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SitaGLIPtin

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Oct 1, 2020.

Pronunciation

(sit a GLIP tin)

Index Terms

  • MK-0431
  • Sitagliptin Phosphate

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Januvia: 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Januvia

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antidiabetic Agent, Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4) Inhibitor

Pharmacology

Sitagliptin inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme resulting in prolonged active incretin levels. Incretin hormones (eg, glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide [GIP]) regulate glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells and decreasing glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells. Decreased glucagon secretion results in decreased hepatic glucose production. Under normal physiologic circumstances, incretin hormones are released by the intestine throughout the day and levels are increased in response to a meal; incretin hormones are rapidly inactivated by the DPP-4 enzyme.

Absorption

Rapid

Distribution

~198 L

Metabolism

Not extensively metabolized; minor metabolism via CYP3A4 and 2C8 to metabolites (inactive) suggested by in vitro studies

Excretion

Urine 87% (~79% as unchanged drug, 16% as metabolites); feces 13%

Time to Peak

1 to 4 hours

Half-Life Elimination

12.4 hours

Protein Binding

38%

Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment

Plasma AUC levels of sitagliptin were increased approximately 2- and 4-fold in patients with moderate and severe renal impairment, including patients with ESRD on hemodialysis, respectively.

Special Populations: Elderly

Elderly patients had ~19% higher plasma concentration.

Use: Labeled Indications

Diabetes mellitus, type 2, treatment: As an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, as monotherapy or combination therapy.

Contraindications

Serious hypersensitivity (eg, anaphylaxis, angioedema) to sitagliptin or any component of the formulation

Dosing: Adult

Note: Due to lack of additive glycemic benefit, use in combination with a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist should be avoided (ADA/EASD [Davies 2018]; Nauck 2017). May require a dose reduction of insulin and/or insulin secretagogues to avoid hypoglycemia.

Diabetes mellitus, type 2, treatment:

Note: May be used as an adjunctive agent or alternative monotherapy for patients who fail initial therapy with lifestyle intervention and metformin or who cannot take metformin, particularly in patients close to glycemic goals when avoidance of hypoglycemia and/or weight gain is desirable; use is not associated with improvement in cardiovascular or renal outcomes (AACE/ACE [Garber 2020]; ADA 2020; Green 2015).

Oral: 100 mg once daily.

Administration

Oral: Administer without regard to meals.

Dietary Considerations

Individualized medical nutrition therapy (MNT) based on American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations is an integral part of therapy.

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Alpha-Lipoic Acid: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Androgens: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Exceptions: Danazol. Monitor therapy

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy

Digoxin: SITagliptin may increase the serum concentration of Digoxin. Monitor therapy

Direct Acting Antiviral Agents (HCV): May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Guanethidine: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents: Antidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy

Insulins: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Management: Consider a decrease in insulin dose when initiating therapy with a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification

Maitake: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Pegvisomant: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Prothionamide: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Quinolones: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Quinolones may diminish the therapeutic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Specifically, if an agent is being used to treat diabetes, loss of blood sugar control may occur with quinolone use. Monitor therapy

Ritodrine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Salicylates: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Sulfonylureas: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Sulfonylureas. Management: Consider a decrease in sulfonylurea dose when initiating therapy with a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

1% to 10%:

Endocrine & metabolic: Hypoglycemia (1%)

Respiratory: Nasopharyngitis (5%)

Frequency not defined: Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, nausea

Postmarketing:

Dermatologic: Bullous pemphigoid (García-Díez 2018; Tanaka 2019), skin rash (Nakai 2014), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (Desai 2010), toxic epidermal necrolysis (Desai 2010)

Gastrointestinal: Acute pancreatitis (including hemorrhagic or necrotizing forms) (Butler 2013; Elashoff 2011; Scheen 2018), constipation (Williams-Herman 2010), oral mucosa ulcer (Jinbu 2013), stomatitis, vomiting

Hepatic: Increased liver enzymes (Shahbaz 2018)

Hypersensitivity: Anaphylaxis (Desai 2010), angioedema (Arcani 2017; Gosmanov 2012; Skalli 2010), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (Sin 2012)

Nervous system: Headache (Zaghloul 2018)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Arthralgia (FDA safety alert; Mascolo 2016), myalgia (Tarapues 2013)

Renal: Acute renal failure (possibly requiring dialysis) (Shih 2016)

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Arthralgia: Severe and disabling arthralgia has been reported with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor use; onset may occur within one day to years after treatment initiation and may resolve with discontinuation of therapy. Some patients may experience a recurrence of symptoms if DPP-4 inhibitor therapy resumed.

• Bullous pemphigoid: DPP-4 inhibitor use has been associated with development of bullous pemphigoid; cases have typically resolved with topical or systemic immunosuppressive therapy and discontinuation of DPP-4 inhibitor therapy. Advise patients to report development of blisters or erosions. Discontinue therapy if bullous pemphigoid is suspected and consider referral to a dermatologist.

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been reported; discontinue if signs/symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions occur. Events have generally been noted within the first 3 months of therapy, and may occur with the initial dose. Use with caution if patient has experienced angioedema with other DPP-4 inhibitor use.

• Pancreatitis: Cases of acute pancreatitis (including hemorrhagic and necrotizing with some fatalities) have been reported with use. Monitor for signs/symptoms of pancreatitis; discontinue use immediately if pancreatitis is suspected and initiate appropriate management. Use with caution in patients with a history of pancreatitis as it is not known if this population is at greater risk.

• Renal effects: Worsening renal function, including acute renal failure, sometimes requiring dialysis has been reported.

Disease-related concerns:

• Bariatric surgery:

Altered absorption: Absorption may be altered given the anatomic and transit changes created by gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy surgery (Mechanick 2013; Melissas 2013).

Glucagon-like peptide-1 exposure and therapeutic efficacy: Closely monitor for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis; gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy may increase endogenous secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (Korner 2009; Peterli 2012). A single-dose, placebo-controlled study evaluated short-term therapy (4 weeks) with sitagliptin in gastric bypass patients having persistent or recurrent type 2 diabetes and found it to be well tolerated and provided a small but significant reduction in postprandial blood glucose (Shah 2018).

• Cardiovascular disease: In cardiovascular outcome trials of patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, treatment with other DPP-4 inhibitors has been associated with HF. In a scientific statement from the American Heart Association, sitagliptin has been determined to be an agent that may exacerbate underlying myocardial dysfunction (magnitude: major) (AHA [Page 2016]). However, in one large randomized, double-blinded trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease (history of major CAD, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease), the occurrence of the primary composite cardiovascular outcome (cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) with sitagliptin was found to be noninferior to placebo. In addition, the rate of hospitalization for heart failure did not differ between the two groups (Green 2015; McGuire 2016). The ADA suggests DPP-4 inhibitors (except saxagliptin) may be considered in patients with HF (ADA 2020).

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with moderate to severe renal dysfunction and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis; dosing adjustment required.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Not indicated for use in patients with type 1 diabetes or in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

• Patient education: Diabetes self-management education is essential to maximize the effectiveness of therapy.

Monitoring Parameters

HbA1c (at least twice yearly in patients who have stable glycemic control and are meeting treatment goals; quarterly in patients not meeting treatment goals or with therapy change [ADA 2020]), serum glucose; renal function prior to initiation and periodically during treatment; signs/symptoms of heart failure.

Pregnancy Considerations

Information related to the use of sitagliptin in pregnancy is limited (Sun 2017).

Poorly controlled diabetes during pregnancy can be associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including diabetic ketoacidosis, preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion, preterm delivery, delivery complications, major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia. To prevent adverse outcomes, prior to conception and throughout pregnancy, maternal blood glucose and HbA1c should be kept as close to target goals as possible but without causing significant hypoglycemia (ADA 2020; Blumer 2013).

Agents other than sitagliptin are currently recommended to treat diabetes mellitus in pregnancy (ADA 2020).

Health care providers are encouraged to enroll women exposed to sitagliptin during pregnancy in the registry (1-800-986-8999).

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to lower blood sugar in patients with high blood sugar (diabetes).

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Headache

• Common cold symptoms

• Nose irritation

• Throat irritation

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Heart problems like cough or shortness of breath that is new or worse, swelling of the ankles or legs, abnormal heartbeat, weight gain of more than five pounds in 24 hours, dizziness, or passing out

• Kidney problems like not able to pass urine, blood in the urine, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain

• Pancreatitis like severe abdominal pain, severe back pain, severe nausea, or vomiting

• Low blood sugar like dizziness, headache, fatigue, feeling weak, shaking, a fast heartbeat, confusion, hunger, or sweating.

• Skin blisters

• Skin breakdown

• Severe joint pain

• Persistent joint pain

• Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis like red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin (with or without fever); red or irritated eyes; or sores in mouth, throat, nose, or eyes.

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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