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Gemifloxacin

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jun 16, 2019.

Pronunciation

(je mi FLOKS a sin)

Index Terms

  • DW286
  • Gemifloxacin Mesylate
  • LA 20304a
  • SB-265805

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Tablet, Oral:

Factive: 320 mg [DSC] [scored]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Factive [DSC]

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antibiotic, Fluoroquinolone
  • Antibiotic, Respiratory Fluoroquinolone

Pharmacology

Gemifloxacin is a DNA gyrase inhibitor and also inhibits topoisomerase IV. DNA gyrase (topoisomerase IV) is an essential bacterial enzyme that maintains the superhelical structure of DNA. DNA gyrase is required for DNA replication and transcription, DNA repair, recombination, and transposition; bactericidal

Absorption

Well absorbed from the GI tract

Distribution

Vdss: 4.2 L/kg

Metabolism

Hepatic (minor); forms metabolites (CYP isoenzymes are not involved)

Excretion

Feces (61%); urine (36%)

Time to Peak

Plasma: 0.5-2 hours

Half-Life Elimination

7 hours (range 4-12 hours)

Protein Binding

~60% to 70%

Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment

Average increase in AUC of approximately 70% in patients with renal insufficiency.

Use: Labeled Indications

Treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis; treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), including pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae (MDRSP)

Limitations of use: Because fluoroquinolones have been associated with disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions (eg, tendinitis and tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, CNS effects), reserve gemifloxacin for use in patients who have no alternative treatment options for acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.

Off Label Uses

Gonococcal, uncomplicated urogenital infections (patients with cephalosporin allergy)

Data from a multicenter, randomized, open-label, noncomparative trial demonstrated that gemifloxacin in combination with azithromycin was effective for uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea (cure rate: 99.5% [lower one-sided 95% CI bound = 97.6%]). However, gastrointestinal adverse events were common (~8% of patients vomited within one hour) and may limit routine use [Kirkcaldy 2014].

Based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, gemifloxacin in combination with azithromycin may be an effective alternative regimen for the treatment of uncomplicated urogenital gonococcal infections in patients with cephalosporin allergy, although limited evidence is available and more studies are needed.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to gemifloxacin, other fluoroquinolones, or any component of the formulation

Dosing: Adult

Note: Factive is no longer available in the United States.

Susceptible infections: Oral: 320 mg once daily

Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: Oral: 320 mg once daily for 5 days

Gonococcal, uncomplicated urogenital infections (alternative therapy in patients with cephalosporin allergy, off-label use): Oral: 320 mg as a single dose in combination with oral azithromycin (CDC [Workowski 2015]; Kirkcaldy 2014)

Pneumonia, community-acquired (CAP): Oral: 320 mg once daily. Duration is for a minimum of 5 days and varies based on disease severity and response to therapy; patients should be afebrile for ≥48 hours and clinically stable before therapy is discontinued (IDSA/ATS [Mandell 2007])

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Administration

Oral: May be administered with or without food. Do not administer with dairy products (eg, milk, yogurt) or calcium-fortified juices alone; however, may be administered with a meal that contains these products. Do not administer products (including multivitamins) containing iron, zinc, or magnesium within 3 hours before or 2 hours after gemifloxacin.

Dietary Considerations

Do not take with dairy products (eg, milk, yogurt) or calcium-fortified juices alone; however, may be taken with a meal that contains these products.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions are permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect from light.

Drug Interactions

Aminolevulinic Acid (Systemic): Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Aminolevulinic Acid (Systemic). Avoid combination

Aminolevulinic Acid (Topical): Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Aminolevulinic Acid (Topical). Monitor therapy

Amiodarone: Gemifloxacin may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Amiodarone. Avoid combination

Antacids: May decrease the absorption of Quinolones. Of concern only with oral administration of quinolones. Management: Avoid concurrent administration of quinolones and antacids to minimize the impact of this interaction. Recommendations for optimal dose separation vary by specific quinolone. Exceptions: Sodium Bicarbonate. Consider therapy modification

BCG (Intravesical): Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of BCG (Intravesical). Avoid combination

BCG Vaccine (Immunization): Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of BCG Vaccine (Immunization). Monitor therapy

Blood Glucose Lowering Agents: Quinolones may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Quinolones may diminish the therapeutic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Specifically, if an agent is being used to treat diabetes, loss of blood sugar control may occur with quinolone use. Monitor therapy

Calcium Salts: May decrease the absorption of Quinolones. Of concern only with oral administration of both agents. Exceptions: Calcium Chloride. Consider therapy modification

Cholera Vaccine: Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Cholera Vaccine. Management: Avoid cholera vaccine in patients receiving systemic antibiotics, and within 14 days following the use of oral or parenteral antibiotics. Avoid combination

Corticosteroids (Systemic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Quinolones. Specifically, the risk of tendonitis and tendon rupture may be increased. Monitor therapy

Delamanid: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Delamanid. Management: Avoid concomitant use of delamanid and quinolone antibiotics if possible. If coadministration is considered to be unavoidable, frequent monitoring of electrocardiograms throughout the full delamanid treatment period should occur. Consider therapy modification

Didanosine: Quinolones may decrease the serum concentration of Didanosine. Didanosine may decrease the serum concentration of Quinolones. Management: Administer oral quinolones at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after didanosine. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effects of quinolones, particularly if doses cannot be separated as recommended. This does not apply to unbuffered enteric coated didanosine. Consider therapy modification

Domperidone: QT-prolonging Agents (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Domperidone. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Haloperidol: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

Heroin: Quinolones may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Heroin. Monitor therapy

Iron Preparations: May decrease the serum concentration of Quinolones. Management: Give oral quinolones at least several hours before (4 h for moxi- and sparfloxacin, 2 h for others) or after (8 h for moxi-, 6 h for cipro/dela-, 4 h for lome-, 3 h for gemi-, and 2 h for levo-, nor-, oflox-, pefloxacin, or nalidixic acid) oral iron. Exceptions: Ferric Carboxymaltose; Ferric Gluconate; Ferric Hydroxide Polymaltose Complex; Ferric Pyrophosphate Citrate; Ferumoxytol; Iron Dextran Complex; Iron Isomaltoside; Iron Sucrose. Consider therapy modification

Lactobacillus and Estriol: Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus and Estriol. Monitor therapy

Magnesium Salts: May decrease the serum concentration of Quinolones. Management: Administer oral quinolones several hours before (4 h for moxi/pe/spar-, 2 h for others) or after (8 h for moxi-, 6 h for cipro/dela-, 4 h for lome/pe-, 3 h for gemi-, and 2 h for levo-, nor-, or ofloxacin or nalidixic acid) oral magnesium salts. Consider therapy modification

Methadone: Gemifloxacin may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Methadone. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk Consider therapy modification

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): May decrease the serum concentration of Quinolones. Specifically, polyvalent cations in multivitamin products may decrease the absorption of orally administered quinolone antibiotics. Management: Interactions can be minimized by administering the oral quinolone at least 2 hours before, or 6 hours after, the dose of a multivitamin that contains polyvalent cations (i.e., calcium, iron, magnesium, selenium, zinc). Consider therapy modification

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): May decrease the serum concentration of Quinolones. Specifically, minerals in the multivitamin/mineral product may impair absorption of quinolone antibiotics. Management: Interactions can be minimized by administering the oral quinolone at least 2 hours before, or 6 hours after, the dose of a multivitamin that contains polyvalent cations (i.e., calcium, iron, magnesium, selenium, zinc). Consider therapy modification

Mycophenolate: Quinolones may decrease the serum concentration of Mycophenolate. Specifically, quinolones may decrease concentrations of the active metabolite of mycophenolate. Monitor therapy

Nadifloxacin: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Quinolones. Avoid combination

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: May enhance the neuroexcitatory and/or seizure-potentiating effect of Quinolones. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of Quinolones. Monitor therapy

Ondansetron: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

Pentamidine (Systemic): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

Pimozide: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Moderate Risk). Avoid combination

Porfimer: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Porfimer. Monitor therapy

Probenecid: May increase the serum concentration of Gemifloxacin. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Antipsychotics (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antipsychotics (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Exceptions: Pimozide. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk): Gemifloxacin may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Avoid combination

QT-prolonging Class IC Antiarrhythmics (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class IC Antiarrhythmics (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk): Gemifloxacin may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Avoid combination

QT-prolonging Kinase Inhibitors (Highest Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Gemifloxacin. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

QT-prolonging Kinase Inhibitors (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Kinase Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Highest Risk): Gemifloxacin may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Highest Risk). Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Exceptions: Delamanid. Consider therapy modification

QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Exceptions: Domperidone. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of other QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

Quinapril: May decrease the serum concentration of Quinolones. Management: Separate doses of quinapril and oral quinolones by at least 2 hours in order to reduce the risk of interaction. Monitor for reduced efficacy of the quinolone if these products are used concomitantly. Consider therapy modification

Sevelamer: May decrease the absorption of Quinolones. Management: Administer oral quinolones at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after sevelamer. Consider therapy modification

Sodium Picosulfate: Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Sodium Picosulfate. Management: Consider using an alternative product for bowel cleansing prior to a colonoscopy in patients who have recently used or are concurrently using an antibiotic. Consider therapy modification

Strontium Ranelate: May decrease the serum concentration of Quinolones. Management: In order to minimize any potential impact of strontium ranelate on quinolone antibiotic concentrations, it is recommended that strontium ranelate treatment be interrupted during quinolone therapy. Avoid combination

Sucralfate: May decrease the serum concentration of Quinolones. Management: Administer oral quinolones at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after the sucralfate dose. Greater separation of doses may further lessen the risk for a significant interaction. Consider therapy modification

Typhoid Vaccine: Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Typhoid Vaccine. Only the live attenuated Ty21a strain is affected. Management: Vaccination with live attenuated typhoid vaccine (Ty21a) should be avoided in patients being treated with systemic antibacterial agents. Use of this vaccine should be postponed until at least 3 days after cessation of antibacterial agents. Consider therapy modification

Varenicline: Quinolones may increase the serum concentration of Varenicline. Management: Monitor for increased varenicline adverse effects with concurrent use of levofloxacin or other quinolone antibiotics, particularly in patients with severe renal impairment. International product labeling recommendations vary. Consult appropriate labeling. Monitor therapy

Verteporfin: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Verteporfin. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Quinolones may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Monitor therapy

Zinc Salts: May decrease the serum concentration of Quinolones. Management: Give oral quinolones at least several hours before (4 h for moxi- and sparfloxacin, 2 h for others) or after (8 h for moxi-, 6 h for cipro/dela-, 4 h for lome-, 3 h for gemi-, and 2 h for levo-, nor-, pe- or ofloxacin or nalidixic acid) oral zinc salts. Exceptions: Zinc Chloride. Consider therapy modification

Adverse Reactions

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (4%), dizziness (≤2%)

Dermatologic: Skin rash (≤4%)

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (5%), nausea (4%), abdominal pain (≤2%), vomiting (≤2%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Thrombocythemia (1%)

Hepatic: Increased serum alanine aminotransferase (≤4%), increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (≤1%)

Frequency not defined: Central nervous system: Agitation, anxiety, confusion, delirium, depression, disorientation, disturbance in attention, hallucination, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, memory impairment, paranoid ideation, restlessness, seizure, suicidal ideation, suicidal tendencies, toxic psychosis

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Acute renal failure, agranulocytosis, anaphylaxis, anemia, angioedema, anorexia, antibiotic-associated colitis, aplastic anemia, arthralgia, asthenia, axonal peripheral polyneuropathy, back pain, candidiasis, Clostridioides difficile associated diarrhea, Clostridioides difficile colitis, constipation, decreased hematocrit, decreased hemoglobin, decreased neutrophils, decreased serum albumin, decreased serum calcium, decreased serum potassium, decreased serum sodium, decreased serum total protein, dermatitis, drowsiness, dysesthesia, dysgeusia, dyspepsia, dyspnea, eczema, eosinophilia, eosinophilic pneumonitis, erythema multiforme, exacerbation of myasthenia gravis, exfoliation of skin, facial edema, fatigue, fever, flatulence, flushing, fungal infection, gastritis, gastroenteritis, genital candidiasis, genital pruritus, granulocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, hemorrhage, hepatic necrosis, hepatitis, hepatotoxicity, hot flash, hyperbilirubinemia, hyperglycemia, hypersensitivity reaction, hypoesthesia, increased blood urea nitrogen, increased creatine phosphokinase in blood specimen, increased gamma-glutamyl transferase, increased hematocrit, increased hemoglobin, increased INR, increased intracranial pressure, increased lactate dehydrogenase, increased neutrophils, increased nonprotein nitrogen, increased serum alkaline phosphatase, increased serum bilirubin, increased serum calcium, increased serum creatinine, increased serum potassium, increased serum sodium, insomnia, interstitial nephritis, jaundice, leukopenia, lower limb cramp, myalgia, nervousness, pain, pancytopenia, paresthesia, peripheral edema, peripheral neuropathy, pharyngitis, pneumonia, prolonged QT interval on ECG, pruritus, renal failure syndrome, retinal hemorrhage, rupture of tendon, serum sickness, severe dermatological reaction, skin photosensitivity, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, supraventricular tachycardia, syncope, tendonitis, thrombocythemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, toxic epidermal necrolysis, transient ischemic attacks, tremor, urine abnormality, urticaria, vaginitis, vertigo, visual disturbance, xerostomia

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Serious adverse reactions:

Fluoroquinolones have been associated with disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions that have occurred together, including tendonitis and tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and CNS effects. Discontinue gemifloxacin immediately and avoid use of fluoroquinolones in patients who experience any of these serious adverse reactions. Because fluoroquinolones have been associated with serious adverse reactions, reserve gemifloxacin for use in patients who have no alternative treatment options for acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.

Exacerbation of myasthenia gravis:

Fluoroquinolones may exacerbate muscle weakness in individuals with myasthenia gravis. Avoid gemifloxacin in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Altered cardiac conduction: Fluoroquinolones may prolong QTc interval; avoid use in patients with a history of QTc prolongation, uncorrected electrolyte disorders (hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia) or concurrent administration of other medications known to prolong the QT interval (including Class Ia and Class III antiarrhythmics, cisapride, erythromycin, antipsychotics, and tricyclic antidepressants).

• Aortic aneurysm and dissection: Fluoroquinolones have been associated with aortic aneurysm ruptures or dissection within 2 months following use, particularly in elderly patients. Fluoroquinolones should not be used in patients with a known history of aortic aneurysm or those at increased risk, including patients with peripheral atherosclerotic vascular diseases, hypertension, genetic disorders involving blood vessel changes (eg, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome), and elderly patients, unless no other treatment options are available. Longer treatment duration (eg, >14 days) may increase risk (Lee 2018).

• Glucose regulation: Fluoroquinolones have been associated with disturbances in glucose regulation, including hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. These events have occurred most often in patients receiving concomitant oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. Severe cases of hypoglycemia, including coma and death, have been reported. Diabetic patients should be monitored closely for signs/symptoms of disordered glucose regulation. Discontinue if a hypoglycemic reaction occurs and immediately initiate appropriate therapy.

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Severe hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have occurred with fluoroquinolone therapy. The spectrum of these reactions can vary widely; reactions may present as typical allergic symptoms (eg, itching, urticaria, rash, edema) after a single dose, or may manifest as severe idiosyncratic dermatologic (eg, Stevens-Johnson, toxic epidermal necrolysis), vascular (eg, vasculitis), pulmonary (eg, pneumonitis), renal (eg, nephritis), hepatic (eg, hepatic failure or necrosis), and/or hematologic (eg, anemia, cytopenias) events, usually after multiple doses. Some reactions have been accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, hypotension/shock, seizure, loss of consciousness, tingling, angioedema, and/or airway obstruction. May cause maculopapular rash, usually 8 to 10 days after treatment initiation; risk factors may include age <40 years, female gender (including postmenopausal women on HRT), and treatment duration >7 days. Prompt discontinuation of drug should occur if skin rash or other symptoms arise.

• Phototoxicity: Avoid excessive sunlight and take precautions to limit exposure (eg, loose fitting clothing, sunscreen); may cause moderate-to-severe phototoxicity reactions. Discontinue use if photosensitivity occurs.

• Serious adverse reactions: [US Boxed Warning]: Fluoroquinolones are associated with disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions that may occur together, including tendinitis and tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and CNS effects. Discontinue gemifloxacin immediately and avoid use of fluoroquinolones in patients who experience any of these serious adverse reactions. Patients of any age or without preexisting risk factors have experienced these reactions; may occur within hours to weeks after initiation.

- CNS effects: Fluoroquinolones have been associated with an increased risk of CNS effects including seizures, increased intracranial pressure (including pseudotumor cerebri), lightheadedness, and tremors. Use with caution in patients with known or suspected CNS disorder, or risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold. Discontinue immediately if reaction occurs and institute appropriate therapy.

- Peripheral neuropathy: Fluoroquinolones have been associated with an increased risk of peripheral neuropathy; may occur soon after initiation of therapy and may be irreversible; discontinue if symptoms of sensory or sensorimotor neuropathy occur. Avoid use in patients who have previously experienced peripheral neuropathy.

- Psychiatric reactions: Fluoroquinolones have been associated with an increased risk of psychiatric reactions, including toxic psychosis, hallucinations, or paranoia; may also cause agitation or restlessness, delirium, attention disturbances, insomnia, anxiety, memory impairment, confusion, depression, and suicidal thoughts or actions. Use with caution in patients with a history of or risk factor for depression; discontinue if reaction occurs and institute appropriate therapy.

- Tendinitis/tendon rupture: Fluoroquinolones have been associated with an increased risk of tendonitis and tendon rupture in all ages; risk may be increased with concurrent corticosteroids, solid organ transplant recipients, and in patients >60 years of age, but has also occurred in patients without these risk factors. Rupture of the Achilles tendon has been reported most frequently; but other tendon sites (eg, rotator cuff, biceps, hand) have also been reported. Inflammation and rupture may occur bilaterally. Cases have been reported within hours or days of initiation, and up to several months after discontinuation of therapy. Strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders may be independent risk factor for tendon rupture. Discontinue at first sign of tendon pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture. Avoid use in patients with a history of tendon disorders or who have experienced tendinitis or tendon rupture.

• Superinfection: Prolonged use may result in fungal or bacterial superinfection, including Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) and pseudomembranous colitis; CDAD has been observed >2 months postantibiotic treatment.

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with significant bradycardia or acute myocardial ischemia.

• Myasthenia gravis: [US Boxed Warning]: May exacerbate muscle weakness related to myasthenia gravis; avoid use in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis. Cases of severe exacerbations, including the need for ventilatory support and deaths, have been reported.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in renal impairment; dosage adjustment required for CrCl ≤40 mL/minute. May increase risk of tendon rupture.

• Rheumatoid arthritis: Use with caution in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; may increase risk of tendon rupture.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Elderly: Adverse effects (eg, tendon rupture, QT changes) may be increased in elderly patients.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: [US Boxed Warning]: Reserve use of gemifloxacin for treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis for patients who have no alternative treatment options because of the risk of disabling and potentially serious adverse reactions (eg, tendinitis and tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, CNS effects).

Monitoring Parameters

WBC, signs/symptoms of infection, renal function; signs and symptoms of disordered glucose regulation

Pregnancy Considerations

Adverse events have been observed in some animal reproduction studies.

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin [with or without fever]; red or irritated eyes; or sores in mouth, throat, nose, or eyes), signs of tendon inflammation or rupture (pain, bruising, or swelling in the back of the ankle, shoulder, hand, or other joints), signs of nerve problems (sensitivity to heat or cold; decreased sense of touch; burning, numbness, or tingling; pain, or weakness in the arms, hands, legs, or feet), signs of depression (thoughts of suicide, anxiety, emotional instability, or confusion), signs of high blood sugar (confusion, fatigue, increased thirst, increased hunger, polyuria, agitation, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit), signs of liver problems (dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice), signs of kidney problems (urinary retention, hematuria, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain), signs of low blood sugar (dizziness, headache, fatigue, feeling weak, shaking, tachycardia, confusion, increased hunger, or sweating), chest pain, tachycardia, abnormal heartbeat, passing out, mood changes, behavioral changes, anxiety, dizziness, confusion, agitation, restlessness, chills, nightmares, insomnia, seizures, severe headache, shortness of breath, bruising, bleeding, hallucinations, severe loss of strength and energy, tremors, abnormal gait, vaginitis, vision changes, muscle pain, muscle weakness, difficulty focusing, memory impairment, severe or persistent abdominal pain, severe or persistent chest pain, severe or persistent back pain, or signs of Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile (C. diff)-associated diarrhea (abdominal pain or cramps, severe diarrhea or watery stools, or bloody stools) (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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