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Mezlocillin Side Effects

Applies to mezlocillin: injectable powder for injection


Mezlocillin is generally well-tolerated.[Ref]


Hypersensitivity reactions are usually mild. General skin reactions and eosinophilia occur in up to 3% of treated patients. As with other penicillins, hypersensitivity reactions may include urticarial rash, angioedema, pruritus, and, in rare cases, bronchospasm, hypotension, and anaphylaxis.[Ref]

Rare cases of interstitial nephritis related to mezlocillin are likely due to hypersensitivity. Intravenous administration may result in thrombophlebitis or vein irritation in rare cases.

One small study demonstrated an increased incidence of allergic reactions in patients with cystic fibrosis who were given mezlocillin.[Ref]


Nausea, vomiting, and altered sensation of taste have been reported. Mild and transient elevations of liver function tests are rare. A rare case of cholestatic jaundice associated with mezlocillin has been reported.[Ref]

Gastrointestinal side effects are among the most common adverse effects, with diarrhea occurring in up to 3% of patients.[Ref]


Elevations of BUN and serum creatinine have been reported, but may be related to underlying illness. Interstitial nephritis has been reported in rare cases.[Ref]

Mezlocillin may cause a false positive sulfosalicylic acid test for proteinuria.[Ref]


Hematologic side effects are uncommon. Leukopenia has been reported in less than 1% of patients. Leukopenia has been reported in 23% of patients with liver disease receiving beta-lactam antibiotics. Platelet dysfunction may occur in up to 25% of treated patients resulting in significantly prolonged bleeding times.[Ref]

Agranulocytosis and nonhemolytic Coombs' positive tests have been reported. In vitro studies show mezlocillin to cause decreased platelet aggregation, but no clinical bleeding has been observed.[Ref]

Nervous system

Although not reported with mezlocillin, convulsions and neuromuscular hyperirritability may be potential side effects of penicillin derivatives.[Ref]


Rare cases of hypokalemia have been reported, but may have been due to factors other than mezlocillin therapy.[Ref]

Rare cases of hypokalemia have been reported, but may have been due to factors other than mezlocillin therapy.[Ref]


1. "Multum Information Services, Inc. Expert Review Panel"

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3. Cushner HM, Copley JB, Bauman J, Hill SC "Acute interstital nephritis associated with mezlocillin, nafcillin, and gentamicin treatment for pseudomonas infection." Arch Intern Med 145 (1985): 1204-7

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6. Konopka "Clinical experience with mezlocillin in Europe: an overview." J Antimicrob Chemother 9 (1982): 1-6

7. Pleasants RA, Walker TR, Samuelson WM "Allergic reactions to parenteral beta-lactam antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis." Chest 106 (1994): 1124-8

8. Palla R, Panichi V, Bionda A, et al "Acute renal failure after mezlocilline." Clin Nephrol 25 (1986): 315-6

9. Gerecht WB, Henry NK, Hoffman WW, et al "Prospective randomized comparison of mezlocillin therapy alone with combined ampicillin and gentamicin therapy for patients with cholangitis." Arch Intern Med 149 (1989): 1279-84

10. Russo J, Russo ME "Comparative review of two new wide-spectrum penicillins: mezlocillin and piperacillin." Clin Pharm 1 (1982): 207-16

11. Peters HJ "Comparison of intravenous ciprofloxacin and mezlocillin in treatment of complicated urinary tract infection." Eur J Clin Microbiol 5 (1986): 253-5

12. Decker CF, Martin GJ, Barham WB, Paparello SF "Severe cholestatic jaundice caused by mezlocillin." Clin Infect Dis 15 (1992): 179-80

13. Mehta P, Lawson D, Gross S, Graham-Pole J "Comparative effects of mezlocillin and carbenicillin on platelet function and thromboxane generation in patients with cancer." Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 11 (1989): 286-91

14. Gharpure V, Oconnell B, Schiffer CA "Mezlocillin-induced thrombocytopenia." Ann Intern Med 119 (1993): 862

15. Kirkwood CF, Lasezkay GM "Neutropenia associated with mezlocillin and piperacillin." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 19 (1985): 112-4

16. Singh N, Yu VL, Mieles LA, Wagener MM "Beta-lactam antibiotic-induced leukopenia in severe hepatic dysfunction: risk factors and implications for dosing in patients with liver disease." Am J Med 94 (1993): 251-6

17. Fass RJ, Copelan EA, Brandt JT, Moeschberger ML, Ashton JJ "Platelet-mediated bleeding caused by broad-spectrum penicillins." J Infect Dis 155 (1987): 1242-8

Not all side effects for mezlocillin may be reported. You should always consult a doctor or healthcare professional for medical advice. Side effects can be reported to the FDA here.

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