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Ertugliflozin and Sitagliptin

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Aug 26, 2020.

Pronunciation

(er too gli FLOE zin & sit a GLIP tin)

Index Terms

  • Sitagliptin and Ertugliflozin

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Steglujan: Ertugliflozin 5 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg, Ertugliflozin 15 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Steglujan

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antidiabetic Agent, Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPP-4) Inhibitor
  • Antidiabetic Agent, Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor
  • Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor

Pharmacology

Ertugliflozin: By inhibiting sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in the proximal renal tubules, ertugliflozin reduces reabsorption of filtered glucose from the tubular lumen and lowers the renal threshold for glucose (RTG). SGLT2 is the main site of filtered glucose reabsorption; reduction of filtered glucose reabsorption and lowering of RTG result in increased urinary excretion of glucose, thereby reducing plasma glucose concentrations.

Sitagliptin: Inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) enzyme resulting in prolonged active incretin levels. Incretin hormones (eg, glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide [GIP]) regulate glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells and decreasing glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells. Decreased glucagon secretion results in decreased hepatic glucose production. Under normal physiologic circumstances, incretin hormones are released by the intestine throughout the day and levels are increased in response to a meal; incretin hormones are rapidly inactivated by the DPP-4 enzyme.

Use: Labeled Indications

Diabetes mellitus, type 2, treatment: As an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus when treatment with both ertugliflozin and sitagliptin is appropriate.

Contraindications

History of serious hypersensitivity (eg, anaphylaxis, angioedema) reaction to ertugliflozin, sitagliptin, or any component of the formulation; severe renal impairment (eGFR <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2), end stage renal disease, or dialysis

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): eGFR <45 mL/minute/1.73 m2)

Dosing: Adult

Note: Hypovolemia, if present, should be corrected prior to initiating therapy. Due to lack of additive glycemic benefit, use of sitagliptin in combination with a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist should be avoided (ADA/EASD [Davies 2018]). May require a gradual dose reduction of insulin and/or insulin secretagogues to avoid hypoglycemia.

Diabetes mellitus, type 2, treatment: Oral:

Note: Additional therapeutic considerations may apply; refer to individual agents for information.

Initial: Ertugliflozin 5 mg/sitagliptin 100 mg once daily; if further glycemic control is needed dose may be increased to ertugliflozin 15 mg/sitagliptin 100 mg once daily (maximum: ertugliflozin 15 mg/sitagliptin 100 mg/day).

Patients already taking ertugliflozin: Initial: Maintain current ertugliflozin dose with sitagliptin 100 mg once daily.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing; use with caution.

Administration

Oral: Administer in the morning without regard to meals.

Dietary Considerations

Individualized medical nutrition therapy (MNT) based on American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations is an integral part of therapy.

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F), excursions permitted between 15°C and 30°C (between 59°F and 86°F). Protect from moisture. Store in a dry place.

Drug Interactions

Alpha-Lipoic Acid: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Androgens: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Exceptions: Danazol. Monitor therapy

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of angioedema may be increased. Monitor therapy

Digoxin: SITagliptin may increase the serum concentration of Digoxin. Monitor therapy

Direct Acting Antiviral Agents (HCV): May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Guanethidine: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents: Antidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy

Insulins: Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Management: Consider a decrease in insulin dose when initiating therapy with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification

Insulins: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Management: Consider a decrease in insulin dose when initiating therapy with a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification

Maitake: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Pegvisomant: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Prothionamide: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Quinolones: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Quinolones may diminish the therapeutic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Specifically, if an agent is being used to treat diabetes, loss of blood sugar control may occur with quinolone use. Monitor therapy

Ritodrine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Salicylates: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Agents with Blood Glucose Lowering Effects. Monitor therapy

Sulfonylureas: Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Sulfonylureas. Management: Consider a decrease in sulfonylurea dose when initiating therapy with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification

Sulfonylureas: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Sulfonylureas. Management: Consider a decrease in sulfonylurea dose when initiating therapy with a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Test Interactions

Ertugliflozin will cause positive test for glucosuria. Ertugliflozin may interfere with 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) assay; use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.

Adverse Reactions

See individual agents.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Arthralgia: Severe and disabling arthralgia has been reported with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor use; onset may occur within one day to years after treatment initiation and may resolve with discontinuation of therapy. Some patients may experience a recurrence of symptoms if DPP-4 inhibitor therapy resumed.

• Bone fractures: An increased incidence of bone fractures has been observed with other sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in some clinical trials. A placebo-controlled trial with ertugliflozin conducted over 2 years did not demonstrate an increased fracture risk; similar changes in bone mineral density (BMD) were observed between groups, except at the hip where a greater decrease in BMD was observed with ertugliflozin (Gallo 2019).

• Bullous pemphigoid: DPP-4 inhibitor use has been associated with development of bullous pemphigoid; cases have typically resolved with topical or systemic immunosuppressive therapy and discontinuation of DPP-4 inhibitor therapy. Advise patients to report development of blisters or erosions. Discontinue therapy if bullous pemphigoid is suspected and consider referral to a dermatologist.

• Genital mycotic infections: Ertugliflozin may increase the risk of genital mycotic infections (eg, vulvovaginal mycotic infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, vulvovaginitis, candida balanitis, balanoposthitis). Patients with a history of these infections or uncircumcised males are at greater risk.

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin reactions, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been reported with sitagliptin; discontinue if signs/symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions occur. Events have generally been noted within the first 3 months of therapy, and may occur with the initial dose. Use with caution if patient has experienced angioedema with other DPP-4 inhibitor use.

• Hypotension: Ertugliflozin may cause symptomatic hypotension due to intravascular volume depletion especially in patients with renal impairment (ie, eGFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2), elderly, patients on other antihypertensives (eg, diuretics, angiotensin-converting-enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]), or those with low systolic BP. Assess volume status prior to initiation in patients at risk of hypotension and correct if depleted; monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension after initiation.

• Ketoacidosis: Cases of ketoacidosis (some fatal) have been reported in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving SGLT2 inhibitors; in some cases, patients have presented with normal or only modestly elevated blood glucose (<250 mg/dL). Before initiating treatment, consider risk factors that may predispose to ketoacidosis (eg, pancreatic insulin deficiency, dose decreases of insulin, caloric restriction, alcohol abuse, acute febrile illness, surgery, any other extreme stress event). Consider temporary discontinuation of therapy ≥4 days prior to surgery or any event that may precipitate ketoacidosis; ensure risk factors are resolved prior to reinitiating therapy. Patients presenting with nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, generalized malaise, and/or shortness of breath should be assessed immediately for ketoacidosis; discontinue therapy and treat promptly if ketoacidosis is suspected.

• Lower limb amputation: There is conflicting data involving the risk of lower limb amputations with SGLT2 inhibitor therapy. Canagliflozin was associated with almost a 2-fold increased risk of lower limb amputations compared to placebo in the CANVAS and CANVAS-R trials, which included patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk (Neal 2017). Similar analyses with ertugliflozin have not yet been published. The following FDA guidance (developed specifically for canagliflozin) may reasonably apply to use of other SGLT2 inhibitors: Prior to initiation, consider risk factors for amputation including prior amputation, peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy, and diabetic foot ulcers. Counsel patients about the importance of preventative foot care. Discontinue therapy if any of the following occur: signs and symptoms of new infection (including osteomyelitis), new pain or tenderness, or sores/ulcers involving the lower limbs (FDA Drug Safety Communication 2017).

• Necrotizing fasciitis: Cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier gangrene), a rare but serious and potentially fatal infection, have been reported in patients receiving SGLT2 inhibitors. Assess patients presenting with fever or malaise along with genital or perianal pain, tenderness, erythema, or swelling for necrotizing fasciitis. Discontinue in patients who develop necrotizing fasciitis and initiate treatment immediately.

• Pancreatitis: Cases of acute pancreatitis (including hemorrhagic and necrotizing with some fatalities) have been reported with sitagliptin. Monitor for signs/symptoms of pancreatitis; discontinue use immediately if pancreatitis is suspected and initiate appropriate management. Use with caution in patients with a history of pancreatitis as it is not known if this population is at greater risk.

• Renal effects: Acute kidney injury has been reported with SGLT2 inhibitors. Prior to initiation, consider risk factors for acute kidney injury (eg, hypovolemia, chronic renal insufficiency, heart failure, use of concomitant medications [eg, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs]). Temporarily discontinue use with reduced oral intake or fluid losses; discontinue use if acute kidney injury occurs. Additional abnormalities in renal function (decreased eGFR, increased serum creatinine) and adverse effects related to renal function may occur. Worsening renal function, including acute renal failure, sometimes requiring dialysis has been reported with sitagliptin. Assess renal function prior to initiation and periodically during treatment.

• Urinary tract infection: Serious urinary infections including urosepsis and pyelonephritis requiring hospitalization have been reported; treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors increase the risk for urinary tract infections (UTI); monitor for signs and symptoms of UTI and treat as needed.

Disease-related concerns:

• Bariatric surgery:

– Altered absorption: Absorption may be altered given the anatomic and transit changes created by gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy surgery (Mechanick 2013; Melissas 2013).

– Dehydration: Evaluate, correct, and maintain postsurgical fluid requirements and volume status prior to initiating therapy and closely monitor the patient for the duration of therapy; volume depletion and related adverse events (eg, hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, syncope) have occurred. Fluid intake may be more difficult after gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, and gastric band (Mechanick 2013).

– Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: Discontinue therapy 3 to 5 days prior to surgery (Bobart 2016). Postoperatively, assess volume status, caloric intake, and need for diabetes treatment and withhold antidiabetic medication if type 2 diabetes is in remission. Ketoacidosis has been reported in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes on SGLT2 inhibitors. In some cases, normal or only modestly elevated blood glucose was present (<250 mg/dL) (van Niekerk 2018). Risk factors include significant reduction in insulin, caloric restriction, stress of surgery, and infection.

– Glucagon-like peptide-1 exposure and therapeutic efficacy: Closely monitor for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis; gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy may increase endogenous secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (Korner 2009; Peterli 2012). A single-dose, placebo-controlled study evaluated short-term therapy (4 weeks) with sitagliptin in gastric bypass patients having persistent or recurrent type 2 diabetes and found it to be well tolerated and provided a small but significant reduction in postprandial blood glucose (Shah 2018).

• Cardiovascular disease: In cardiovascular outcome trials of patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, treatment with other DPP-4 inhibitors has been associated with heart failure. In a scientific statement from the American Heart Association, sitagliptin has been determined to be an agent that may exacerbate underlying myocardial dysfunction (magnitude: major) (AHA [Page 2016]). However, in one large randomized, double-blinded trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease (history of major coronary artery disease, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, or atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease), the occurrence of the primary composite cardiovascular outcome (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina) with sitagliptin was found to be noninferior to placebo. In addition, the rate of hospitalization for heart failure did not differ between the two groups (Green 2015; McGuire 2016). The American Diabetes Association suggests DPP-4 inhibitors (except saxagliptin) may be considered in patients with heart failure (ADA 2020).

• Hepatic impairment: Ertugliflozin is not recommended for use in severe hepatic impairment (has not been studied).

• Renal impairment: Glycemic efficacy of ertugliflozin may be decreased in renal impairment. Assess renal function prior to initiation and periodically during treatment. Use is not recommended when eGFR is 30 to <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 prior to initiation or if persistently within this range during therapy and is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2, end-stage renal disease, or maintained on dialysis.

Special populations:

• Elderly: Elderly patients may be predisposed to symptoms related to intravascular volume depletion (eg, hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, syncope, and dehydration) and renal impairment or failure.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Not indicated for use in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (or in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis).

• Hospitalized patients: Use of SGLT2 inhibitors is not routinely recommended for hospitalized patients (ADA 2020).

• Patient education: Diabetes self-management education is essential to maximize the effectiveness of therapy.

• Surgical procedures: Consider temporary discontinuation of ertugliflozin-containing products ≥4 days prior to surgery; ensure risk factors for ketoacidosis are resolved prior to reinitiating therapy.

Monitoring Parameters

Blood glucose, HbA1c (at least twice yearly in patients who have stable glycemic control and are meeting treatment goals; quarterly in patients not meeting treatment goals or with therapy change) (ADA 2020); renal function (baseline and periodically during treatment); volume status (eg, BP, hematocrit, electrolytes); genital mycotic infections and urinary tract infection; hypersensitivity reactions; lower limb and feet (sores, ulcers, infection); if signs/symptoms of ketoacidosis (eg, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, malaise, shortness of breath), confirm diagnosis by direct measurement of blood ketones and arterial pH (measurement of serum bicarbonate or urinary ketones may not be adequate) (AACE [Handelsman 2016]); signs/symptoms of heart failure; signs and symptoms of acute pancreatitis; joint pain.

Pregnancy Considerations

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with this combination. Refer to individual monographs.

Health care providers are encouraged to report any prenatal exposure to sitagliptin to the pregnancy registry (1-800-986-8999).

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to lower blood sugar in patients with high blood sugar (diabetes).

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Common cold symptoms

• Sore throat

• Stuffy nose

• Headache

• Nausea

• Diarrhea

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Fluid and electrolyte problems like mood changes, confusion, muscle pain or weakness, abnormal heartbeat, severe dizziness, passing out, fast heartbeat, increased thirst, seizures, loss of strength and energy, lack of appetite, unable to pass urine or change in amount of urine passed, dry mouth, dry eyes, or nausea or vomiting

• Kidney problems like unable to pass urine, blood in the urine, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain

• Acidosis like confusion, fast breathing, fast heartbeat, abnormal heartbeat, severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, shortness of breath, or loss of strength and energy

• Urinary tract infection like blood in the urine, burning or painful urination, passing a lot of urine, fever, lower abdominal pain, or pelvic pain

• Pancreatitis like severe abdominal pain, severe back pain, severe nausea, or vomiting

• Heart problems like cough or shortness of breath that is new or worse, swelling of the ankles or legs, abnormal heartbeat, weight gain of more than five pounds in 24 hours, dizziness, or passing out

• Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis like red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin (with or without fever); red or irritated eyes; or sores in mouth, throat, nose, or eyes

• Low blood sugar like dizziness, headache, fatigue, feeling weak, shaking, fast heartbeat, confusion, increased hunger, or sweating

• Vaginal yeast infection

• Penile yeast infection

• Severe joint pain

• Persistent joint pain

• Skin blisters

• Skin breakdown or pain

• Sores

• Ulcers

• Infection in the legs, feet, genitals, or rectum

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.