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Thrombocytopenia occurs when your body does not have enough platelets. Platelets are cells that help your blood clot. Your body may not be making enough platelets, or it may be destroying too many platelets. When platelets become low, your risk for bleeding increases. Severe bleeding may become life-threatening.


Call 911 for any of the following:

  • You have chest pain, tightness, or heaviness that spreads to your shoulders, arms, jaw, neck, or back.
  • You have weakness on one side of your body, a severe headache, difficulty speaking, or a change in vision.

Seek care immediately if:

  • You have bleeding that does not stop after you elevate and place pressure on the area.
  • You vomit blood or material that looks like coffee grounds.
  • Your arm or leg feels warm, tender, and painful. It may look swollen and red.
  • You suddenly feel lightheaded, dizzy, or weak.

Contact your healthcare provider if:

  • You have bleeding from your gums, mouth, or nose.
  • You have irregular or heavy menstrual bleeding.
  • You have blood in your urine or bowel movement.
  • You have more bruises or small red or purple spots on your skin.
  • You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.


  • Medicines can help increase platelet production and prevent bleeding.
  • Take your medicine as directed. Call your healthcare provider if you think your medicine is not helping or if you have side effects. Tell him if you are allergic to any medicine. Keep a list of the medicines, vitamins, and herbs you take. Include the amounts, and when and why you take them. Bring the list or the pill bottles to follow-up visits. Carry your medicine list with you in case of an emergency.

Follow up with your healthcare provider as directed:

You will need to return for more blood tests. Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.

Self-care to help prevent bleeding:

Examine your skin for minor bumps, scrapes, and cuts. These injuries can increase your risk for bleeding that can become life-threatening.

  • Use caution with skin and mouth care. Use a soft washcloth and a soft toothbrush. This can keep your skin and gums from bleeding. Keep your nails trimmed. If you shave, use an electric shaver.
  • Do not strain when you have a bowel movement. This can increase pressure in your brain and could cause bleeding. Ask your healthcare provider about a stool softener or laxative if you are constipated. Do not use enemas or suppositories.
  • Use a cool mist humidifier to increase moisture in your home. This may help prevent coughing or nosebleeds. Coughing can increase pressure in your brain and cause bleeding.
  • Avoid activities that may cause scratches or bruises. Wear shoes or slippers to protect your feet from injury. Ask which activities are safe for you.
  • Do not take aspirin or NSAIDs. These medicines can cause you to bleed and bruise more easily.

Wear medical alert identification:

Wear a medical alert bracelet or carry a card that says you have thrombocytopenia. Ask where to get these items.

© 2016 Truven Health Analytics Inc. Information is for End User's use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes. All illustrations and images included in CareNotes® are the copyrighted property of A.D.A.M., Inc. or Truven Health Analytics.

The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.