9
  18. Brodsky SJ, Cutler SS, Weiner DA, Klein MD "Hepatotoxicity due to treatment with verapamil." Ann Intern Med 94 (1981): 490-1
  19. McAllister RG Jr, Hamann SR, Blouin RA "Pharmacokinetics of calcium-entry blockers." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): b30-40
  20. Woodcock BG, Rietbrock N "Verapamil bioavailability and dosage in liver disease." Br J Clin Pharmacol 13 (1982): 240-1
  21. "Product Information. Cardizem (diltiazem)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  22. Kumar KL, Colley CA "Verapamil-induced hepatotoxicity." West J Med 160 (1994): 485-6
  23. Benet LZ "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of bepridil." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): c8-13
  24. Toner M, White A, Moriarty J, Clancy L "Allergic urticarial eruption, leukocytosis and abnormal liver function tests following nifedipine administration." Chest 93 (1988): 1320-1
  25. Traverse JH, Swenson LJ, Mcbride JW "Acute hepatic injury after treatment with diltiazem." Am Heart J 127 (1994): 1636-9
  26. Guarascio P, D'Amato C, Sette P, et al "Liver damage from verapamil." Br Med J 288 (1984): 362-3
  27. Kleinbloesem CH, van Harten J, Wilson JP, et al "Nifedipine: kinetics and hemodynamic effects in patients with liver cirrhosis after intravenous and oral administration." Clin Pharmacol Ther 40 (1986): 21-8
  28. Raemsch KD, Sommer J "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of nifedipine." Hypertension 5 (1983): 18-24
  29. Kates RE "Calcium antagonists: pharmacokinetic properties." Drugs 25 (1983): 113-24
  30. Shallcross H, Padley SP, Glynn MJ, Gibbs DD "Fatal renal and hepatic toxicity after treatment with diltiazem." Br Med J 295 (1987): 1256-7
  31. "Product Information. Norvasc (amlodipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  32. Gengo FM, Fagan SC, Krol G, Bernhard H "Nimodipine disposition and haemodynamic effects in patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls." Br J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1987): 47-53
  33. Razak TA, McNeil JJ, Sewell RB, Drummer OH, Smallwood RA, Conway EL, Louis WJ "The effect of hepatic cirrhosis on the pharmacokinetics and blood pressure response to nicardipine." Clin Pharmacol Ther 47 (1990): 463-9
  34. "Product Information. Sular (nisoldipine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  35. Meredith P, Elliott H "Clinical pharmacokinetics of amlodipine." Clin Pharmacokinet 22 (1992): 22-31
  36. Stehle G, Buss J, Eibach J, et al "Cardiogenic shock associated with verapamil in a patient with liver cirrhosis." Lancet 336 (1990): 1079
  37. Colombo G, Zucchella G, Planca E, Grieco A "Intravenous diltiazem in the treatment of unstable angina: a study of efficacy and tolerance." Clin Ther 9 (1987): 536-47
  38. "Product Information. Cardene (nicardipine)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  39. Hare DL, Horowitz JD "Verapamil hepatotoxicity: a hypersensitivity reaction." Am Heart J 111 (1986): 610-11
  40. Challenor VF, Waller DG, Renwick AG, et al "The trans-hepatic extraction of nifedipine." Br J Clin Pharmacol 24 (1987): 473-7
  41. Finucci GF, Padrini R, Piovan D, et al "Verapamil pharmacokinetics and liver function in patients with cirrhosis." Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 8 (1988): 123-6
  42. Abernathy DR, Schwrtz JB "Calcium-antagonist drugs." N Engl J Med 341 (1999): 1447-57
  43. "Product Information. Nimotop (nimodipine)." Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  44. Somogyi A, Albrecht M, Kliems G, et al "Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and ECG response of verapamil in patients with liver cirrhosis." Br J Clin Pharmacol 12 (1981): 51-60
  45. Saracheck NS, London RL, Matulewicz TJ, et al "Diltiazem and granulomatous hepatitis." Gastroenterology 88 (1985): 1260-2
  46. Dow RJ, Graham DJM "A reveiw of the human metabolism and pharmacokinetics of nicardipine hydrochloride." Br J Clin Pharmacol 22 (1986): s195-202
  47. Woodcock BG, Rietbrock I, Vohringer HF, Rietbrock N "Verapamil disposition in liver disease and intensive-care patients: kinetics, clearance, and apparent blood flow relationships." Clin Pharmacol Ther 29 (1981): 27-34
  48. Johnson KE, Balderston SM, Pieper JA, Mann DE, Reiter MJ "Electrophysiologic effects of verapamil metabolites in the isolated heart." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 17 (1991): 830-7
  49. Echizen H, Eichelbaum M "Clinical pharmacokinetics of verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem." Clin Pharmacokinet 11 (1986): 425-49
  50. "Product Information. Vascor (bepridil)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  51. Abramson M, Littlejohn GO "Hepatic reactions to nifedipine." Med J Aust 142 (1985): 47-8
  52. Toft E, Vyberg M, Therkelsen K "Diltiazem-induced granulomatous hepatitis." Histopathology 18 (1991): 474-5
  53. Tse FL, Jaffe JM "Pharmacokinetics of PN 200-110 (isradipine), a new calcium antagonist, after oral administration in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 32 (1987): 361-5
View all 53 references
Major

Thiazides (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Anuria

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Anuria

The use of thiazide diuretics is contraindicated in patients with anuria.

References

  1. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  2. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  3. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  4. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  5. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  6. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  7. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  9. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
View all 9 references
Major

Thiazides (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Electrolyte Losses

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Hypokalemia, Diarrhea, Electrolyte Abnormalities, Hyperaldosteronism, Hyponatremia, Magnesium Imbalance, Malnourished, Vomiting, Ventricular Arrhythmia, Dehydration

The use of thiazide diuretics is commonly associated with loss of electrolytes, most significantly potassium but also sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and magnesium. The loss of other electrolytes such as phosphate, bromide and iodide is usually slight. Potassium and magnesium depletion may lead to cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Other electrolyte-related complications include metabolic alkalosis and hyponatremia, which are rarely life-threatening. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with or predisposed to fluid and electrolyte depletion, including patients with primary or secondary aldosteronism (may have low potassium levels); those with severe or prolonged diarrhea or vomiting; and those with poor nutritional status. Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities should be corrected prior to initiating therapy, and blood pressure as well as serum electrolyte concentrations monitored periodically and maintained at normal ranges during therapy. Patients should be advised to immediately report signs and symptoms of fluid or electrolyte imbalance, including dry mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, arrhythmia, or gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting. Digitalized patients and patients with a history of ventricular arrhythmias should be monitored carefully, since development of hypokalemia may be particularly dangerous in these patients. The risk of hypokalemia may be minimized by slow diuresis, a lower thiazide dosage, potassium supplementation, or combined use with a potassium-sparing diuretic.

References

  1. Bain PG, Egner W, Walker PR "Thiazide-induced dilutional hyponatraemia masquerading as subarachnoid haemorrhage ." Lancet 2 (1986): 634
  2. Hollifield JW, Slaton PE "Thiazide diuretics, hypokalemia and cardiac arrhythmias." Acta Med Scand Suppl 647 (1981): 67-73
  3. Medical Research Council Working Party on Mild to Moderate Hypertension. "Ventricular extrasystoles during thiazide treatment: substudy of MRC mild hypertension trial." Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 287 (1983): 1249-53
  4. Peters RW, Hamilton J, Hamilton BP "Incidence of cardiac arrhythmias associated with mild hypokalemia induced by low-dose diuretic therapy for hypertension." South Med J 82 (1989): 966-9,
  5. Brors O, Jacobsen S, Foss OP, Aakvaag A "Effect of repeated doses of hydroflumethiazide on renal excretion of electrolytes and uric acid in healthy subjects." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 48 (1981): 145-50
  6. Jorgensen FS, Brunner S "The long-term effect of bendroflumethiazide on renal calcium and magnesium excretion and stone formation in patients with recurring renal stones." Scand J Urol Nephrol 8 (1974): 128-31
  7. Mroczek WJ "Indapamide: clinical pharmacology, therapeutic efficacy in hypertension, and adverse effects." Pharmacotherapy 3 (1983): 61-7
  8. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  9. Starr JM, Whalley LJ "Hypertensive Old People in Edinburgh (HOPE) Study: electrocardiographic changes after captopril or bendrofluazide treatment." Age Ageing 22 (1993): 343-8
  10. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  11. Pinnock CA "Hyponatraemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide treatment ." Br Med J 1 (1978): 48
  12. Landmann-Suter R, Struyvenberg A "Initial potassium loss and hypokalaemia during chlorthalidone administration in patients with essential hypertension: the influence of dietary sodium restriction." Eur J Clin Invest 8 (1978): 155-64
  13. Ljunghall S, Backman U, Danielson BG, Fellstrom B, Johansson G, Wikstrom B "Calcium and magnesium metabolism during long-term treatment with thiazides." Scand J Urol Nephrol 15 (1981): 257-62
  14. Oh SJ, Douglas JE, Brown RA "Hypokalemic vacuolar myopathy associated with chlorthalidone treatment." JAMA 216 (1971): 1858-9
  15. Husby S, Marthedal NJ "Hyponatraemia due to a thiazide diuretic. A case report." Acta Med Scand 210 (1981): 523-4
  16. Fichman MP, Vorherr H, Kleeman CR, Telfer N "Diuretic-induced hyponatremia." Ann Intern Med 75 (1971): 853-63
  17. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  18. Gudbrandsson T, Hansson L "Combination therapy with saluretics and atenolol in essential hypertension. Effects on blood pressure, electrolytes and uric acid." Acta Med Scand Suppl 625 (1979): 86-91
  19. Kuller LH, Hulley SB, Cohen JD, Neaton J "Unexpected effects of treating hypertension in men with electrocardiographic abnormalities: a critical analysis." Circulation 73 (1986): 114-23
  20. Lee MR, Morgan DB "Familial hyperkalaemia responsive to benzothiadiazine diuretic." Lancet 1 (1980): 879
  21. Gould L, Reddy CV, Zen B, Singh BK "Life-threatening reaction to thiazides." N Y State J Med 80 (1980): 1975-6
  22. Chan TY "Indapamide-induced severe hyponatremia and hypokalemia." Ann Pharmacother 29 (1995): 1124-8
  23. el-Meheiry MM, Nabih AE, Soliman MD "A clinical study of a new diuretic, Trichlormethiazide." J Trop Med Hyg 69 (1966): 209-14
  24. Brater DC "Drug therapy: Diuretic therapy." N Engl J Med 339 (1998): 387-95
  25. Seelig CB "Magnesium deficiency in two hypertensive patient groups." South Med J 83 (1990): 739-42
  26. Struthers AD, Whitesmith R, Reid JL "Prior thiazide diuretic treatment increases adrenaline-induced hypokalaemia." Lancet 1 (1983): 1358-61
  27. Itescu S, Haskell LP, Tannenberg AM "Thiazide-induced clinically significant hypophosphatemia ." Clin Nephrol 27 (1987): 161-2
  28. Black W, Shiner P, Roman J "Severe electrolyte disturbances associated with metolazone and furosemide." South Med J 71 (1978): 381
  29. Winchester JF, Kellett RJ, Boddy K, Boyle P, Dargie HJ, Mahaffey ME, Ward DM, Kennedy AC "Metolazone and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension: physiologic and metabolic observations." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 611-8
  30. Sumiye L, Vivian AS, Frisof KB, Podany EC "Potassium loss associated with hydrochlorothiazide versus chlorthalidone." Clin Ther 4 (1981): 308-20
  31. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  32. Navarro RP, O'Brien DK, Nuffort P, Spencer DL "Diuretic induced hypokalemia in the elderly." J Fam Pract 14 (1982): 685-9
  33. Kuller L, Farrier N, Caggiula A, Borhani N, Dunkle S "Relationship of diuretic therapy and serum magnesium levels among participants in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial." Am J Epidemiol 122 (1985): 1045-59
  34. Lindy S, Tarssanen L "Serum calcium and phosphorus in patients treated with thiazides and furosemide." Acta Med Scand 194 (1973): 319-22
  35. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  36. Chowdhury FR, Bleicher SJ "Chlorthalidone--induced hypokalemia and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism." Horm Metab Res 2 (1970): 13-6
  37. Holland OB, Kuhnert L, Pollard J, Padia M, Anderson RJ, Blomqvist G "Ventricular ectopic activity with diuretic therapy." Am J Hypertens 1 (1988): 380-5
  38. Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics in treating hypertension." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 223-6
  39. Polanska AI, Baron DN "Hyponatraemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide treatment ." Br Med J 1 (1978): 175-6
  40. Cembrowski GS, Huntington RW, 3d "Probable fatal cardiac dysrhythmia secondary to diuretic-induced hypokalemia." Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2 (1981): 243-8
  41. Condon JR, Nassim R "Hypophosphataemia and hypokalaemia." Br Med J 1 (1970): 110
  42. Byatt CM, Millard PH, Levin GE "Diuretics and electrolyte disturbances in 1000 consecutive geriatric admissions." J R Soc Med 83 (1990): 704-8
  43. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  44. Hesp R, Wilkinson PR "Potassium supplementation of thiazide therapy." Lancet 2 (1976): 1144
  45. Berglund G, Andersson O, Larsson O, Wilhelmsen L "Antihypertensive effect and side-effects of bendroflumethiazide and propranolol." Acta Med Scand 199 (1976): 499-506
  46. Ragnarsson J, Hardarson T, Snorrason SP "Ventricular dysrhythmias in middle-aged hypertensive men treated either with a diuretic agent or a beta-blocker." Acta Med Scand 221 (1987): 143-8
  47. Mozes B, Pines A, Werner D, Olchovsky D, Lieberman P, Frankl O "Thiazide-induced hyponatremia: an unusual neurologic course." South Med J 79 (1986): 629-31
  48. Elmfeldt D, Berglund G, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L "Incidence and importance of metabolic side-effects during antihypertensive therapy." Acta Med Scand Suppl 672 (1983): 79-83
  49. Berg KJ, Gisholt K, Wideroe TE "Potassium deficiency in hypertensives treated with diuretics. Analysis of three alternative treatments by an oral test for potassium deficiency." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 7 (1974): 401-5
  50. Mouallem M, Friedman E, Shemesh Y, Mayan H, Pauzner R, Farfel Z "Cardiac conduction defects associated with hyponatremia." Clin Cardiol 14 (1991): 165-8
  51. Benfield GF, Haffner C, Harris P, Stableforth DE "Dilutional hyponatraemia masquerading as subarachnoid haemorrhage in patient on hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride/timolol combined drug ." Lancet 2 (1986): 341
  52. Moore TD, Bechtel TP "Hyponatremia secondary to tolbutamide and chlorothiazide." Am J Hosp Pharm 36 (1979): 1107-10
  53. Read SJ, Trenerry HM, Whiting GF "Hyponatraemia and raised creatine kinase level associated with indapamide." Med J Aust 161 (1994): 607-8
  54. Kone B, Gimenez L, Watson AJ "Thiazide-induced hyponatremia." South Med J 79 (1986): 1456-7
  55. Stern A "Metolazone, a diuretic agent." Am Heart J 91 (1976): 262-3
  56. Jensen OB, Mosdal C, Reske-Nielsen E "Hypokalemic myopathy during treatment with diuretics." Acta Neurol Scand 55 (1977): 465-82
  57. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  58. Petri M, Cumber P, Grimes L, Treby D, Bryant R, Rawlins D, Ising H "The metabolic effects of thiazide therapy in the elderly: a population study." Age Ageing 15 (1986): 151-5
  59. Kaur J, Wahi PL "Polythiazide as a diuretic. A clinical trial." J Indian Med Assoc 48 (1967): 13-7
  60. Beling S, Vukovich RA, Neiss ES, Zisblatt M, Webb E, Losi M "Long-term experience with indapamide." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 258-62
  61. Slotkoff L "Clinical efficacy and safety of indapamide in the treatment of edema." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 233-7
  62. Papademetriou V, Fletcher R, Khatri IM, Freis ED "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia in uncomplicated systemic hypertension: effect of plasma potassium correction on cardiac arrhythmias." Am J Cardiol 52 (1983): 1017-22
  63. Krishna GG, Narins RG "Hemodynamic consequences of diuretic-induced hypokalemia." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 329-31
  64. Stewart DE, Ikram H, Espiner EA, Nicholls MG "Arrhythmogenic potential of diuretic induced hypokalaemia in patients with mild hypertension and ischaemic heart disease." Br Heart J 54 (1985): 290-7
  65. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  66. Papademetriou V, Fletcher R, Khatri IM, Freis ED "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia in uncomplicated systemic hypertension: effect of plasma potassium correction on cardiac arrhythmias." Am J Cardiol 52 (1983): 1017-22
  67. Carney SL, Morgan TO "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia and altered renal function." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 24 (1986): 665-7
  68. Brors O, Enger E, Jacobsen S, Aakvaag A, Foss OP "Effects of hydroflumethiazide in congestive heart failure: renal electrolyte excretion related to urinary thiazide excretion and aldosterone." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 49 (1981): 399-406
  69. Ghose RR "Letter: Hyponatraemia and diuretics." Lancet 1 (1975): 578-9
  70. Simunic M, Rumboldt Z, Ljutic D, Sardelic S "Ramipril decreases chlorthalidone-induced loss of magnesium and potassium in hypertensive patients." J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1995): 1150-5
  71. Katz FH, Eckert RC, Gebott MD "Hypokalemia caused by surreptitious self-administration of diuretics." Ann Intern Med 76 (1972): 85-90
  72. Papademetriou V, Price M, Notargiacomo A, Gottdiener J, Fletcher RD, Freis ED "Effect of diuretic therapy on ventricular arrhythmias in hypertensive patients with or without left ventricular hypertrophy." Am Heart J 110 (1985): 595-9
  73. Falch DK, Schreiner AM "Changes in urinary electrolytes versus serum electrolytes during treatment of primary hypertension with chlorthalidone alone and in combination with spironolactone." Acta Med Scand 209 (1981): 111-4
  74. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  75. Toner JM, Ramsay LE "Thiazide-induced hypokalaemia; prevalence higher in women." Br J Clin Pharmacol 18 (1984): 449-52
  76. Remenchik AP, Johnston LC "Potassium depletion produced by administration of chlorthalidone to nonedematous patients with arterial hypertensin." Am J Med Sci 252 (1966): 171-6
  77. Leigh H "Letter: Factitious hypokalemia." Ann Intern Med 80 (1974): 111-2
View all 77 references
Major

Thiazides (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Patients with severe liver disease or cirrhosis are very susceptible to thiazide-induced hypokalemic hypochloremic alkalosis. Blood ammonia concentrations may be further increased in patients with previously elevated concentrations. Hepatic encephalopathy and death have occurred secondary to the electrolyte alterations accompanying diuretic use. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, and discontinued promptly if signs of impending hepatic coma appear (e.g., tremors, confusion, and increased jaundice).

References

  1. Sherlock S, Senewiratne B, Scott A, Walker JG "Complications of diuretic therapy in hepatic cirrhosis." Lancet 1 (1966): 1049-52
  2. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  3. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  4. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  5. Sherlock S, Walker JG, Senewiratne B, Scott A "The complications of diuretic therapy in patients with cirrhosis." Ann N Y Acad Sci 139 (1966): 497-505
  6. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  7. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  8. Aneckstein AG, Weingold AB "Chlorothiazide-induced hepatic coma in pregnancy." Am J Obstet Gynecol 95 (1966): 136-7
  9. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  10. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  11. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  12. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
View all 12 references
Major

Thiazides (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Lupus Erythematosus

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Lupus Erythematosus

The use of thiazide diuretics has been reported to possibly exacerbate or activate systemic lupus erythematosus. Reported cases have generally been associated with chlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with a history or risk of SLE.

References

  1. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  2. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  3. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  4. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  5. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  6. Rich MW, Eckman JM "Can hydrochlorothiazide cause lupus?" J Rheumatol 22 (1995): 1001
  7. Parodi A, Romagnoli M, Rebora A "Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus-like eruption caused by hydrochlorothiazide." Photodermatol 6 (1989): 100-2
  8. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  9. Reed BR, Huff JC, Jones SK, Orton PW, Lee LA, Norris DA "Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus associated with hydrochlorothiazide therapy." Ann Intern Med 103 (1985): 49-51
  10. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  11. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  12. Goodrich AL, Kohn SR "Hydrochlorothiazide-induced lupus erythematosus: a new variant?" J Am Acad Dermatol 28 (1993): 1001-2
  13. Brown CW, Deng JS "Thiazide diuretics induce cutaneous lupus-like adverse reaction." J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 33 (1995): 729-33
  14. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
View all 14 references
Major

Thiazides (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Renal Function Disorders

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

Thiazide diuretics may be ineffective when the glomerular filtration rate is low (GFR < 25 mL/min) because they are not expected to be filtered into the renal tubule, their site of action. In addition, thiazide diuretics decrease the GFR and may precipitate azotemia in renal disease. Cumulative effects may also develop because most of these drugs are excreted unchanged in the urine by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously at reduced dosages in patients with renal impairment. If renal function becomes progressively worse, as indicated by rising BUN or serum creatinine levels, an interruption or discontinuation of thiazide therapy should be considered.

References

  1. Riess W, Dubach UC, Burckhardt D, Theobald W, Vuillard P, Zimmerli M "Pharmacokinetic studies with chlorthalidone (Hygroton) in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 12 (1977): 375-82
  2. Klunk LJ, Ringel S, Neiss ES "The disposition of 14C-indapamide in man." J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1983): 377-84
  3. el-Meheiry MM, Nabih AE, Soliman MD "A clinical study of a new diuretic, Trichlormethiazide." J Trop Med Hyg 69 (1966): 209-14
  4. Craswell PW, Ezzat E, Kopstein J, Varghese Z, Moorhead JF "Use of metolazone, a new diuretic, in patients with renal disease." Nephron 12 (1974): 63-73
  5. Brennan L, Wu MJ, Laquer UJ "A multicenter study of indapamide in hypertensive patients with impaired renal function." Clin Ther 5 (1982): 121-8
  6. Sketris IS, Skoutakis VA, Acchiardo SR, Meyer MC "The pharmacokinetics of trichlormethiazide in hypertensive patients with normal and compromised renal function." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 20 (1981): 453-7
  7. Magil AB "Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas." Hum Pathol 14 (1983): 36-41
  8. Gehr TW, Sica DA, Brater DC, et al "Metolazone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in renal transplantation." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 29 (1991): 116-23
  9. Fleuren HLJ, Verwey-van Wissen C, van Rossum JM "Dose-dependent urinary excretion of chlorthalidone." Clin Pharmacol Ther 25 (1979): 806-12
  10. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  11. Magil AB, Ballon HS, Cameron EC, Rae A "Acute interstitial nephritis associated with thiazide diuretics. Clinical and pathologic observations in three cases." Am J Med 69 (1980): 939-43
  12. Beermann B, Groschinsky-Grind M, Lindstrom B, Wikland B "Pharmacokinetics of bendroflumenthiazide in hypertensive patients." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 13 (1978): 119-24
  13. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  14. Larsson GB, Langer L, Nassberger L "Thiazide-induced kidney damage with circulating antibodies against myeloperoxidase and cardiolipin." J Intern Med 233 (1993): 493-4
  15. Hobbs DC, Twomey TM "Kinetics of polythiazide." Clin Pharmacol Ther 23 (1978): 241-6
  16. Lant AF, Baba WI, Wilson GM "Localization of the site of action of oral diuretics in the human kidney." Clin Sci 33 (1967): 11-27
  17. Madkour H, Gadallah M, Plante GE, Massry SG "Comparison between the effects of indapamide and hydrochlorothiazide on creatinine clearance in patients with impaired renal function and hypertension." Am J Nephrol 15 (1995): 251-5
  18. Read SJ, Trenerry HM, Whiting GF "Hyponatraemia and raised creatine kinase level associated with indapamide." Med J Aust 161 (1994): 607-8
  19. Delevett AF, Recalde M "Diuretic-induced renal colic." JAMA 225 (1973): 992
  20. Beermann B, Groschinsky-Grind M, Rosen A "Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of hydrochlorothiazide." Clin Pharmacol Ther 19 (1975): 531-7
  21. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  22. Niemeyer C, Hasenfub G, Wais U, et al "Pharmacokinetics of hydrochlorothiazide in relation to renal function." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 24 (1983): 661-5
  23. Beermann B, Groschinsky-Grind M, Lindstrom B "Pharmacokinetics of bendroflumethiazide." Clin Pharmacol Ther 22 (1977): 385-8
  24. Carney SL, Morgan TO "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia and altered renal function." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 24 (1986): 665-7
  25. Brors O, Jacobsen S "Distribution of elimination of hydroflumethiazide in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 16 (1979): 125-31
  26. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  27. Acchiardo SR, Skoutakis VA "Clinical efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of indapamide in renal impairment." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 237-44
  28. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  29. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  30. Jones B, Nanra RS "Double-blind trial of antihypertensive effect of chlorothiazide in severe renal failure." Lancet 2 (1979): 1258-60
  31. Brors O, Haffner JF, Jacobsen S "Excretion of hydroflumethiazide in bile and urine of man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 15 (1979): 287-9
  32. Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, eds. "Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed." New York, NY: Pergamon Press Inc. (1990):
  33. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  34. Yakatan GJ, Smith RB, Frome EL, Doluisio JT "Pharmacokinetics of orally administered hydroflumethiazide in man." J Clin Pharmacol 17 (1977): 37-47
  35. Brater DC "Drug therapy: Diuretic therapy." N Engl J Med 339 (1998): 387-95
  36. Tilstone WJ, Dargie H, Dargie EN, Morgan HG, Kennedy AC "Pharmacokinetics of metolazone in normal subjects and in patients with cardiac or renal failure." Clin Pharmacol Ther 16 (1974): 322-9
  37. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  38. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  39. Seyffart, G "Drug Dosage in Renal Insufficiency." Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers 1 (1991): 227-8
  40. Newstead CG, Moore RH, Barnes AJ "Interstitial nephritis associated with indapamide." BMJ 300 (1990): 1344
  41. Bennett WM, Porter GA "Efficacy and safety of metolazone in renal failure and the nephrotic syndrome." J Clin Pharmacol 13 (1973): 357-64
View all 41 references
Moderate

Ar Antagonists (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Angioedema

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Angioedema

Patients with a history of angioedema may be at increased risk of angioedema while receiving angiotensin II receptor (AR) antagonists. Patients should be advised to immediately report any signs or symptoms suggestive of angioedema (swelling of face, extremities, eyes, lips, or tongue, or difficulty swallowing or breathing) and to stop taking the medication until otherwise directed by their physician. Emergency therapy and/or measures to prevent airway obstruction are required for angioedema involving the tongue, glottis, or larynx. Treatment with angiotensin II receptor (AR) antagonists should be discontinued permanently if angioedema develops in association with therapy.

Moderate

Ar Antagonists (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Chf

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Congestive Heart Failure

Angiotensin II receptor (AR) antagonists can cause renal impairment in patients whose renal function depends on the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In addition, symptomatic hypotension can occur in susceptible individuals, which may compromise renal and myocardial perfusion. In patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF), treatment with AR antagonists has been associated with oliguria and/or progressive azotemia and, rarely, renal failure, myocardial ischemia, and death. Therapy with AR antagonists should be initiated cautiously in patients with severe CHF, especially when accompanied by volume and/or sodium depletion. In patients who experience a decline in renal function, discontinuation of AR antagonist therapy is usually not required provided there is symptomatic improvement of the heart failure and renal deterioration is well-tolerated. Transient hypotension is also not a contraindication to further treatment with AR antagonists, since therapy can usually be reinstated without difficulty after blood pressure stabilizes.

References

  1. Saine DR, Ahrens ER "Renal impairment associated with losartan." Ann Intern Med 124 (1996): 775
  2. Holwerda NJ, Fogari R, Angeli P, et al. "Valsartan, a new angiotensin II antagonist for the treatment of essential hypertension: efficacy and safety compared with placebo and enalapril." J Hypertens 14 (1996): 1147-115
  3. Crozier I, Ikram H "The acute and chronic effects of losartan in heart failure." J Hypertens 13 Suppl (1995): s59-61
  4. Doig JK, MacFadyen RJ, Sweet CS, Lees KR, Reid JL "Dose-ranging study of the angiotensin type I receptor antagonist losartan (DuP753/MK954), in salt-deplete normal man." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 21 (1993): 732-8
  5. McIntyre M, MacFadyen RJ, Meredith PA, Brouard R, Reid JL "Dose-ranging study of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist irbesartan (SR 47436/BMS-186295) on blood pressure and neurohormona effects in salt-deplete men." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 28 (1996): 101-6
  6. Crozier I, Ikram H, Awan N, Cleland J, Stephen N, Dickstein K, Frey M, Young J, Klinger G, Makris L, et al "Losartan in heart failure. Hemodynamic effects and tolerability. Losartan Hemodynamic Study Group." Circulation 91 (1995): 691-7
  7. "Product Information. Cozaar (losartan)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  8. Dickstein K, Gottlieb S, Fleck E, Kostis J, Levine B, DeKock M, LeJemtel T "Hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of the angiotensin II antagonist losartan in patients with heart failure." J Hypertens Suppl 12 (1994): s31-5
  9. Goldberg MR, Bradstreet TE, McWilliams EJ, Tanaka WK, Lipert S, Bjornsson TD, Waldman SA, Osborne B, Pivadori L, Lewis G, et al "Biochemical effects of losartan, a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist, on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in hypertensive patients." Hypertension 25 (1995): 37-46
  10. "Product Information. Teveten (eprosartan)." SmithKline Beecham, Philadelphia, PA.
  11. Abdelrahman AM, Burrell LM, Johnston CI "Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system at different sites: effect on renin, angiotensin and aldosterone." J Hypertens 11 Suppl 3 (1993): s23-6
  12. van den Meiracker AH, Admiraal PJ, Janssen JA, Kroodsma JM, de Ronde WA, Boomsma F, Sissmann J, Blankestijn PJ, Mulder PG, Man In 't Veld AJ "Hemodynamic and biochemical effects of the AT1 receptor antagonist irbesartan in hypertension." Hypertension 25 (1995): 22-9
  13. Rush JE, Rajfer SI "Theoretical basis for the use of angiotensin II antagonists in the treatment of heart failure." J Hypertens 11 Suppl 3 (1993): s69-71
  14. Gibbs CR, Ferner RE, Beevers DG "Angiotensin receptor antagonists - a new class of antihypertensive drug." J Clin Pharm Ther 21 (1996): 127-30
  15. "Product Information. Avapro (irbesartan)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  16. "Product Information. Atacand (candesartan)." Astra Pharmaceuticals, Wayne, PA.
  17. Pitt B, Segal R, Martinez FA, et al. "Randomised trial of losartan versus captopril in patients over 65 with heart failure (Evaluation of Losartan in the Elderly Study, ELITE)." Lancet 349 (1997): 747-52
  18. Goldberg MR, Tanaka W, Barchowsky A, Bradstreet TE, McCrea J, Lo MW, McWilliams EJ Jr, Bjornsson TD "Effects of losartan on blood pressure, plasma renin activity, and angiotensin II in volunteers." Hypertension 21 (1993): 704-13
  19. Weber MA, Byyny RL, Pratt JH, Faison EP, Snavely DB, Goldberg AI, Nelson EB "Blood pressure effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker, losartan." Arch Intern Med 155 (1995): 405-11
  20. Waeber B, Burnier M, Nussberger J, Brunner HR "Experience with angiotensin II antagonists in hypertensive patients." Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 23 ( Suppl (1996): s142-6
  21. Gottlieb SS, Dickstein K, Fleck E, Kostis J, Levine TB, LeJemtel T, DeKock M "Hemodynamic and neurohormonal effects of the angiotensin II antagonist losartan in patients with congestive heart failure." Circulation 88 (1993): 1602-9
  22. "Product Information. Micardis (telmisartan)." Boehringer-Ingelheim, Ridgefield, CT.
  23. Waeber B, Brunner HR "Angiotensin II antagonists: a new class of antihypertensive agent." Br J Clin Pract 50 (1996): 265-8
  24. Ellis ML, Patterson H "A new class of antihypertensive therapy: angiotensin II receptor antagonists." Pharmacotherapy 16 (1996): 849-60
  25. "Product Information. Benicar (olmesartan)." Sankyo Parke Davis, Parsippany, NJ.
  26. "Product Information. Diovan (valsartan)." Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.
  27. Schaefer KL, Porter JA "Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: the prototype losartan." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 625-36
View all 27 references
Moderate

Ar Antagonists (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Hyperkalemia

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hyperkalemia

Drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin, such as angiotensin II receptor antagonist system can cause hyperkalemia. Concomitant use of these agents with drugs that increase potassium levels may increase the risk of hyperkalemia. Use caution when using these agents together and monitor serum potassium periodically.

Moderate

Ar Antagonists (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Renal Artery Stenosis

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Renal Artery Atherosclerosis

In patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis or renal artery stenosis in a solitary kidney, angiotensin II receptor (AR) antagonists may reduce renal perfusion to a critically low level. Increases in serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen have been reported with ACE inhibitors, a class of drugs that also block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Although there are no long-term data on the use of AR antagonists in patients with renal artery stenosis, a similar effect should be anticipated. Renal function should be monitored closely for the first few weeks of therapy.

References

  1. "Product Information. Benicar (olmesartan)." Sankyo Parke Davis, Parsippany, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Cozaar (losartan)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  3. "Product Information. Diovan (valsartan)." Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.
Moderate

Ar Antagonists (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Renal Impairment

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

Changes in renal function including acute renal failure can be caused by drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system and by diuretics. Patients whose renal function may depend in part on the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (e.g., patients with renal artery stenosis, chronic kidney disease, severe congestive heart failure, or volume depletion) may be at particular risk of developing acute renal failure with these agents. Monitor renal function periodically in these patients. Consider withholding or discontinuing therapy in patients who develop a clinically significant decrease in renal function with these agents.

Moderate

Ccbs (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Chf/Ami

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Congestive Heart Failure, Myocardial Infarction

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) may have varying degrees of negative inotropic effect. Congestive heart failure (CHF), worsening of CHF, and pulmonary edema have occurred in some patients treated with a CCB, primarily verapamil. Some CCBs have also caused mild to moderate peripheral edema due to localized vasodilation of dependent arterioles and small blood vessels, which can be confused with the effects of increasing left ventricular dysfunction. Although some CCBs have been used in the treatment of CHF, therapy with CCBs should be administered cautiously in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (e.g., ejection fraction < 30%) or moderate to severe symptoms of cardiac failure and in patients with any degree of ventricular dysfunction if they are receiving a beta-adrenergic blocker. Likewise, caution is advised in patients with acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary congestion documented by X-ray on admission, since associated heart failure may be acutely worsened by administration of a CCB.

References

  1. Batlouni M, Armaganijan D, Ghorayeb N, Magliano MF "Clinical efficacy and tolerability of isradipine in the treatment of mild-to-moderate hypertension in young and elderly patients." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 19 (1992): s53-7
  2. Fagan TC, Haggert BE, Liss C "Efficacy and tolerability of extended-release felodipine and extended-release nifedipine in patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension." Clin Ther 16 (1994): 634-46
  3. "Product Information. Procardia (nifedipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  4. Sleight P "Calcium antagonists during and after myocardial infarction." Drugs 51 (1996): 216-25
  5. Brogden RN, Sorkin EM "Isradipine: an update of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension." Drugs 49 (1995): 618-49
  6. Elkayam U "Calcium channel blockers in heart failure." Cardiology 89 (1998): 38-46
  7. Batra AK, Segall PH, Ahmed T "Pulmonary edema with nifedipine in primary pulmonary hypertension." Respiration 47 (1985): 161-3
  8. Prigogine T, Waterlot Y, Gottignies P, et al "Acute nonhemodynamic pulmonary edema with nifedipine in primary pulmonary hypertension." Chest 100 (1991): 563-4
  9. Kubota K, Pearce GL, Inman WHW "Vasodilation-related adverse events in diltiazem and dihydropyridine calcium antagonists studied by prescription-event monitoring." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 48 (1995): 1-7
  10. Walton T, Symes LR "Felodipine and isradipine: new calcium-channel-blocking agents for the treatment of hypertension." Clin Pharm 12 (1993): 261-75
  11. "Product Information. DynaCirc (isradipine)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  12. Scheidt S, LeWinter MM, Hermanovich J, Venkataraman K, Freedman D "Efficacy and safety of nicardipine for chronic, stable angina pectoris: a multicenter randomized trial." Am J Cardiol 58 (1986): 715-21
  13. Lorimer AR, Pringle SD "The safety of felodipine." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 15 (1990): s85-9
  14. Schaefer RM, Aldons PM, Burgess ED, Tilvis R, Singh GP, Rehn L, Morgan TO "Improved tolerability of felodipine compared with amlodipine in elderly hypertensives: A randomised, double-blind study in 535 patients, focusing on vasodilatory adverse events." Int J Clin Pract 52 (1998): 381
  15. Myrhed M, Wiholm B-E "Nifedipine: a survey of adverse effects." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 58 (1986): 133-6
  16. Yedinak KC, Lopez LM "Felodipine: a new dihydropyridine calcium-channel antagonist." DICP 25 (1991): 1193-206
  17. Taylor SH, Frais MA, Lee P, Verma SP, Jackson N, Reynolds G, Silke B "A study of the long-term efficacy and tolerability of oral nicardipine in hypertensive patients." Br J Clin Pharmacol 20 (1985): s139-42
  18. Sundstedt CD, Ruegg PC, Keller A, Waite R "A multicenter evaluation of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of isradipine in the treatment of essential hypertension." Am J Med 86 (1989): 98-102
  19. "Product Information. Sular (nisoldipine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  20. "Product Information. Plendil (felodipine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  21. "Product Information. Norvasc (amlodipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  22. Blecker D "Antihypertensive therapy with isradipine in patients with special safety concerns." Angiology 45 (1994): 997-1008
  23. Abernathy DR, Schwrtz JB "Calcium-antagonist drugs." N Engl J Med 341 (1999): 1447-57
  24. "Product Information. Nimotop (nimodipine)." Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  25. Ruegg PC, Nelson DJ "Safety and efficacy of isradipine, alone and in combination, in the treatment of angina pectoris." Am J Med 86 (1989): 70-4
  26. Johnson BF, Eisner GM, Mcmahon FG, Jain AK, Rudd P, Sowers JR "A multicenter comparison of adverse reaction profiles of isradipine and enalapril at equipotent doses in patients with essential hypertension." J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1995): 484-92
  27. Gillmer DJ, Kark P "Pulmonary oedema precipitated by nifedipine." Br Med J 280 (1980): 1420-1
  28. "Product Information. Cardene (nicardipine)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  29. Dubois C, Blanchard D "Efficacy and safety of nicardipine in 29,104 patients with hypertension." Clin Ther 11 (1989): 452-60
View all 29 references
Moderate

Olmesartan (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Renal/Liver Disease

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction, Liver Disease, Biliary Obstruction

Olmesartan is eliminated unchanged in the urine and bile. After repeated dosing in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl < 20 mL/min), the systemic exposure (AUC) was approximately tripled compared to subjects with normal renal function. In patients with moderate hepatic impairment, the AUC increased about 60% relative to that in matched controls. The manufacturer states that no initial dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with moderate to marked renal or hepatic impairment. However, patients should be monitored for undue adverse effects of the drug.

References

  1. "Product Information. Benicar (olmesartan)." Sankyo Parke Davis, Parsippany, NJ.
Moderate

Thiazides (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Asthma

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Asthma

Thiazide diuretics should be used with caution in patients with history of bronchial asthma as sensitivity reactions may occur.

Moderate

Thiazides (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Diabetes

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Diabetes Mellitus, Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

Thiazide diuretics may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria in patients with diabetes. They may also precipitate diabetes in prediabetic patients. These effects are usually reversible following discontinuation of the drugs. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance, or a predisposition to hyperglycemia. Patients with diabetes mellitus should be monitored more closely during thiazide therapy, and their antidiabetic regimen adjusted accordingly.

References

  1. Nielsen S, Schmitz A, Knudsen RE, Dollerup J, Mogensen CE "Enalapril versus bendroflumethiazide in type 2 diabetes complicated by hypertension." Q J Med 87 (1994): 747-54
  2. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  3. Jones IG, Pickens PT "Diabetes mellitus following oral diuretics." Practitioner 199 (1967): 209-10
  4. Diamond MT "Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma associated with hydrochlorothiazide and pancreatitis." N Y State J Med 72 (1972): 1741-2
  5. Blayac JP, Ribes G, Buys D, Puech R, Loubatieres-Mariani MM "Effects of a new benzothiadiazine derivative, LN 5330, on insulin secretion." Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 253 (1981): 154-63
  6. Elmfeldt D, Berglund G, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L "Incidence and importance of metabolic side-effects during antihypertensive therapy." Acta Med Scand Suppl 672 (1983): 79-83
  7. Pickkers P, Schachter M, Hughes AD, Feher MD, Sever PS "Thiazide-induced hyperglycaemia: a role for calcium-activated potassium channels?" Diabetologia 39 (1996): 861-4
  8. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  9. Petri M, Cumber P, Grimes L, Treby D, Bryant R, Rawlins D, Ising H "The metabolic effects of thiazide therapy in the elderly: a population study." Age Ageing 15 (1986): 151-5
  10. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  11. Seltzer HS, Allen EW "Hyperglycemia and inhibition of insulin secretion during administration of diazoxide and trichlormethiazide in man." Diabetes 18 (1969): 19-28
  12. Berglund G, Andersson O, Widgren B "Low-dose antihypertensive treatment with a thiazide diuretic is not diabetogenic. A 10-year controlled trial with bendroflumethiazide." Acta Med Scand 220 (1986): 419-24
  13. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  14. Berlin I "Prazosin, diuretics, and glucose intolerance." Ann Intern Med 119 (1993): 860
  15. Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C "A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension." N Engl J Med 321 (1989): 868-73
  16. Andersen OO, Persson I "Carbohydrate metabolism during treatment with chlorthalidone and ethacrynic acid." Br Med J 2 (1968): 798-801
  17. Bell DS "Insulin resistance. An often unrecognized problem accompanying chronic medical disorders." Postgrad Med 93 (1993): 99-103,
  18. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  19. Miller NR, Moses H "Transient oculomotor nerve palsy. Association with thiazide-induced glucose intolerance." JAMA 240 (1978): 1887-8
  20. Goldman JA, Neri A, Ovadia J, Eckerling B, Vries A, de "Effect of chlorothiazide on intravenous glucose tolerance in pregnancy." Am J Obstet Gynecol 105 (1969): 556-60
  21. Chowdhury FR, Bleicher SJ "Chlorthalidone--induced hypokalemia and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism." Horm Metab Res 2 (1970): 13-6
  22. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  23. Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics in treating hypertension." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 223-6
  24. Rowe P, Mather H "Hyperosmolar non-ketotic diabetes mellitus associated with metolazone." Br Med J 291 (1985): 25-6
  25. Schmitz O, Hermansen K, Nielsen OH, Christensen CK, Arnfred J, Hansen HE, Mogensen CE, Orskov H, Beck-Nielsen H "Insulin action in insulin-dependent diabetics after short-term thiazide therapy." Diabetes Care 9 (1986): 631-6
  26. Winchester JF, Kellett RJ, Boddy K, Boyle P, Dargie HJ, Mahaffey ME, Ward DM, Kennedy AC "Metolazone and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension: physiologic and metabolic observations." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 611-8
  27. Slotkoff L "Clinical efficacy and safety of indapamide in the treatment of edema." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 233-7
  28. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  29. Domenet JG "Diabetogenic effect of oral diuretics." Br Med J 3 (1968): 188
  30. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  31. Murphy MB, Kohner E, Lewis PJ, Schumer B, Dollery CT "Glucose intolerance in hypertensive patients treated with diuretics: a fourteen-year follow-up." Lancet 2 (1982): 1293-5
  32. Harper R, Ennis CN, Heaney AP, Sheridan B, Gormley M, Atkinson AB, Johnston GD, Bell PM "A comparison of the effects of low- and conventional-dose thiazide diuretic on insulin action in hypertensive patients with NIDDM." Diabetologia 38 (1995): 853-9
  33. Beling S, Vukovich RA, Neiss ES, Zisblatt M, Webb E, Losi M "Long-term experience with indapamide." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 258-62
  34. Kansal PC, Buse J, Buse MG "Thiazide diuretics and control of diabetes mellitus." South Med J 62 (1969): 1372-9
  35. Curtis J, Horrigan F, Ahearn D, Varney R, Sandler SG "Chlorthalidone-induced hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma." JAMA 220 (1972): 1592-3
  36. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
View all 36 references
Moderate

Thiazides (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Hyperlipidemia

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hyperlipidemia

Thiazide diuretics may increase serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels, primarily LDL and VLDL. Whether these effects are dose-related and sustained during chronic therapy are unknown. Patients with preexisting hyperlipidemia may require closer monitoring during thiazide therapy, and adjustments made accordingly in their lipid-lowering regimen

References

  1. Ames RP "A comparison of blood lipid and blood pressure responses during the treatment of systemic hypertension with indapamide and with thiazides." Am J Cardiol 77 (1996): b12-6
  2. Winchester JF, Kellett RJ, Boddy K, Boyle P, Dargie HJ, Mahaffey ME, Ward DM, Kennedy AC "Metolazone and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension: physiologic and metabolic observations." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 611-8
  3. Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics in treating hypertension." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 223-6
  4. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  5. Slotkoff L "Clinical efficacy and safety of indapamide in the treatment of edema." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 233-7
  6. Ames RP, Hill P "Increase in serum-lipids during treatment of hypertension with chlorthalidone." Lancet 1 (1976): 721-3
  7. Elmfeldt D, Berglund G, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L "Incidence and importance of metabolic side-effects during antihypertensive therapy." Acta Med Scand Suppl 672 (1983): 79-83
  8. Smith WM "Diuretics and cholesterol elevation." JAMA 242 (1979): 1612
  9. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  10. Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C "A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension." N Engl J Med 321 (1989): 868-73
  11. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  12. Kasiske BL, Ma JZ, Kalil RS, Louis TA "Effects of antihypertensive therapy on serum lipids." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 133-41
  13. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  14. Petri M, Cumber P, Grimes L, Treby D, Bryant R, Rawlins D, Ising H "The metabolic effects of thiazide therapy in the elderly: a population study." Age Ageing 15 (1986): 151-5
  15. Luther RR, Glassman HN, Estep CB, Maurath CJ, Jordan DC "The effects of terazosin and methyclothiazide on blood pressure and serum lipids." Am Heart J 117 (1989): 842-7
  16. Beling S, Vukovich RA, Neiss ES, Zisblatt M, Webb E, Losi M "Long-term experience with indapamide." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 258-62
  17. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  18. Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C "A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension." N Engl J Med 321 (1989): 868-73
  19. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  20. Fager G, Berglund G, Bondjers G, Elmfeldt D, Lager I, Olofsson SO, Smith U, Wiklund O "Effects of anti-hypertensive therapy on serum lipoproteins. Treatment with metoprolol, propranolol and hydrochlorothiazide." Artery 11 (1983): 283-96
  21. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  22. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  23. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
View all 23 references
Moderate

Thiazides (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Hyperparathyroidism

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hyperparathyroidism

Urinary calcium excretion is decreased by thiazide diuretics during chronic administration. Pathologic changes in the parathyroid gland with hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia have been reported during prolonged therapy. However, the common complications of hyperparathyroidism such as renal lithiasis, bone resorption, and peptic ulceration have not been seen. Clinicians should be cognizant of these effects when prescribing or administering thiazide therapy to patients with hyperparathyroidism. These drugs should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function.

References

  1. Lindy S, Tarssanen L "Serum calcium and phosphorus in patients treated with thiazides and furosemide." Acta Med Scand 194 (1973): 319-22
  2. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  3. Duarte CG, Winnacker JL, Becker KL, Pace A "Thiazide-induced hypercalcemia." N Engl J Med 284 (1971): 828-30
  4. Jorgensen FS, Brunner S "The long-term effect of bendroflumethiazide on renal calcium and magnesium excretion and stone formation in patients with recurring renal stones." Scand J Urol Nephrol 8 (1974): 128-31
  5. Paloyan E, Farland M, Pickleman JR "Hyperparathyroidism coexisting with hypertension and prolonged thiazide administration." JAMA 210 (1969): 1243-5
  6. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  7. Gammon GD, Docherty JP "Thiazide-induced hypercalcemia in a manic-depressive patient." Am J Psychiatry 137 (1980): 1453-5
  8. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  9. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  10. Klimiuk PS, Davies M, Adams PH "Primary hyperparathyroidism and thiazide diuretics." Postgrad Med J 57 (1981): 80-3
  11. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  12. Itescu S, Haskell LP, Tannenberg AM "Thiazide-induced clinically significant hypophosphatemia ." Clin Nephrol 27 (1987): 161-2
  13. Anderson PE, Ellis GG, Austin SM "Case report: metolazone-associated hypercalcemia and acute pancreatitis." Am J Med Sci 302 (1991): 235-7
  14. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  15. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  16. Paloyan E, Farland M, Pickleman JR "Hyperparathyroidism coexisting with hypertension and prolonged thiazide administration." JAMA 210 (1969): 1243-5
  17. Palmer FJ "Letter: Chlorthalidone-induced hypercalcemia." JAMA 229 (1974): 267
  18. Ljunghall S, Backman U, Danielson BG, Fellstrom B, Johansson G, Wikstrom B "Calcium and magnesium metabolism during long-term treatment with thiazides." Scand J Urol Nephrol 15 (1981): 257-62
  19. Parfitt AM "Thiazide-induced hypercalcemia in vitamin D-treated hypoparathyroidism." Ann Intern Med 77 (1972): 557-63
  20. Popovtzer MM, Subryan VL, Alfrey AC, Reeve EB, Schrier RW "The acute effect of chlorothiazide on serum-ionized calcium. Evidence for a parathyroid hormone-dependent mechanism." J Clin Invest 55 (1975): 1295-302
  21. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  22. Balizet L "Recurrent parathyroid adenoma. Association with prolonged thiazide administration." JAMA 225 (1973): 1238-9
  23. Hakim R, Tolis G, Goltzman D, Meltzer S, Friedman R "Severe hypercalcemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide and calcium carbonate therapy." Can Med Assoc J 121 (1979): 591-4
  24. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  25. Parfitt AM "Chlorothiazide-induced hypercalcemia in juvenile osteoporosis and hyperparathyroidism." N Engl J Med 281 (1969): 55-9
  26. Byatt CM, Millard PH, Levin GE "Diuretics and electrolyte disturbances in 1000 consecutive geriatric admissions." J R Soc Med 83 (1990): 704-8
  27. Hilker RR "Reversible hypercalcemia associated with prolonged thiazide administration to control hypertension." J Occup Med 12 (1970): 444-5
View all 27 references
Moderate

Thiazides (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Hyperuricemia

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Gout

Thiazide diuretics decrease the rate of uric acid excretion. Hyperuricemia occurs frequently but is usually asymptomatic and rarely leads to clinical gout except in patients with a history of gout or chronic renal failure. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in such patients.

References

  1. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  2. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  3. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  4. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  5. Beling S, Vukovich RA, Neiss ES, Zisblatt M, Webb E, Losi M "Long-term experience with indapamide." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 258-62
  6. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  7. Labeeuw M, Pozet N, Aissa AH, Zech PY, Sassard J, Laville M "Uric acid renal handling: spontaneous changes and influence of a thiazide alone or associated with triamterene." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 26 (1988): 79-83
  8. Petri M, Cumber P, Grimes L, Treby D, Bryant R, Rawlins D, Ising H "The metabolic effects of thiazide therapy in the elderly: a population study." Age Ageing 15 (1986): 151-5
  9. Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics in treating hypertension." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 223-6
  10. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  11. Slotkoff L "Clinical efficacy and safety of indapamide in the treatment of edema." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 233-7
  12. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  13. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  14. Gudbrandsson T, Hansson L "Combination therapy with saluretics and atenolol in essential hypertension. Effects on blood pressure, electrolytes and uric acid." Acta Med Scand Suppl 625 (1979): 86-91
  15. Brors O, Jacobsen S, Foss OP, Aakvaag A "Effect of repeated doses of hydroflumethiazide on renal excretion of electrolytes and uric acid in healthy subjects." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 48 (1981): 145-50
  16. Elmfeldt D, Berglund G, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L "Incidence and importance of metabolic side-effects during antihypertensive therapy." Acta Med Scand Suppl 672 (1983): 79-83
  17. Winchester JF, Kellett RJ, Boddy K, Boyle P, Dargie HJ, Mahaffey ME, Ward DM, Kennedy AC "Metolazone and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension: physiologic and metabolic observations." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 611-8
  18. Lapidus PW, Guidotti FP "Gout in orthopaedic practice: review of 232 cases." Clin Orthop 28 (1963): 97-110
  19. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  20. Ljunghall S, Backman U, Danielson BG, Fellstrom B, Johansson G, Odlind B, Wikstrom B "Effects of bendroflumethiazide on urate metabolism during treatment of patients with renal stones." J Urol 127 (1982): 1207-10
View all 20 references
Moderate

Thiazides (Includes Amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide/olmesartan) ↔ Thyroid Function Tests

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Thyroid Disease

Thiazide diuretics may decrease serum PBI (protein-bound iodine) levels without associated thyroid disturbance. Clinicians should be cognizant of this effect when prescribing or administering thiazide therapy to patients with thyroid disorders.

References

  1. Bech K, Skovsted L, Siersbaek-Nielsen K, Hansen JM "Influence of thiazides on thyroid parameters in man." Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 89 (1978): 673-8
  2. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  3. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  4. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  5. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  6. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  7. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  8. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  9. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  10. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
View all 10 references

amlodipine / hydrochlorothiazide / olmesartan drug Interactions

There are 1020 drug interactions with amlodipine / hydrochlorothiazide / olmesartan

amlodipine / hydrochlorothiazide / olmesartan alcohol/food Interactions

There are 5 alcohol/food interactions with amlodipine / hydrochlorothiazide / olmesartan

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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