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Minocycline Side Effects test

In Summary

Commonly reported side effects of minocycline include: headache. Other side effects include: vulvovaginal candidiasis, diarrhea, dizziness, dysphagia, epigastric discomfort, melanoglossia, nausea and vomiting, sore throat, stomatitis, and anorexia. See below for a comprehensive list of adverse effects.

For the Consumer

Applies to minocycline: oral capsule, oral capsule extended release, oral tablet, oral tablet extended release

Other dosage forms:

Minocycline side effects - call your doctor right away

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Signs of a pancreas problem (pancreatitis) like very bad stomach pain, very bad back pain, or very bad upset stomach or throwing up.
  • Signs of kidney problems like unable to pass urine, change in how much urine is passed, blood in the urine, or a big weight gain.
  • Signs of lupus like a rash on the cheeks or other body parts, sunburn easy, muscle or joint pain, chest pain or shortness of breath, or swelling in the arms or legs.
  • Swollen gland.
  • Fever, chills, or sore throat; any unexplained bruising or bleeding; or feeling very tired or weak.
  • Change in hearing.
  • Joint pain or swelling.
  • Muscle pain or weakness.
  • Ringing in ears.
  • Seizures.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Chest pain.
  • A heartbeat that does not feel normal.
  • Swelling.
  • Change in color of nails, skin, eyes, scars, teeth, or gums to a darker color.
  • Mouth irritation or mouth sores.
  • A burning, numbness, or tingling feeling that is not normal.
  • Redness or white patches in mouth or throat.
  • Rectal irritation.
  • Genital irritation.
  • Vaginal itching or discharge.
  • Diarrhea is common with antibiotics. Rarely, a severe form called C diff–associated diarrhea (CDAD) may happen. Sometimes, this has led to a deadly bowel problem (colitis). CDAD may happen during or a few months after taking antibiotics. Call your doctor right away if you have stomach pain, cramps, or very loose, watery, or bloody stools. Check with your doctor before treating diarrhea.

What are some other minocycline side effects?

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

  • Diarrhea, upset stomach, or throwing up.
  • Not hungry.
  • Feeling dizzy, sleepy, tired, or weak.

These are not all of the side effects that may occur. If you have questions about side effects, call your doctor. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to minocycline: intravenous powder for injection, oral capsule, oral capsule extended release, oral suspension, oral tablet, oral tablet extended release, oral and topical kit

Nervous system

Very common (10% or more): Headache (up to 23%)

Common (1% to 10%): Dizziness (lightheadedness), somnolence, tinnitus, vertigo

Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Hypoesthesia, paresthesia, intracranial hypertension, impaired/decreased hearing

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Bulging fontanels (in infants)

Frequency not reported: Convulsions, sedation, ataxia, benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri), vestibular reactions[Ref]

Headache, dizziness, vertigo. and ataxia have been reported. These side effects were reversible within 3 to 48 hours of stopping therapy and occurred less often with low doses.

Pseudotumor cerebri, bulging fontanels (infants), and decreased hearing have also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Dermatologic

Hyperpigmentation of various body sites (including the skin, nails, teeth, oral mucosa, bones, thyroid, eyes [including sclera, conjunctiva], breast milk, lacrimal secretions, perspiration) has been reported. This blue/black/grey or muddy-brown discoloration was localized or diffuse. The most common site was the skin. Pigmentation often reversed when the drug was discontinued; however, resolution took several months or persisted in some cases. The generalized muddy-brown skin pigmentation sometimes persisted, especially in areas exposed to sun.

Biopsies of pigmented tissue have shown granules within the cells which stained positive for iron. This pigmentation faded over time after drug discontinuation.

DRESS syndrome (including fatal cases) has been reported. DRESS syndrome with persistent myocarditis has been reported in at least 3 cases.

Fixed drug eruptions, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and photosensitivity have also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Common (1% to 10%): Pruritus, urticaria

Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Alopecia, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, fixed drug eruptions, hyperpigmentation (brownish or bluish-black pigmentation) of skin, photosensitivity, rash, vasculitis

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Angioedema, exfoliative dermatitis, hyperpigmentation of nails/nail beds, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis

Frequency not reported: Hyperpigmentation of various body sites (including bones, mucous membranes, teeth, oral mucosa, tongue, thyroid, eyes [including sclera, conjunctiva], breast milk, lacrimal secretions, structures of inner organs), maculopapular rash, erythematous rash, discolored perspiration, Sweet's syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis)

Postmarketing reports: Anaphylactoid purpura, pigmentation of skin and mucous membranes, angioneurotic edema, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)[Ref]

Gastrointestinal

Common (1% to 10%): Dry mouth

Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Diarrhea, nausea, stomatitis, discoloration of teeth, vomiting

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Oral and anogenital candidiasis, dyspepsia, dysphagia, enamel hypoplasia, enterocolitis, esophagitis, esophageal ulcerations, glossitis, pancreatitis, pseudomembranous colitis

Frequency not reported: Antibiotic-associated colitis, oral cavity discoloration (including buccal mucosa, tongue, lip, gum), abdominal cramping, inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the oral and anogenital regions[Ref]

Pancreatitis has rarely been associated with use of this drug. In 2 case reports, cystic fibrosis patients experienced pancreatitis during treatment with this drug for acute bacterial exacerbations of respiratory disease. The authors suggested that cystic fibrosis patients, as a result of the disease process, may be more susceptible to drug-induced pancreatitis. Additionally, in at least 1 case, multiple concomitant medications were taken; therefore, a temporal relationship between this drug and pancreatitis could not be proven conclusively.

Esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients taking the capsule or tablet formulations of tetracycline-class antibiotics. Most of these patients took the drug immediately before going to bed.

Enterocolitis, pancreatitis, glossitis, dysphagia, and tooth discoloration have also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Musculoskeletal

Lupus-like reactions induced by this drug have commonly presented with arthralgia or arthritis, myalgia or malaise, and positive ANA titer. Patients with highly positive anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies have rarely been reported. All patients recovered after the drug was discontinued; however, several required short courses of corticosteroids.

Severe acute myopathy associated with this drug (100 mg orally per day) occurred in a 17-year-old male after strenuous exercise. His laboratory values were as follows: ESR 33 mm/hr, CRP 0.84 mg/dL, creatine kinase 87,297 units/L, AST 1307 units/L, ALT 311 units/L, LDH 4935 units/L, aldolase 12.6 units/L, alkaline phosphatase 145 units/L, GGT 66 units/L. Muscle enzyme levels normalized and his symptoms resolved 1 month after this drug was discontinued.

IV minocycline plus quinupristin-dalfopristin were associated with myalgia and arthralgia in 36% of neutropenic cancer patients (n=56).[Ref]

Common (1% to 10%): Arthralgia, myalgia

Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Lupus-like syndrome (consisting of positive antinuclear antibody [ANA], arthralgia, arthritis, joint stiffness/swelling, and at least 1 of the following: fever, myalgia, hepatitis, rash, vasculitis)

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Arthritis, bone discoloration, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), exacerbation of SLE, joint stiffness, joint swelling, joint discoloration, myopathy, hypersensitivity-associated rhabdomyolysis

Postmarketing reports: Polyarthralgia, exacerbation of systemic lupus, transient lupus-like syndrome[Ref]

Other

Common (1% to 10%): Fatigue, malaise

Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Fever

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Discoloration of secretions

Injection:

-Frequency not reported: Magnesium intoxication (including flushing, sweating, hypotension, depressed reflexes, flaccid paralysis, hypothermia, circulatory collapse, cardiac and CNS depression, respiratory paralysis)[Ref]

Psychiatric

Common (1% to 10%): Mood alteration

Hypersensitivity

Death has been reported in some cases involving hypersensitivity syndrome, serum sickness-like syndrome, and lupus-like syndrome.

Pulmonary infiltrates, night sweats, fever, and eosinophilia have developed in several patients receiving this drug. These effects were thought to be due to drug hypersensitivity.

Case reports have described a severe CNS -pulmonary hypersensitivity syndrome requiring high-dose corticosteroid therapy. Signs and symptoms have included dry cough, fever, ataxia, muscle weakness, numbness, visual abnormalities, abnormal brain MRI, seizures, pulmonary infiltrates, elevated serum IgE, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and eosinophilia.

Eosinophilic pneumonia with relapsing acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and corticosteroids has been reported in a 54-year-old woman. Initial symptoms included dry cough, low-grade fever, fatigue, and dyspnea. Eosinophilia, elevated leukocytes, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were noted. At 14 days after being discharged and resuming this drug, the patient developed rapidly progressive respiratory failure again requiring mechanical ventilation.

Late-onset drug fever (associated with fever, sore throat, abdominal pain, weakness, loose bloody stools, fatigue, 40-pound weight loss, ESR 99 mm/hr, CRP 5 mg/dL, and mild increases in liver enzymes) has been reported in a 15-year-old boy after using this drug for 24 months for acne. After 1 year of therapy, at least 1 other case of late-onset drug fever occurred. Other reported cases of drug fever generally occurred after 2 to 4 weeks of drug exposure.[Ref]

Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reaction (including shock, fatalities)

Frequency not reported: Hypersensitivity, hypersensitivity syndrome (consisting of cutaneous reaction [e.g., rash, exfoliative dermatitis], eosinophilia, and at least 1 of the following: hepatitis, pneumonitis, nephritis, myocarditis, pericarditis; with or without fever, lymphadenopathy), serum sickness-like syndrome (consisting of fever, urticaria/rash, arthralgia, arthritis, joint stiffness/swelling, lymphadenopathy; with or without eosinophilia), autoimmune vasculitis, drug fever, eosinophilic pneumonitis, drug hypersensitivity (e.g., pulmonary infiltrates, night sweats, fever, eosinophilia), serum sickness, serum sickness-like reactions, severe central nervous system (CNS)-pulmonary hypersensitivity syndrome

Postmarketing reports: Hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylaxis[Ref]

Immunologic

Frequency not reported: Positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) titers, polyarteritis nodosa, ANCA-positive crescentic glomerulonephritis, ANCA-positive vasculitis, autoimmune hepatitis, necrotizing vasculitis and systemic reactions[Ref]

Rare cases of necrotizing vasculitis and systemic reactions have been reported, characterized by lymphadenopathy, eosinophilia, increased liver function enzyme levels, and dermatologic involvement. In each case, this drug was discontinued and in some cases, corticosteroid therapy was necessary to assist in the resolution of symptoms.[Ref]

Hepatic

Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Increased liver enzymes, hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis/hepatotoxicity

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Hepatic cholestasis, hepatic failure (including fatalities), hyperbilirubinemia, jaundice

Frequency not reported: Autoimmune hepatitis with lupus-like symptoms, increased liver function test values, acute hepatic failure, liver injury, acute hypersensitivity hepatitis associated with eosinophilia and dermatitis[Ref]

Some hepatic reactions had an autoimmune basis and occurred after several months of therapy.

In 1 case, a patient developed rapidly progressing liver failure after using this drug for 4 weeks for acne. The patient had stopped this drug 2 weeks prior to onset of malaise. Liver transplantation was considered, but the patient slowly recovered without significant intervention.

Other reports of immunologically-mediated progressive liver dysfunction have rarely occurred. In 1 case, a patient received a liver transplant after fulminant hepatic failure which was thought to be related to a 3-year history of daily therapy to treat acne. The dose of this drug ranged from 50 to 200 mg/day. A second patient had been using this drug to treat acne for 1 year just prior to seeking medical attention for an "influenza-like" syndrome. Upon hospitalization, it was determined that the patient was experiencing an autoimmune-mediated hepatitis, most probably related to this drug. Resolution of symptoms occurred in both of these cases after therapy was discontinued and each patient had received appropriate supportive medical care.

Hepatitis and liver failure have also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Renal

Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Increased BUN/serum urea, interstitial nephritis, acute renal failure

Postmarketing reports: Reversible acute renal failure

Tetracyclines:

-Frequency not reported: Aggravation of preexisting renal failure, azotemia/uremia, nephrotoxicity (associated with acute fatty liver), renal tubular damage, Fanconi-like syndrome[Ref]

Nephrotoxicity associated with acute fatty liver has been reported with high tetracycline doses. High serum levels of tetracyclines have been associated with azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis in patients with renal dysfunction.

Degraded tetracycline may cause renal tubular damage and a Fanconi-like syndrome.[Ref]

Hematologic

Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Eosinophilia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Hemolytic anemia, pancytopenia

Frequency not reported: Agranulocytosis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-positive vasculitis[Ref]

Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and eosinophilia have also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Respiratory

Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Cough, dyspnea, pulmonary infiltration

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Bronchospasm, exacerbation of asthma, pulmonary eosinophilia

Frequency not reported: Pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pulmonary lupus, eosinophilic pneumonia, pleural effusions, relapsing acute respiratory failure

Postmarketing reports: Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia[Ref]

Cardiovascular

Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Myocarditis, pericarditis[Ref]

Metabolic

Rare (0.01% to 0.1%): Anorexia

Tetracyclines:

-Frequency not reported: Hyperphosphatemia, acidosis[Ref]

High serum levels of tetracyclines have been associated with azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis in patients with renal dysfunction.[Ref]

Endocrine

A condition characterized by dark pigmentation (brown-black microscopic discoloration) of the thyroid gland has been reported; however, there was no clinical or laboratory evidence of thyroid dysfunction (unknown clinical implications).

Brown-black microscopic thyroid discoloration and abnormal thyroid function have also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Abnormal thyroid function, brown-black microscopic thyroid discoloration

Frequency not reported: Discolored breast secretions[Ref]

Genitourinary

Very rare (less than 0.01%): Balanitis (due to lesions on the glans penis), vulvovaginitis

Postmarketing reports: Deleterious effects on spermatogenesis[Ref]

Balanitis has also been reported during postmarketing experience.[Ref]

Local

Frequency not reported: Injection site erythema, injection site pain[Ref]

Oncologic

Frequency not reported: Papillary thyroid cancer

Postmarketing reports: Thyroid cancer

Ocular

Cases of grey scleral pigmentation and macular pigmentation have been reported in elderly patients after chronic use of this drug (5 to 12 years).[Ref]

Frequency not reported: Discoloration of conjunctiva, discoloration of lacrimal secretions, grey scleral pigmentation, macular pigmentation[Ref]

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