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Desvenlafaxine

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Aug 7, 2020.

Pronunciation

(des ven la FAX een)

Index Terms

  • O-desmethylvenlafaxine
  • ODV

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Tablet Extended Release 24 Hour, Oral:

Khedezla: 50 mg [DSC]

Khedezla: 100 mg [DSC] [contains fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow)]

Generic: 50 mg, 100 mg

Tablet Extended Release 24 Hour, Oral, as fumarate [strength expressed as base]:

Generic: 50 mg [DSC], 100 mg [DSC]

Tablet Extended Release 24 Hour, Oral, as succinate [strength expressed as base]:

Pristiq: 25 mg, 50 mg

Pristiq: 100 mg [contains fd&c yellow #6 (sunset yellow)]

Generic: 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Khedezla [DSC]
  • Pristiq

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antidepressant, Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor

Pharmacology

Desvenlafaxine is a potent and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor.

Distribution

Vd: 3.4 L/kg

Metabolism

Hepatic via conjugation (major pathway), and oxidation via CYP3A4 (minor pathway)

Excretion

Urine (45% as unchanged drug; ~24% as metabolites)

Onset of Action

Depression: Initial effects may be observed within 1 to 2 weeks of treatment, with continued improvements through 4 to 6 weeks (Papakostas 2006; Posternak 2005; Szegedi 2009).

Half-Life Elimination

~10 to 11 hours; prolonged in renal failure and hepatic failure

Protein Binding

30%

Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment

Elimination is correlated with creatinine clearance. The AUC increases about 42% in patients with mild renal impairment, about 56% in those with moderate renal impairment, about 108% in those with severe renal impairment, and about 116% in ESRD requiring hemodialysis. The mean terminal half-life is prolonged from 11.1 hour in control subjects to about 13.5, 15.5, 17.6, and 22.8 hours in those with mild, moderate, severe, and ESRD, respectively. Less than 5% of the drug is cleared during standard 4-hour hemodialysis.

Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment

Average AUC is increased by about 31% and 35% in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment, respectively. Clearance is decreased about 20% and 36% in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment, respectively. The mean half-life increased from 10 hours in healthy subjects to 13 and 14 hours in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment, respectively. Average AUC, clearance and mean half-life is similar in patients with mild hepatic impairment and healthy subjects.

Special Populations: Elderly

There is an increase in the AUC and Cmax of about 55% and 32%, respectively, in patients >75 years of age compared with patients 18 to 45 years of age. Patients 65 to 75 years of age had a 32% increase in AUC but no change in Cmax compared with patients 18 to 45 years of age.

Special Populations: Gender

There is an increase in the AUC and Cmax of about 10% and 25%, respectively, in women compared with men.

Use: Labeled Indications

Major depressive disorder: Treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD).

Off Label Uses

Vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause

In meta-analyses of trials evaluating the treatment of hot flashes in post-menopausal women, the use of desvenlafaxine was shown to be safe and effective [Berhan 2014], [Sun 2013].

Based on the Endocrine Society guideline on the treatment of symptoms of menopause and the North American Menopause Society position statement on nonhormonal management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (including desvenlafaxine) are effective and recommended alternatives for the management of vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes) associated with menopause in patients with contraindications to hormonal therapy or who prefer not to use hormonal therapy [ES [Stuenkel 2015]], [NAMS 2015]. Based on the American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology breast cancer survivorship care guideline, SNRIs may be used to help mitigate vasomotor symptoms of premature menopause in women previously treated for breast cancer [ACS/ASCO [Runowicz 2016]].

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine or any component of the formulation; use of MAO inhibitors intended to treat psychiatric disorders (concurrently or within 14 days of discontinuing the MAO inhibitor); initiation of MAO inhibitor intended to treat psychiatric disorders within 7 days of discontinuing desvenlafaxine; initiation of desvenlafaxine in a patient receiving linezolid or intravenous methylene blue

Dosing: Adult

Note: In patients who are sensitive to side effects, some experts suggest a lower starting dose of 25 mg once daily, particularly in patients with anxiety who are generally more sensitive to overstimulation effects (eg, anxiety, insomnia) with antidepressants (Nelson 2020).

Major depressive disorder (unipolar):

Oral: Initial: 50 mg once daily. In patients who do not respond after 6 weeks (or 7 days in clinically urgent situations), may increase to 100 mg once daily. Note: Although doses >50 mg/day did not provide added benefit in clinical trials and were associated with more adverse effects, according to some experts, increasing to 100 mg/day can be useful to optimize effect if there is an insufficient response to 50 mg/day (CANMAT [Kennedy 2016]; Clayton 2015; Laoutidis 2015; Nelson 2020).

Vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause (alternative agent) (off-label use):

Note: Alternative for patients unable or unwilling to take estrogen (ES [Stuenkel 2015]).

Oral: Initial: 50 mg once daily; increase daily dose in 25 to 50 mg increments every day to target dose of 100 mg once daily. Some patients may require doses up to 150 mg/day for optimal response; however, doses >100 mg/day have greater adverse effects and limited additional benefit (Berhan 2014; NAMS 2015; Sun 2013).

Discontinuation of therapy: When discontinuing antidepressant treatment that has lasted for >3 weeks, gradually taper the dose (eg, over 2 to 4 weeks) to minimize withdrawal symptoms and detect reemerging symptoms (APA 2010; WFSBP [Bauer 2015]). Reasons for a slower taper (eg, over 4 weeks) include use of a drug with a half-life <24 hours (eg, desvenlafaxine, paroxetine, venlafaxine), history of antidepressant withdrawal symptoms, or high doses of antidepressants (APA 2010; Hirsch 2019). If intolerable withdrawal symptoms occur, resume the previously prescribed dose and/or decrease dose at a more gradual rate (Shelton 2001). Select patients (eg, those with a history of discontinuation syndrome) on long-term treatment (>6 months) may benefit from tapering over >3 months (WFSBP [Bauer 2015]). Evidence supporting ideal taper rates is limited (Shelton 2001; WFSBP [Bauer 2015]).

Switching antidepressants: Evidence for ideal antidepressant switching strategies is limited; strategies include cross-titration (gradually discontinuing the first antidepressant while at the same time gradually increasing the new antidepressant) and direct switch (abruptly discontinuing the first antidepressant and then starting the new antidepressant at an equivalent dose or lower dose and increasing it gradually). Cross-titration (eg, over 1 to 4 weeks depending upon sensitivity to discontinuation symptoms and adverse effects) is standard for most switches but is contraindicated when switching to or from a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). A direct switch may be an appropriate approach when switching to another agent in the same or similar class (eg, when switching between 2 serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), when the antidepressant to be discontinued has been used for <1 week, or when the discontinuation is due to adverse effects. When choosing the switch strategy, consider the risk of discontinuation symptoms, potential for drug interactions, other antidepressant properties (eg, half-life, adverse effects, pharmacodynamics), and the degree of symptom control desired (Hirsch 2020; Ogle 2013; WFSBP [Bauer 2013]).

Switching to or from an MAOI:

Allow 14 days to elapse between discontinuing an MAOI and initiation of desvenlafaxine.

Allow 7 days to elapse between discontinuing desvenlafaxine and initiation of an MAOI according to manufacturer labeling; however, experts recommend a 14-day washout period before initiating an MAOI (APA 2010).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Pediatric

Discontinuation of therapy: Consider planning antidepressant discontinuation for lower-stress times, recognizing non-illness-related factors could cause stress or anxiety and be misattributed to antidepressant discontinuation (Hathaway 2018). Upon discontinuation of antidepressant therapy, gradually taper the dose to minimize the incidence of discontinuation syndromes (withdrawal) and allow for the detection of reemerging disease state symptoms (eg, relapse). Evidence supporting ideal taper rates after illness remission is limited. APA and NICE guidelines suggest tapering therapy over at least several weeks with consideration to the half-life of the antidepressant; antidepressants with a shorter half-life may need to be tapered more conservatively. After long-term (years) antidepressant treatment, WFSBP guidelines recommend tapering over 4 to 6 months, with close monitoring during and for 6 months after discontinuation. If intolerable discontinuation symptoms occur following a dose reduction, consider resuming the previously prescribed dose and/or decrease dose at a more gradual rate (APA 2010; Bauer 2002; Fenske 2009; Haddad 2001; NCCMH 2010; Schatzberg 2006; Shelton 2001; Warner 2006).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Administration

Oral:

Administer at approximately the same time each day with or without food. Swallow tablet whole; do not crush, chew, divide, or dissolve. When discontinuing therapy, gradually taper the dose (the 25 mg tablet is intended for a gradual dose reduction when discontinuing treatment).

Bariatric surgery: Tablet, extended release: Some institutions may have specific protocols that conflict with these recommendations; refer to institutional protocols as appropriate. Some tablets may be small enough to swallow whole by individual program standards. If deemed too large to swallow whole, consider converting to venlafaxine XR capsule since that capsule can be opened and sprinkled onto soft food of choice.

Dietary Considerations

May be taken with or without food.

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Acalabrutinib: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Agents with Antiplatelet Properties (e.g., P2Y12 inhibitors, NSAIDs, SSRIs, etc.): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of other Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. Specifically, risks of psychomotor impairment may be enhanced. Alcohol (Ethyl) may enhance the hepatotoxic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. Particularly duloxetine and milnacipran. Management: Patients receiving serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) should be advised to avoid alcohol. Monitor for increased psychomotor impairment and hepatotoxicity in patients who consume alcohol during treatment with SNRIs. Consider therapy modification

Almotriptan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Alosetron: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Alpha-/Beta-Agonists: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the tachycardic effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists. Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the vasopressor effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists. Management: If possible, avoid coadministration of direct-acting alpha-/beta-agonists and serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. If coadministered, monitor for increased sympathomimetic effects (eg, increased blood pressure, chest pain, headache). Consider therapy modification

Alpha2-Agonists: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Alpha2-Agonists. Monitor therapy

Amphetamines: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability). Initiate amphetamines at lower doses, monitor frequently, and adjust doses as needed. Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. Monitor therapy

Antiemetics (5HT3 Antagonists): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Antipsychotic Agents: Serotonergic Agents (High Risk) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonergic agents may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

Apixaban: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Apixaban. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely. Monitor therapy

Aspirin: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Aspirin. Monitor therapy

Bemiparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Bemiparin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of bemiparin with antiplatelet agents. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Brexanolone: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Brexanolone. Monitor therapy

Bromopride: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. Avoid combination

BusPIRone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Cephalothin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cephalothin. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Collagenase (Systemic): Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Collagenase (Systemic). Specifically, the risk of injection site bruising and/or bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Cyclobenzaprine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Dabigatran Etexilate: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Dabigatran Etexilate. Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may increase the serum concentration of Dabigatran Etexilate. This mechanism applies specifically to clopidogrel. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely; Canadian labeling recommends avoiding prasugrel or ticagrelor. Monitor therapy

Dapoxetine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Do not use serotonergic agents (high risk) with dapoxetine or within 7 days of serotonergic agent discontinuation. Do not use dapoxetine within 14 days of monoamine oxidase inhibitor use. Dapoxetine labeling lists this combination as contraindicated. Avoid combination

Dasatinib: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Deoxycholic Acid: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deoxycholic Acid. Specifically, the risk for bleeding or bruising in the treatment area may be increased. Monitor therapy

Dexmethylphenidate-Methylphenidate: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Dextromethorphan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Edoxaban: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Edoxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Eletriptan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Enoxaparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Enoxaparin. Management: Discontinue antiplatelet agents prior to initiating enoxaparin whenever possible. If concomitant administration is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Ergot Derivatives: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Fat Emulsion (Fish Oil Based): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Fenfluramine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Monitor therapy

FentaNYL: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) if these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Glucosamine: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Heparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Heparin. Management: Decrease the dose of heparin or agents with antiplatelet properties if coadministration is required. Consider therapy modification

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Bleeding may occur. Management: Avoid combination when possible. If used, monitor more closely for evidence of bleeding. Discontinue herbal products with anticoagulant or antiplatelet actions 2 weeks prior to surgical, dental, or invasive procedures. Consider therapy modification

Ibritumomab Tiuxetan: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ibritumomab Tiuxetan. Both agents may contribute to impaired platelet function and an increased risk of bleeding. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Icosapent Ethyl: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Inotersen: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Iobenguane Radiopharmaceutical Products: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may diminish the therapeutic effect of Iobenguane Radiopharmaceutical Products. Management: Discontinue all drugs that may inhibit or interfere with catecholamine transport or uptake for at least 5 biological half-lives before iobenguane administration. Do not administer these drugs until at least 7 days after each iobenguane dose. Avoid combination

Ioflupane I 123: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may diminish the diagnostic effect of Ioflupane I 123. Monitor therapy

Lasmiditan: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Levomethadone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Limaprost: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Linezolid: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Lorcaserin (Withdrawn From US Market): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Meperidine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) if these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Metaxalone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Methadone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Methylene Blue: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Methylene Blue. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Mirtazapine: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (Antidepressant): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Nefazodone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective): Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Topical): Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the antiplatelet effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Topical). Monitor therapy

Obinutuzumab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Obinutuzumab. Specifically, the risk of serious bleeding-related events may be increased. Monitor therapy

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Ondansetron: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Opioid Agonists: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Opioid Agonists (metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Opioid Agonists (metabolized by CYP3A4): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Oxitriptan: Serotonergic Agents (High Risk) may enhance the serotonergic effect of Oxitriptan. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Ozanimod: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). Management: Concomitant use of ozanimod with serotonergic agents is not recommended. If combined, monitor patients closely for the development of hypertension, including hypertensive crises. Consider therapy modification

Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased by concurrent use of these agents. Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Ramosetron: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Rasagiline: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Rivaroxaban: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Rivaroxaban. Management: Carefully consider risks and benefits of this combination and monitor closely; Canadian labeling recommends avoiding prasugrel or ticagrelor. Monitor therapy

Safinamide: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Salicylates: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Increased risk of bleeding may result. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. In addition, monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Monitor therapy

Selegiline: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Avoid combination

Selumetinib: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Serotonergic Agents (High Risk, Miscellaneous): Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk, Miscellaneous). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Serotonin 5-HT1D Receptor Agonists (Triptans): May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of other Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of other Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. In addition, monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Monitor therapy

St John's Wort: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. St John's Wort may decrease the serum concentration of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Syrian Rue: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonergic Agents (High Risk). This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Thrombolytic Agents: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Thrombolytic Agents. Monitor therapy

Tipranavir: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

TraMADol: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of TraMADol. Specifically, the risk for serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity and seizures may be increased. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) and seizures when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

TraZODone: May enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes) when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Tricyclic Antidepressants: Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors may enhance the serotonergic effect of Tricyclic Antidepressants. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Management: Monitor for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome/serotonin toxicity (eg, hyperreflexia, clonus, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, tremor, autonomic instability, mental status changes when these agents are combined. Monitor therapy

Urokinase: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Urokinase. Avoid combination

Vitamin E (Systemic): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Desvenlafaxine may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Zanubrutinib: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Test Interactions

May interfere with urine detection of phencyclidine and amphetamine (false-positive).

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified.

>10%:

Central nervous system: Dizziness (10% to 13%), insomnia (9% to 12%)

Dermatologic: Hyperhidrosis (10% to 11%)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (22% to 26%), xerostomia (11% to 17%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Orthostatic hypotension (elderly 8%), syncope (<2%), tachycardia (<2%), hypertension (dose related; ≤1% of patients taking 50 to 100 mg daily had sustained diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg)

Central nervous system: Drowsiness (≤9%), fatigue (7%), anxiety (3% to 5%), delayed ejaculation (1% to 5%), abnormal dreams (2% to 3%), anorgasmia (males ≤3%; females 1%), jitteriness (2%), vertigo (≤2%), depersonalization (<2%), dystonia (<2%), seizure (<2%), disturbance in attention (1%), yawning (1%), male sexual disorder (≤1%)

Dermatologic: Alopecia (<2%), skin photosensitivity (<2%), skin rash (<2%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Decreased libido (males 4% to 5%), increased serum cholesterol (increased by ≥50 mg/dL and ≥261 mg/dL: 3% to 4%), increased serum prolactin (<2%), weight gain (<2%), hot flash (1%), increased LDL cholesterol (increased by ≥50 mg/dL and ≥190 mg/dL: ≤1%)

Gastrointestinal: Constipation (9%), decreased appetite (5% to 8%), vomiting (≤4%), bruxism (<2%)

Genitourinary: Proteinuria (5% to 8%), erectile dysfunction (3% to 6%), urinary retention (<2%), ejaculation failure (≤1%), urinary hesitancy (≤1%)

Hepatic: Abnormal hepatic function tests (<2%)

Hypersensitivity: Angioedema (<2%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Tremor (≤3%), stiffness (<2%), weakness (<2%)

Ophthalmic: Blurred vision (3% to 4%), mydriasis (2%)

Otic: Tinnitus (≤2%)

Frequency not defined: Cardiovascular: Coronary occlusion, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Acute pancreatitis, angle-closure glaucoma, cardiomyopathy (takotsubo), Stevens-Johnson syndrome

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Suicidal thoughts and behavior:

Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies. These studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors with antidepressant use in adults older than 24 years; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressant use in adults 65 years and older. In patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy, monitor closely for worsening and for emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Advise families and caregivers of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Desvenlafaxine is not approved for use in pediatric patients.

Warnings/Precautions

Major psychiatric warnings:

• Suicidal thinking/behavior: [US Boxed Warning]: Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies. These studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors with antidepressant use in adults older than 24 years; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressant use in adults 65 years and older. In patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy, monitor closely for worsening and for emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Advise families and caregivers of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Closely monitor for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior particularly during the initial 1 to 2 months of therapy or during periods of dosage adjustments (increases or decreases). A medication guide concerning the use of antidepressants in children and teenagers should be dispensed with each prescription. Desvenlafaxine is not FDA approved for use in pediatric patients.

• The possibility of a suicide attempt is inherent in major depression and may persist until remission occurs. Worsening depression and severe abrupt suicidality that are not part of the presenting symptoms may require discontinuation or modification of drug therapy. Use caution in high-risk patients during initiation of therapy.

• Prescriptions should be written for the smallest quantity consistent with good patient care. The patient's family or caregiver should be alerted to monitor patients for the emergence of suicidality and associated behaviors such as anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, impulsivity, akathisia, hypomania, and mania; patients should be instructed to notify their healthcare provider if any of these symptoms or worsening depression or psychosis occur.

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Anxiety/insomnia: May cause increase in anxiety, nervousness, and insomnia.

• Bleeding risk: May impair platelet aggregation resulting in increased risk of bleeding events, particularly if used concomitantly with aspirin or NSAIDs due to ulcerogenic potential. Data are inconclusive regarding extent of bleeding risk of SNRIs in combination with warfarin or other anticoagulants. Bleeding related to SNRI use has been reported to range from relatively minor bruising and epistaxis to life-threatening hemorrhage.

• CNS depression: Has a low potential to impair cognitive or motor performance; caution operating hazardous machinery or driving.

• Dyslipidemia: May cause significant dose-related increases in total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides; monitor.

• Fractures: Bone fractures have been associated with antidepressant treatment. Consider the possibility of a fragility fracture if an antidepressant-treated patient presents with unexplained bone pain, point tenderness, swelling, or bruising (Rabenda, 2013; Rizzoli, 2012).

• Hypertension: Dose-related increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure have been documented. Monitor blood pressure regularly, and if sustained increases noted, consider dose reduction or discontinuation.

• Ocular effects: May cause mild pupillary dilation, which in susceptible individuals can lead to an episode of narrow-angle glaucoma. Consider evaluating patients who have not had an iridectomy for narrow-angle glaucoma risk factors. Avoid use in patients with untreated anatomically narrow angles.

• Pulmonary events: Interstitial lung disease and eosinophilic pneumonia have been rarely reported with venlafaxine (the parent drug of desvenlafaxine). May present as progressive dyspnea, cough, and/or chest pain. Prompt evaluation and possible discontinuation of therapy may be necessary.

• Serotonin syndrome: Potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome (SS) has occurred with serotonergic agents (eg, SSRIs, SNRIs), particularly when used in combination with other serotonergic agents (eg, triptans, TCAs, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, St John’s wort, tryptophan) or agents that impair metabolism of serotonin (eg, MAO inhibitors intended to treat psychiatric disorders, other MAO inhibitors [ie, linezolid and intravenous methylene blue]). Monitor patients closely for signs of SS such as mental status changes (eg, agitation, hallucinations, delirium, coma); autonomic instability (eg, tachycardia, labile blood pressure, diaphoresis); neuromuscular changes (eg, tremor, rigidity, myoclonus); GI symptoms (eg, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea); and/or seizures. Discontinue treatment (and any concomitant serotonergic agent) immediately if signs/symptoms arise.

• Sexual dysfunction: May cause or exacerbate sexual dysfunction.

• SIADH and hyponatremia: SSRIs and SNRIs have been associated with the development of SIADH; hyponatremia has been reported rarely (including severe cases with serum sodium <110 mmol/L). Age (the elderly), volume depletion and/or concurrent use of diuretics likely increases risk. Discontinue treatment in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia.

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiovascular disease: May cause sustained increase in blood pressure or heart rate. Control preexisting hypertension prior to initiation of desvenlafaxine. Use caution in patients with preexisting hypertension, cardiovascular conditions, or cerebrovascular disease. Hypertensive effect is dose related.

• Hepatic impairment: Use caution in patients with compensated hepatic cirrhosis; clearance is decreased and average serum concentration increased; dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment (Mauri 2014).

• Mania/hypomania: May precipitate a shift to mania or hypomania in patients with bipolar disorder. Monotherapy in patients with bipolar disorder should be avoided. Combination therapy with an antidepressant and a mood stabilizer may be effective for acute treatment of bipolar major depressive episodes, but should be avoided in acute mania or mixed episodes, as well as maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder due to the mood-destabilizing effects of antidepressants (CANMAT [Yatham 2018]; WFSBP [Grunze 2018]). Patients presenting with depressive symptoms should be screened for bipolar disorder. Desvenlafaxine is not FDA approved for the treatment of bipolar depression.

• Renal impairment: Use caution; clearance is decreased and plasma concentrations are increased; dosage reduction recommended in patients with severe renal impairment or end-stage renal disease.

• Seizure disorders: Use caution in patients with a previous seizure disorder.

Special populations:

• Elderly: The elderly are at increased risk for orthostatic hypotension with therapy compared to younger adults.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Discontinuation syndrome: Abrupt discontinuation or interruption of antidepressant therapy has been associated with a discontinuation syndrome. Symptoms arising may vary with antidepressant however commonly include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, light-headedness, dizziness, diminished appetite, sweating, chills, tremors, paresthesias, fatigue, somnolence, and sleep disturbances (eg, vivid dreams, insomnia). Less common symptoms include electric shock-like sensations, cardiac arrhythmias (more common with tricyclic antidepressants), myalgias, parkinsonism, arthralgias, and balance difficulties. Psychological symptoms may also emerge such as agitation, anxiety, akathisia, panic attacks, irritability, aggressiveness, worsening of mood, dysphoria, mood lability, hyperactivity, mania/hypomania, depersonalization, decreased concentration, slowed thinking, confusion, and memory or concentration difficulties. Greater risks for developing a discontinuation syndrome have been associated with antidepressants with shorter half-lives, longer durations of treatment, and abrupt discontinuation. For antidepressants of short or intermediate half-lives, symptoms may emerge within 2 to 5 days after treatment discontinuation and last 7 to 14 days (APA 2010; Fava 2006; Haddad 2001; Shelton 2001; Warner 2006).

Monitoring Parameters

Renal function for dosing purposes; blood pressure should be regularly monitored, especially in patients with a high baseline blood pressure; lipid panel (eg, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides); signs/symptoms of serotonin syndrome; mental status for depression, suicide ideation (especially at the beginning of therapy or when doses are increased or decreased). Intraocular pressure should be monitored in those with baseline elevations or a history of glaucoma.

Pregnancy Considerations

Nonteratogenic effects in the newborn following SSRI/SNRI exposure late in the third trimester include respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hyper- or hypotonia, hyper-reflexia, jitteriness, irritability, constant crying, and tremor. Symptoms may be due to the toxicity of the SNRIs/SSRIs or a discontinuation syndrome and may be consistent with serotonin syndrome associated with treatment. The long-term effects of in utero SNRI/SSRI exposure on infant development and behavior are not known.

The ACOG recommends that therapy with SSRIs or SNRIs during pregnancy be individualized; treatment of depression during pregnancy should incorporate the clinical expertise of the mental health clinician, obstetrician, primary health care provider, and pediatrician. According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), the risks of medication treatment should be weighed against other treatment options and untreated depression. For women who discontinue antidepressant medications during pregnancy and who may be at high risk for postpartum depression, the medications can be restarted following delivery. Treatment algorithms have been developed by the ACOG and the APA for the management of depression in women prior to conception and during pregnancy.

Desvenlafaxine is the major active metabolite of venlafaxine; also refer to the Venlafaxine monograph.

Pregnant women exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy are encouraged to enroll in the National Pregnancy Registry for Antidepressants (NPRAD). Women 18 to 45 years of age or their health care providers may contact the registry by calling 844-405-6185. Enrollment should be done as early in pregnancy as possible.

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat low mood (depression).

• It may be given to you for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Nausea

• Vomiting

• Constipation

• Dry mouth

• Trouble sleeping

• Fatigue

• Lack of appetite

• Sweating

• Tremors

• Tablet shell in stool

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Depression like thoughts of suicide, anxiety, emotional instability, agitation, irritability, panic attacks, mood changes, behavioral changes, or confusion

• Low sodium like headache, trouble focusing, trouble with memory, confusion, weakness, seizures, or change in balance

• Bleeding like vomiting blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; coughing up blood; blood in the urine; black, red, or tarry stools; bleeding from the gums; abnormal vaginal bleeding; bruises without a reason or that get bigger; or any severe or persistent bleeding

• Lung problems like shortness of breath or other trouble breathing, cough that is new or worse

• Severe headache

• Severe dizziness

• Passing out

• Chest pain

• Severe loss of strength and energy

• Sensing things that seem real but are not

• Vision changes

• Decreased sex drive

• Sexual dysfunction

• Eye pain

• Eye swelling

• Eye redness

• Seizures

• Serotonin syndrome like dizziness, severe headache, agitation, sensing things that seem real but are not, fast heartbeat, abnormal heartbeat, flushing, tremors, sweating a lot, change in balance, severe nausea, or severe diarrhea.

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine’s uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Frequently Asked Questions