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Brinzolamide and Brimonidine

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jul 16, 2020.

Pronunciation

(brin ZOH la mide & bri MOE ni deen)

Index Terms

  • Brimonidine and Brinzolamide
  • Brinzolamide and Brimonidine Tartrate
  • Brinzolamide/Brimonid Tartrate

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Suspension, Ophthalmic:

Simbrinza: Brinzolamide 1% and brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (8 mL) [contains benzalkonium chloride, propylene glycol]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Simbrinza

Pharmacologic Category

  • Alpha2 Agonist, Ophthalmic
  • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor (Ophthalmic)
  • Ophthalmic Agent, Antiglaucoma

Pharmacology

Brinzolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrase, leading to decreased aqueous humor secretion. This results in a reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP).

Brimonidine has selective agonism for alpha2-receptors and causes reduction of aqueous humor formation and increased uveoscleral outflow

Absorption

Brinzolamide: Topical: Into systemic circulation

Distribution

Brinzolamide: Accumulates extensively in red blood cells, binding to carbonic anhydrase (brinzolamide and metabolite)

Metabolism

Brimonidine: Extensively, hepatic

Brinzolamide: To N-desethyl brinzolamide

Excretion

Brimonidine: Urine (74%)

Brinzolamide: Urine (predominantly as unchanged drug)

Time to Peak

Brimonidine: Within 0.5 to 4 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Brimonidine: 2 to 3 hours

Brinzolamide: 111 days

Protein Binding

Brinzolamide: ~60%

Use: Labeled Indications

Reduction of intraocular pressure: Treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to brinzolamide, brimonidine, or any component of the formulation; neonates, infants, and children <2 years of age.

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Hypersensitivity to sulfonamides; concurrent monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor therapy or antidepressant therapy that affects noradrenergic transmission (eg, tricyclic antidepressants, mianserin); severe renal impairment; hyperchloremic acidosis.

Dosing: Adult

Reduction of intraocular pressure: Ophthalmic: Instill 1 drop in affected eye(s) 3 times daily.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Pediatric

Reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP): Children ≥2 years and Adolescents: Ophthalmic: Instill 1 drop in affected eye(s) 3 times daily.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Administration

Shake bottle well prior to administration. If using additional topical ophthalmic preparations, separate administration by at least 5 minutes. Remove contact lenses prior to administration and wait 15 minutes after administration before reinserting. Instruct patients to avoid allowing the tip of the dispensing container to contact the eye or surrounding structures. Ocular solutions can become contaminated by common bacteria known to cause ocular infections. Serious damage to the eye and subsequent loss of vision may occur from using contaminated solutions.

Storage

Store at 2°C to 25°C (36°F to 77°F).

Drug Interactions

Alcohol (Ethyl): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Alcohol (Ethyl). Monitor therapy

Alizapride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Alpha-/Beta-Agonists (Indirect-Acting): Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists (Indirect-Acting). Monitor therapy

Amantadine: Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Amantadine. Monitor therapy

Azelastine (Nasal): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Azelastine (Nasal). Avoid combination

Beta-Blockers: Alpha2-Agonists may enhance the AV-blocking effect of Beta-Blockers. Sinus node dysfunction may also be enhanced. Beta-Blockers may enhance the rebound hypertensive effect of Alpha2-Agonists. This effect can occur when the Alpha2-Agonist is abruptly withdrawn. Management: Closely monitor heart rate during treatment with a beta blocker and clonidine. Withdraw beta blockers several days before clonidine withdrawal when possible, and monitor blood pressure closely. Recommendations for other alpha2-agonists are unavailable. Exceptions: Levobunolol; Metipranolol. Consider therapy modification

Blonanserin: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Blonanserin. Management: Use caution if coadministering blonanserin and CNS depressants; dose reduction of the other CNS depressant may be required. Strong CNS depressants should not be coadministered with blonanserin. Consider therapy modification

Brexanolone: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Brexanolone. Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Bromopride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Bromperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Avoid combination

Buprenorphine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Buprenorphine. Management: Consider reduced doses of other CNS depressants, and avoiding such drugs in patients at high risk of buprenorphine overuse/self-injection. Initiate buprenorphine at lower doses in patients already receiving CNS depressants. Consider therapy modification

Cannabidiol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. The development of acid-base disorders with concurrent use of ophthalmic and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors has been reported. Management: Avoid concurrent use of different carbonic anhydrase inhibitors if possible. Monitor patients closely for the occurrence of kidney stones and with regards to severity of metabolic acidosis. Avoid combination

Chlormethiazole: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Monitor closely for evidence of excessive CNS depression. The chlormethiazole labeling states that an appropriately reduced dose should be used if such a combination must be used. Consider therapy modification

Chlorphenesin Carbamate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

CNS Depressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Dimethindene (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Doxylamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: The manufacturer of Diclegis (doxylamine/pyridoxine), intended for use in pregnancy, specifically states that use with other CNS depressants is not recommended. Monitor therapy

Dronabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Droperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider dose reductions of droperidol or of other CNS agents (eg, opioids, barbiturates) with concomitant use. Exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Consider therapy modification

Esketamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Flunitrazepam: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Flunitrazepam. Management: Reduce the dose of CNS depressants when combined with flunitrazepam and monitor patients for evidence of CNS depression (eg, sedation, respiratory depression). Use non-CNS depressant alternatives when available. Consider therapy modification

HydrOXYzine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Kava Kava: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Lemborexant: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Dosage adjustments of lemborexant and of concomitant CNS depressants may be necessary when administered together because of potentially additive CNS depressant effects. Close monitoring for CNS depressant effects is necessary. Consider therapy modification

Lisuride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Lofexidine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

Magnesium Sulfate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Methotrimeprazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methotrimeprazine. Management: Reduce the usual dose of CNS depressants by 50% if starting methotrimeprazine until the dose of methotrimeprazine is stable. Monitor patient closely for evidence of CNS depression. Consider therapy modification

Metoclopramide: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

MetyroSINE: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of MetyroSINE. Monitor therapy

Mianserin: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Alpha2-Agonists (Ophthalmic). Avoid combination

Minocycline (Systemic): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Mirtazapine: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Alpha2-Agonists. Management: Consider avoiding concurrent use. If the combination cannot be avoided, monitor for decreased effects of alpha2-agonists if mirtazapine is initiated/dose increased, or increased effects if mirtazapine is discontinued/dose decreased. Consider therapy modification

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Brimonidine (Ophthalmic). Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Brimonidine (Ophthalmic). Monitor therapy

Nabilone: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Opioid Agonists: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Opioid Agonists. Management: Avoid concomitant use of opioid agonists and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

Orphenadrine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Orphenadrine. Avoid combination

Oxomemazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Avoid combination

Oxybate Salt Products: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Oxybate Salt Products. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, dose reduction or discontinuation of one or more CNS depressants (including the oxybate salt product) should be considered. Interupt oxybate salt treatment during short-term opioid use. Consider therapy modification

OxyCODONE: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of OxyCODONE. Management: Avoid concomitant use of oxycodone and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

Paraldehyde: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Paraldehyde. Avoid combination

Perampanel: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Patients taking perampanel with any other drug that has CNS depressant activities should avoid complex and high-risk activities, particularly those such as driving that require alertness and coordination, until they have experience using the combination. Consider therapy modification

Piribedil: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Piribedil. Monitor therapy

Pramipexole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Pramipexole. Monitor therapy

ROPINIRole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of ROPINIRole. Monitor therapy

Rotigotine: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Rotigotine. Monitor therapy

Rufinamide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Specifically, sleepiness and dizziness may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Alpha2-Agonists. Monitor therapy

Suvorexant: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Suvorexant. Management: Dose reduction of suvorexant and/or any other CNS depressant may be necessary. Use of suvorexant with alcohol is not recommended, and the use of suvorexant with any other drug to treat insomnia is not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Tetrahydrocannabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Thalidomide. Avoid combination

Tricyclic Antidepressants: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Alpha2-Agonists (Ophthalmic). Monitor therapy

Trimeprazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Zolpidem: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Zolpidem. Management: Reduce the Intermezzo brand sublingual zolpidem adult dose to 1.75 mg for men who are also receiving other CNS depressants. No such dose change is recommended for women. Avoid use with other CNS depressants at bedtime; avoid use with alcohol. Consider therapy modification

Adverse Reactions

Percentages as reported with combination product. Also see individual agents.

1% to 10%:

Gastrointestinal: Dysgeusia (3% to 5%), xerostomia (3% to 5%)

Hypersensitivity: Local ocular hypersensitivity reaction (3% to 5%)

Ophthalmic: Blurred vision (3% to 5%), eye irritation (3% to 5%)

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse events:

• Acid-base disturbances: Brinzolamide is absorbed systemically following topical administration; acid-base disturbances reported with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may occur following topical application.

• Bacterial keratitis: Inadvertent contamination of multiple-dose ophthalmic solutions has caused bacterial keratitis.

• CNS effects: May cause CNS depression and/or blurred vision, which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks which require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery or driving).

• Sulfonamide (“sulfa”) allergy: The FDA-approved and Health Canada-approved product labelings for many medications containing a sulfonamide chemical group includes a broad contraindication in patients with a prior allergic reaction to sulfonamides. There is a potential for cross-reactivity between members of a specific class (eg, two antibiotic sulfonamides). However, concerns for cross-reactivity have previously extended to all compounds containing the sulfonamide structure (SO2NH2). An expanded understanding of allergic mechanisms indicates cross-reactivity between antibiotic sulfonamides and nonantibiotic sulfonamides may not occur or at the very least this potential is extremely low (Brackett 2004; Johnson 2005; Slatore 2004; Tornero 2004). In particular, mechanisms of cross-reaction due to antibody production (anaphylaxis) are unlikely to occur with nonantibiotic sulfonamides. T-cell-mediated (type IV) reactions (eg, maculopapular rash) are less well understood and it is not possible to completely exclude this potential based on current insights. In cases where prior reactions were severe (Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis), some clinicians choose to avoid exposure to these classes.

Disease-related concerns:

• Acute angle-closure (narrow-angle) glaucoma: Use has not been studied in patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma.

• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with coronary insufficiency or severe or unstable cardiovascular disease.

• Cerebrovascular insufficiency: Use with caution in patients with cerebral insufficiency; may precipitate or aggravate symptoms.

• Corneal endothelium: Use with caution in patients with low endothelial cell counts; may be at increased risk of corneal edema.

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment; has not been evaluated in this population.

• Orthostatic hypotension: Use with caution in patients with orthostatic hypotension; may precipitate or aggravate symptoms.

• Renal impairment: Use is not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment; use has not been evaluated in this population. Use caution in mild or moderate renal impairment due to possible risk of acid/base disturbances.

• Thromboangiitis obliterans: Use with caution in patients with thromboangiitis obliterans; may precipitate or aggravate symptoms.

• Vascular insufficiency: Use with caution in patients with vascular insufficiency, including Raynaud disease; may precipitate or aggravate symptoms.

Dosage form specific issues:

• Ophthalmic solution: May contain benzalkonium chloride which may be absorbed by contact lenses; remove lens prior to administration and wait 15 minutes before reinserting. Allow at least 5 minutes between applications with other eye drops. To avoid contamination, do not touch tip of container to any surface. Benzalkonium chloride may also cause punctate keratopathy or toxic ulcerative keratopathy. If use is frequent or prolonged, monitor closely.

Monitoring Parameters

Ophthalmic exams and IOP periodically

Pregnancy Risk Factor

C

Pregnancy Considerations

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with this combination product; refer to individual monographs.

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat glaucoma.

• It is used to lower high eye pressure.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Blurred vision

• Change in taste

• Headache

• Dry mouth

• Burning

• Stinging

• Foreign body sensation in eye

• Fatigue

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Severe sulfonamide reaction like rash; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin; red or irritated eyes; mouth, throat, nose, or eye sores; fever, chills, or sore throat; cough that is new or worse; loss of strength and energy; any bruising or bleeding; or signs of liver problems like dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea or abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or yellow skin.

• Vision changes

• Eye pain

• Severe eye irritation

• Light sensitivity

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.