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Budesonide (Topical)

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Sep 1, 2020.

Pronunciation

(byoo DES oh nide)

Index Terms

  • Budesonide Foam

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Foam, Rectal:

Uceris: 2 mg/actuation (33.4 g) [contains cetyl alcohol, edetate disodium, propylene glycol]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Uceris

Pharmacologic Category

  • Corticosteroid, Rectal

Pharmacology

Controls the rate of protein synthesis; depresses the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, fibroblasts; reverses capillary permeability and lysosomal stabilization at the cellular level to prevent or control inflammation. Has potent glucocorticoid activity and weak mineralocorticoid activity.

Absorption

Rectal foam: Minimal; Rectal enema [Canadian product]: Rapid and essentially complete within 3 hours

Distribution

Vd: 2.2 to 3.9 L/kg

Metabolism

Extensive hepatic metabolism, primarily by CYP3A4 to 2 major metabolites (negligible glucocorticoid activity)

Excretion

Urine: Oral dose: ~60%; Feces: ~30%

Time to Peak

Rectal enema [Canadian product]: 1.5 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Rectal enema [Canadian product]: 2 to 3 hours

Protein Binding

85% to 90%

Use: Labeled Indications

Ulcerative colitis: Remission induction in patients with active mild to moderate distal ulcerative colitis extending up to 40 cm from the anal verge

Entocort Enema [Canadian product]: Management of distal ulcerative colitis (rectum, sigmoid, and descending colon)

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to budesonide or any component of the formulation

Entocort enema [Canadian product]: Known hypersensitivity to budesonide or any component of the formulation; imminent bowel perforation as well as the probability of obstruction, abscess or other pyogenic infection, fresh intestinal anastomoses, extensive fistulas and sinus tracts; systemic or local bacterial, fungal, or viral infections; active tuberculosis

Dosing: Adult

Ulcerative colitis:

Rectal foam:

Initial: 2 mg (one metered dose) twice daily (morning and evening) for 2 weeks.

Maintenance: 2 mg (one metered dose) once daily (evening) for 4 weeks.

Rectal enema [Canadian product]: Initial: ~2 mg (one enema) once daily at night prior to bedtime for 4 weeks; if remission is not induced may continue for additional 4 weeks (total therapy duration: 8 weeks).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Reconstitution

Enema [Canadian product]: Remove nozzle and protective cap from enema bottle; place one dispersible tablet into enema bottle. Place nozzle back on the bottle, ensure protective cap is secured, then shake bottle vigorously for at least 10 seconds or until tablet is completely dissolved (suspension should turn slightly yellowish). Volume of reconstituted enema is 115 mL.

Administration

Rectal: Rectal foam: For rectal use only; not for oral use. Wash hands before and after use. Prior to use, patients should use the bathroom to empty the bowel; when administering evening dose (immediately prior to bedtime), do not empty bowels again until the next morning if possible. Attach applicator to canister nozzle. Each applicator is coated with a lubricant. If additional lubrication is needed, petrolatum or petroleum jelly can also be used. Warm the canister in the hands while shaking it vigorously for 10 to 15 seconds prior to use. Unlock the canister by twisting the domed canister top until it is aligned with the nozzle. May be used in a standing, lying or sitting position (eg, while sitting on the toilet). Turn the canister upside down and gently insert applicator tip into rectum as far as is comfortable. Push down on the pump dome with forefinger and hold for 2 seconds; release finger pressure on pump dome and hold applicator in place for 10 to 15 seconds. After administering, applicators can only be used one time and should be discarded in provided plastic trash bag. Avoid fire, flame and smoking during and immediately following administration. Temporarily discontinue use before initiation of bowel preparation for colonoscopy; consult provider prior to resuming therapy.

Rectal enema [Canadian product]: For rectal use only; not for oral use. Patient should lie down on left side, shake the reconstituted enema bottle, remove protective cap and then empty contents into rectum. Patient should roll over on stomach and remain in this position for 5 minutes, then lie in a comfortable position. Enema should be retained the whole night if possible or as long as possible.

Dietary Considerations

Avoid consumption of grapefruit or grapefruit juice during treatment

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Do not expose to heat or store at temperatures above 49°C (120°F). Do not refrigerate.

Enema [Canadian product]: Store at 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Use immediately after preparation.

Drug Interactions

Aldesleukin: Corticosteroids may diminish the antineoplastic effect of Aldesleukin. Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Topical). Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Topical). Avoid combination

Adverse Reactions

Frequency not always defined.

>10%: Endocrine & metabolic: Decreased plasma cortisol (17%)

1% to 10%:

Endocrine & metabolic: Adrenocortical insufficiency (4%), hpa-axis suppression, hypercortisolism

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (2%)

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Acne vulgaris, adrenal cortex hypofunction, agitation, allergic dermatitis, anaphylaxis, anxiety, depression, diarrhea, dizziness, drowsiness, dysphoria, emotional lability, exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, fever, flatulence, hyperacidity (peptic ulcer), hyperglycemia, hypertension, insomnia, maculopapular rash, pancreatitis, peripheral edema, pruritus, pseudotumor cerebri, skin rash, sleep disorder, urticaria

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Adrenal suppression: May cause hypercortisolism or suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, particularly in patients receiving high doses for prolonged periods, or with concomitant CYP3A4 inhibitor use. HPA axis suppression may lead to adrenal crisis. Withdrawal and discontinuation of a corticosteroid should be done slowly and carefully. In situations where patients are subject to surgery or other stress situations, supplementation with systemic glucocorticoids is recommended.

• Impaired adrenal suppression in patients transferred from other glucocorticoids: Monitor patients transferred from systemic corticosteroids to corticosteroids with lower systemic effects (eg rectal foam), since steroid withdrawal, including benign intracranial hypertension or acute adrenal suppression, may occur. Replacement of systemic corticosteroids with rectal foam may unmask allergies (eg, rhinitis and eczema) previously controlled by systemic drug. Adrenocortical function monitoring may be required in these patients; reduce dose cautiously.

• Immunosuppression: Prolonged use of corticosteroids may also increase the incidence of secondary infection, mask acute infection (including fungal infections), prolong or exacerbate viral infections, or limit response to vaccines. Exposure to chickenpox should be avoided; if exposed, therapy with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) or pooled intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be needed; antivirals may be needed if chickenpox develops. Exposure to measles may require pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin use. Corticosteroids should not be used to treat ocular herpes simplex. Corticosteroids should not be used for viral hepatitis. Close observation is required in patients with latent tuberculosis and/or TB reactivity; restrict use in active TB (only in conjunction with antituberculosis treatment).

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with hypertension, acute coronary disease, or limited cardiac reserve.

• Diabetes: Use with caution in patients with diabetes or a family history of diabetes; may alter glucose production/regulation leading to hyperglycemia.

• Gastrointestinal disease: Use with caution in patients with peptic ulcer disease. Use budesonide enema [Canadian product] with caution in patients with diverticulitis or severe ulcerative colitis (perforation risk).

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment, including cirrhosis; increased oral bioavailability has been reported in patients with cirrhosis.

• Myasthenia gravis: Use with caution; exacerbation of symptoms has occurred especially during initial treatment with systemic corticosteroids.

• Ocular disease: Use with caution in patients with cataracts and/or glaucoma or a family history of these diseases; increased intraocular pressure, open-angle glaucoma, and cataracts have occurred with prolonged glucocorticoid use.

• Osteoporosis: Use with caution in patients with osteoporosis; high doses and/or long-term use of corticosteroids have been associated with increased bone loss and osteoporotic fractures.

• Psychiatric disturbances: Systemic corticosteroid use may cause psychiatric disturbances, including depression, euphoria, insomnia, mood swings, and personality changes. Preexisting psychiatric conditions may be exacerbated by corticosteroid use.

• Thyroid disease: Metabolic clearance of corticosteroids increases in hyperthyroid patients and decreases in hypothyroid patients.

Special populations:

• Elderly: Because of the risk of adverse effects, corticosteroids should be used cautiously in the elderly in the smallest possible effective dose for the shortest duration.

Dosage form specific issues:

• Flammable contents: Rectal foam contains flammable propellants. Avoid fire, flame and smoking during and immediately following administration. Temporarily discontinue use before initiation of bowel preparation for colonoscopy; consult health care provider prior to resuming therapy.

Monitoring Parameters

Baseline hepatic function tests; serum glucose, electrolytes; presence of infection, signs/symptoms of hypercortisolism, blood pressure as clinically indicated.

Reproductive Considerations

Fertility may be decreased in females with active inflammatory bowel disease. Corticosteroids used for the management of inflammatory bowel disease are not expected to decrease female fertility (AGA [Mahadevan 2019]).

Pregnancy Considerations

Hypoadrenalism may occur in newborns following maternal use of corticosteroids in pregnancy; monitor.

Because systemic corticosteroids may increase the risk of gestational diabetes and other adverse pregnancy outcomes, use for maintenance therapy in pregnant women with inflammatory bowel disease is not recommended. However, corticosteroids may be used to treat disease flares in pregnant patients (AGA [Mahadevan 2019]).

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat ulcerative colitis.

• It may be given to you for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Passing gas

• Diarrhea

• Nausea

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• High blood sugar like confusion, fatigue, increased thirst, increased hunger, passing a lot of urine, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit

• Adrenal gland problems like severe nausea, vomiting, severe dizziness, passing out, muscle weakness, severe fatigue, mood changes, lack of appetite, or weight loss

• Cushing syndrome like weight gain in upper back or abdomen; moon face; severe headache; or slow healing

• Skin changes like acne, stretch marks, slow healing, or hair growth

• Infection

• Ankle swelling

• Bruising

• Bleeding

• Vision changes

• Joint pain

• Bone pain

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.