Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jan 11, 2022.
Risks From Concomitant Use With Opioids; Abuse, Misuse, and Addiction; and Dependence and Withdrawal ReactionsConcomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.The use of benzodiazepines, including triazolam, exposes users to risks of abuse, misuse, and addiction, which can lead to overdose or death. Abuse and misuse of benzodiazepines commonly involve concomitant use of other medications, alcohol, and/or illicit substances, which is associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse outcomes. Before prescribing triazolam and throughout treatment, assess each patient’s risk for abuse, misuse, and addiction.The continued use of benzodiazepines, including triazolam, may lead to clinically significant physical dependence. The risks of dependence and withdrawal increase with longer treatment duration and higher daily dose. Abrupt discontinuation or rapid dosage reduction of triazolam after continued use may precipitate acute withdrawal reactions, which can be life-threatening. To reduce the risk of withdrawal reactions, use a gradual taper to discontinue triazolam or reduce the dosage .
Commonly used brand name(s)
In the U.S.
Available Dosage Forms:
Therapeutic Class: Hypnotic
Pharmacologic Class: Benzodiazepine, Short or Intermediate Acting
Uses for triazolam
Triazolam is used to treat insomnia (trouble in sleeping). Triazolam is for short-term (usually 7 to 10 days) use only. Triazolam is a benzodiazepine. Benzodiazepines belong to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) depressants, which are medicines that slow down the nervous system.
Triazolam is available only with your doctor's prescription.
Before using triazolam
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For triazolam, the following should be considered:
Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to triazolam or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.
Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of triazolam in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established.
Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of triazolam in the elderly. However, severe drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, clumsiness, or unsteadiness are more likely to occur in the elderly, which may require an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving triazolam.
There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.
Interactions with medicines
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking triazolam, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.
Using triazolam with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.
Using triazolam with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
- Calcium Oxybate
- Chloral Hydrate
- Gabapentin Enacarbil
- Magnesium Oxybate
- Morphine Sulfate Liposome
- Potassium Oxybate
- Ropeginterferon Alfa-2b-njft
- Sodium Oxybate
Using triazolam with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
- Ethinyl Estradiol
- St John's Wort
Interactions with food/tobacco/alcohol
Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.
Using triazolam with any of the following is usually not recommended, but may be unavoidable in some cases. If used together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use triazolam, or give you special instructions about the use of food, alcohol, or tobacco.
- Grapefruit Juice
Using triazolam with any of the following may cause an increased risk of certain side effects but may be unavoidable in some cases. If used together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use triazolam, or give you special instructions about the use of food, alcohol, or tobacco.
Other medical problems
The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of triazolam. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:
- Alcohol or drug abuse or dependence, or history of or
- Breathing problems or lung disease, severe or
- Depression, or history of or
- Sleep apnea (temporary stopping of breathing during sleep)—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.
- Kidney disease or
- Liver disease—Use with caution. The effects may be increased because of slower removal of the medicine from the body.
Proper use of triazolam
Take triazolam only as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered. If too much of triazolam is taken for a long time, it may become habit-forming (causing mental or physical dependence).
Triazolam should come with a Medication Guide. Read and follow these instructions carefully. Ask your doctor if you have any questions.
Take triazolam just before going to bed, when you are ready to go to sleep. Triazolam works very quickly to put you to sleep.
Do not take triazolam when your schedule does not permit you to get a full night's sleep (7 to 8 hours). If you must wake up before this, you may continue to feel drowsy and may experience memory problems, because the effects of the medicine have not had time to wear off.
Do not eat grapefruit or drink grapefruit juice while you are using triazolam.
The dose of triazolam will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of triazolam. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.
The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.
- For oral dosage form (tablets):
- For insomnia:
- Adults—0.125 to 0.25 milligram (mg) at bedtime. Your doctor may adjust your dose as needed. However, the dose is usually not more than 0.5 mg per day.
- Older adults—At first, 0.125 mg at bedtime. Your doctor may adjust your dose as needed. However, the dose is usually not more than 0.25 mg per day.
- Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.
- For insomnia:
If you miss a dose of triazolam, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.
Use triazolam only when you cannot sleep. You do not need to keep a schedule for taking it. Do not use two doses at the same time.
Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.
Keep out of the reach of children.
Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.
Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.
Precautions while using triazolam
It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure triazolam is working properly and to check for any unwanted effects.
If your condition does not improve within 7 to 10 days, or if it becomes worse, check with your doctor.
Using triazolam while you are pregnant can harm your unborn baby. Use an effective form of birth control to keep from getting pregnant. If you think you have become pregnant while using the medicine, tell your doctor right away.
Do not take itraconazole (Sporanox®), ketoconazole (Nizoral®), nefazodone (Serzone®), or certain HIV medicines (eg, indinavir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, Kaletra®, Norvir®) while you are using triazolam. Using these medicines together with triazolam may increase the chance of serious side effects.
Triazolam may cause serious allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis and angioedema, which can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention. Call your doctor right away if you have itching, hives, hoarseness, nausea or vomiting, trouble breathing, trouble swallowing, or any swelling of your hands, face, mouth or throat while you are using triazolam.
Triazolam may be habit-forming. If you feel that the medicine is not working as well, do not use more than your prescribed dose. Call your doctor for instructions.
Triazolam may cause you to do things while you are still asleep that you may not remember the next morning. It is possible you could drive a car, sleepwalk, have sex, make phone calls, or prepare and eat food while you are asleep or not fully awake. Tell your doctor right away if you learn that any of these has happened.
Triazolam will add to the effects of alcohol and other central nervous system (CNS) depressants. CNS depressants are medicines that slow down the nervous system, which may cause drowsiness or make you less alert. Some examples of CNS depressants are antihistamines or medicine for hay fever, allergies, or colds, sedatives, tranquilizers, or sleeping medicine, prescription pain medicine or narcotics, barbiturates (used for seizures), muscle relaxants, or anesthetics (numbing medicines), including some dental anesthetics. This effect may last for a few days after you stop taking triazolam. Check with your doctor before taking any of the above while you are using triazolam.
Triazolam may cause some people, especially older persons, to become drowsy, dizzy, or less alert than they are normally, which may lead to falls. Even though triazolam is taken at bedtime, it may cause some people to feel drowsy or less alert the next morning. Do not drive or do anything else that could be dangerous until you know how triazolam affects you.
Do not stop using triazolam without checking first with your doctor. Your doctor may want you to gradually reduce the amount you are using before stopping it completely. This may help prevent a worsening of your condition and reduce the possibility of withdrawal symptoms, including seizures, stomach or muscle cramps, sweating, tremors, vomiting, or unusual behavior.
If you develop any unusual and strange thoughts or behavior while you are using triazolam, be sure to discuss it with your doctor. Some changes that have occurred in people using triazolam are like those seen in people who drink alcohol and then act in a manner that is not normal. Other changes may be more unusual and extreme, such as confusion, worsening of depression, hallucinations (seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there), suicidal thoughts, and unusual excitement, nervousness, or irritability.
Symptoms of an overdose include: change in consciousness, difficult or trouble breathing, difficulty with coordination, irregular, fast or slow, or shallow breathing, loss of consciousness, mood or mental changes, pale or blue lips, fingernails, or skin, sleepiness or unusual drowsiness, or slurred speech. Call your doctor right away if you notice these symptoms.
Using triazolam while you are pregnant may cause neonatal withdrawal syndrome in your newborn babies. Tell your doctor right away if your baby has an abnormal sleep pattern, diarrhea, a high-pitched cry, irritability, shakiness or tremors, weight loss, vomiting, or fails to gain weight.
Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.
Triazolam side effects
Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:
- Shakiness and unsteady walk
- unsteadiness, trembling, or other problems with muscle control or coordination
- Being forgetful
- burning, crawling, itching, numbness, prickling, "pins and needles", or tingling feelings
- continuing ringing or buzzing or other unexplained noise in the ears
- false or unusual sense of well-being
- fast, pounding, or irregular heartbeat or pulse
- feeling sad or empty
- hearing loss
- lack of appetite
- loss of interest or pleasure
- trouble concentrating
- trouble sleeping
Incidence not known
- Actions that are out of control
- changes in patterns and rhythms of speech
- chest pain
- clay-colored stools
- confusion about identity, place, and time
- dark urine
- decrease in frequency of urination
- decrease in urine volume
- difficulty in passing urine (dribbling)
- dry mouth
- environment seems unreal
- false beliefs that cannot be changed by facts
- feeling of unreality
- inability to move the eyes
- increased blinking or spasms of the eyelid
- increased muscle spasm
- irregular heartbeat
- loss of bladder control
- loss of memory
- painful urination
- problems with memory
- relaxed and calm feeling
- seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there
- sense of detachment from self or body
- sleep walking
- slurred speech
- sticking out of tongue
- stomach pain
- talking, feeling, and acting with excitement
- trouble breathing, speaking, or swallowing
- uncontrolled twisting movements of the neck, trunk, arms, or legs
- unpleasant breath odor
- unusual excitement, nervousness, restlessness, or irritability
- unusual facial expressions
- unusual tiredness or weakness
- vomiting of blood
- yellow eyes or skin
Get emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur:
Symptoms of overdose
- Change in consciousness
- irregular, fast or slow, or shallow breathing
- loss of consciousness
- mood or mental changes
- pale or blue lips, fingernails, or skin
- slurred speech
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:
- Blistering, crusting, irritation, itching, or reddening of the skin
- change in taste, or bad, unusual, or unpleasant (after) taste
- change in vision
- cracked, dry, or scaly skin
- difficulty having a bowel movement
- dry mouth
Incidence not known
- Decreased interest in sexual intercourse
- inability to have or keep an erection
- increase in sexual ability, desire, drive, or performance
- increase interest in sexual intercourse
- itching skin
- loss in sexual ability, desire, drive, or performance
- menstrual changes
- redness, swelling, or soreness of the tongue
- swelling or inflammation of the mouth
- weight loss
Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
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