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ARIPiprazole Lauroxil

Medically reviewed on Nov 15, 2018

Pronunciation

See also: Ingrezza

(ay ri PIP ray zole lawr OX il)

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Prefilled Syringe, Intramuscular:

Aristada: 1064 mg/3.9 mL (3.9 mL); 441 mg/1.6 mL (1.6 mL); 662 mg/2.4 mL (2.4 mL); 882 mg/3.2 mL (3.2 mL)

Prefilled Syringe, Intramuscular [preservative free]:

Aristada Initio: 675 mg/2.4 mL (2.4 mL)

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Aristada
  • Aristada Initio

Pharmacologic Category

  • Second Generation (Atypical) Antipsychotic

Pharmacology

Aripiprazole lauroxil is a prodrug of aripiprazole. Following intramuscular injection, aripiprazole lauroxil is likely converted by enzyme-mediated hydrolysis to N-hydroxymethyl aripiprazole, which is then hydrolyzed to aripiprazole. Aripiprazole is a quinolinone antipsychotic that exhibits high affinity for D2, D3, 5-HT1A, and 5-HT2A receptors; moderate affinity for D4, 5-HT2C, 5-HT7, alpha1 adrenergic, and H1 receptors (de Bartolomeis 2015). It also possesses moderate affinity for the serotonin reuptake transporter; has no affinity for muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors. Aripiprazole functions as a partial agonist at the D2 and 5-HT1A receptors, and as an antagonist at the 5-HT2A receptor.

Distribution

Vd: 268 L

Metabolism

Prodrug; undergoes enzyme-mediated hydrolysis to N-hydroxymethyl aripiprazole followed by water-mediated hydrolysis to aripiprazole. Aripiprazole undergoes hepatic metabolism via CYP2D6, CYP3A4 (dehydro-aripiprazole metabolite has affinity for D2 receptors similar to the parent drug and represents 40% of the parent drug exposure in plasma).

Onset of Action

Aristada: 5 to 6 days following injection; 4 days following injection when administered concomitantly with oral aripiprazole.

Aristada Initio (675 mg strength): Reaches systemic circulation on day of injection; reaches clinically relevant serum concentrations 4 days following injection when administered concomitantly with oral aripiprazole 30 mg.

Time to Peak

Serum: Aristada Initio (675 mg strength): 16 to 35 days (median 27 days)

Duration of Action

Aristada: 36 days following appearance in the systemic circulation.

Half-Life Elimination

Aristada: 53 to 57 days

Aristada Initio (675 mg strength): 15 to 18 days

Protein Binding

>99%, primarily to albumin.

Use: Labeled Indications

Schizophrenia: Treatment of schizophrenia.

Limitations of use: The 675 mg strength aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) is only to be used as a single dose in combination with oral aripiprazole for initiation of long-term treatment with aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) or as a single dose to reinitiate treatment after a missed dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada). It is not intended for repeat dosing.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity (eg, anaphylaxis, pruritus, urticaria) to aripiprazole or any component of the formulation.

Dosing: Adult

Schizophrenia: IM: Establish tolerability with oral aripiprazole prior to initiating treatment with aripiprazole lauroxil (may take up to 2 weeks). Initial dosing options include a 1-day oral overlap with 2 injections (Aristada Initio and Aristada) or a 21-day oral overlap with 1 injection (Aristada). The 675 mg strength aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) is not interchangeable with other aripiprazole lauroxil strengths (Aristada).

Initial dose:

1-day oral overlap: Administer a single oral aripiprazole 30 mg dose, a single aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) 675 mg dose, plus the first dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) based on the current oral aripiprazole dose (see conversion below) with or within 10 days after the administration of the 675 mg dose.

21-day oral overlap: Administer oral aripiprazole for 21 consecutive days in conjunction with first dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) based on the current oral aripiprazole dose (see conversion below).

Oral to intramuscular aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) conversion:

Oral aripiprazole 10 mg/day: Initial intramuscular aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) dose: 441 mg per month

Oral aripiprazole 15 mg/day: Initial intramuscular aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) dose: 662 mg per month or 882 mg every 6 weeks or 1,064 mg every 2 months

Oral aripiprazole ≥20 mg/day: Initial intramuscular aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) dose: 882 mg every month

Dosage adjustment: Adjust aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) dose as needed; if a dose is required earlier than the recommended interval(s), do not administer <14 days after the previous injection.

Missed dose: Administer as soon as possible. Supplementation with the 675 mg strength aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) and/or oral aripiprazole may be required; see Concomitant Supplementation table below. In patients who require oral supplementation, administer the same dose of oral aripiprazole that the patient was receiving prior to initiation of aripiprazole lauroxil unless otherwise indicated.

Concomitant Supplementation Recommendations Following Missed Doses

Dose of Last Aripiprazole Lauroxil (Aristada) Injection

No supplementation required

Supplement with: 1) Oral aripiprazole for 7 days OR 2) Single dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) 675 mg

Supplement with: 1) Oral aripiprazole for 21 days OR 2) Single dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) 675 mg and a single dose of oral aripiprazole 30 mg

Length of Time Since Last Injection

441 mg

≤6 weeks

>6 and ≤7 weeks

>7 weeks

662 mg

≤8 weeks

>8 and ≤12 weeks

>12 weeks

882 mg

≤8 weeks

>8 and ≤12 weeks

>12 weeks

1064 mg

≤10 weeks

>10 and ≤12 weeks

>12 weeks

Table was converted to the following text:

Aristada: Concomitant Supplementation Following Missed Doses

Current dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada): 441 mg

Last injection occurred ≤6 weeks ago: Administer aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) immediately; no aripiprazole supplementation required.

Last injection occurred >6 and ≤7 weeks ago: Administer aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) immediately in conjunction with:

oral aripiprazole supplementation for 7 days

OR

single dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) 675 mg

Last injection occurred >7 weeks ago: Administer aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) immediately in conjunction with:

oral aripiprazole supplementation for 21 days

OR

single dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) 675 mg and a single dose of oral aripiprazole 30 mg

Current dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada): 662 mg or 882 mg

Last injection occurred ≤8 weeks ago: Administer aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) immediately; no aripiprazole supplementation required

Last injection occurred >8 and ≤12 weeks ago: Administer aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) immediately in conjunction with:

oral aripiprazole supplementation for 7 days

OR

single dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) 675 mg

Last injection occurred >12 weeks ago: Administer aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) immediately in conjunction with:

oral aripiprazole supplementation for 21 days

OR

single dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) 675 mg and a single dose of oral aripiprazole 30 mg

Current dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada): 1,064 mg

Last injection occurred ≤10 weeks ago: Administer aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) immediately; no aripiprazole supplementation required

Last injection occurred >10 and ≤12 weeks ago: Administer aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) immediately in conjunction with:

oral aripiprazole supplementation for 7 days

OR

single dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) 675 mg

Last injection occurred >12 weeks ago: Administer aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) immediately in conjunction with:

oral aripiprazole supplementation for 21 days

OR

single dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) 675 mg and a single dose of oral aripiprazole 30 mg

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy:

Patients initiating treatment with aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) or resuming treatment with aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) after a missed dose: Avoid use of the 675 mg strength aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) in patients who are known CYP2D6 poor metabolizers or who are taking strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, strong CYP2D6 inhibitors or strong CYP3A4 inducers.

Patients stabilized on aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada):

CYP450 modulators added for <2 weeks: No dosage adjustment necessary.

Initiation of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor for ≥2 weeks: Reduce the dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) to the next lower strength; in patients receiving 882 mg every 6 weeks or 1064 mg every 2 months, the next lower dose should be 441 mg every month. If the patient is a known poor metabolizer of CYP2D6, reduce the aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) dose to 441 mg regardless of the current dose. In patients receiving aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) 441 mg, no dosage adjustment necessary, if tolerated.

Initiation of a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor for ≥2 weeks: Reduce the dose of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) to the next lower strength; in patients receiving 882 mg every 6 weeks or 1064 mg every 2 months, the next lower dose should be 441 mg every month. If the patient is a known poor metabolizer of CYP2D6 or if the patient is receiving aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) 441 mg, no dosage adjustment necessary, if tolerated.

Initiation of both a strong CYP3A4 and a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor for ≥2 weeks: Avoid use in patients receiving aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) 662 mg, 882 mg, or 1,064 mg. In patients receiving aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) 441 mg, no dosage adjustment necessary, if tolerated.

Initiation of CYP3A4 inducer for ≥2 weeks: In patients receiving aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) 441 mg, increase the dose to 662 mg. In patients receiving aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) 662 mg, 882 mg, or 1,064 mg, no dosage adjustment necessary.

Dosing: Renal Impairment

No dosage adjustment necessary.

Dosing: Hepatic Impairment

No dosage adjustment necessary.

Administration

IM: Administer via IM injection the 441 mg dose (Aristada) and the 675 mg dose (Aristada Initio) in the deltoid or gluteal muscle, and other dose strengths (Aristada) in the gluteal muscle. Inject in a rapid and continuous manner. Avoid administering two aripiprazole lauroxil injections (Aristada Initio plus Aristada) concurrently in the same muscle. Prior to administration, tap the syringe at least 10 times and then shake the syringe vigorously ≥30 seconds to ensure a uniform suspension. If the syringe is not used within 15 minutes, shake again for 30 seconds. Use the appropriate sized needle for the injection site; 1- to 1.5-inch needle for deltoid injection and 1.5- or 2-inch needle for gluteal injection. Use the longer needles for patients with a larger amount of subcutaneous tissue overlaying the injection site muscle.

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Abiraterone Acetate: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Avoid concurrent use of abiraterone with CYP2D6 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index whenever possible. When concurrent use is not avoidable, monitor patients closely for signs/symptoms of toxicity. Consider therapy modification

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors (Central): May enhance the neurotoxic (central) effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Severe extrapyramidal symptoms have occurred in some patients. Monitor therapy

Ajmaline: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Alcohol (Ethyl). Monitor therapy

Alizapride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Amisulpride: Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Amisulpride. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Avoid combination

Amphetamines: Antipsychotic Agents may diminish the stimulatory effect of Amphetamines. Monitor therapy

Antidiabetic Agents: Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy

Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist): Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Anti-Parkinson Agents (Dopamine Agonist). Management: Consider using an alternative antipsychotic agent when possible in patients with Parkinson disease. If an atypical antipsychotic is necessary, consider using clozapine or quetiapine, which may convey the lowest interaction risk. Consider therapy modification

Aprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Asunaprevir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Consider therapy modification

Azelastine (Nasal): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Azelastine (Nasal). Avoid combination

Blonanserin: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Blonanserin. Consider therapy modification

Blood Pressure Lowering Agents: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Antipsychotic Agents (Second Generation [Atypical]). Monitor therapy

Bosentan: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Bromopride: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Avoid combination

Bromperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Avoid combination

Buprenorphine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Buprenorphine. Management: Consider reduced doses of other CNS depressants, and avoiding such drugs in patients at high risk of buprenorphine overuse/self-injection. Initiate buprenorphine patches (Butrans brand) at 5 mcg/hr in adults when used with other CNS depressants. Consider therapy modification

Cannabidiol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Ceritinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Use of ceritinib with a narrow therapeutic index CYP3A substrate (eg, alfentanil, cyclosporine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, fentanyl, pimozide, quinidine, sirolimus, tacrolimus) should be avoided when possible. Exceptions are discussed separately. Monitor therapy

Chlormethiazole: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Monitor closely for evidence of excessive CNS depression. The chlormethiazole labeling states that an appropriately reduced dose should be used if such a combination must be used. Consider therapy modification

Chlorphenesin Carbamate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

CNS Depressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

CYP2D6 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Management: Please refer to the full interaction monograph for details concerning the recommended dose adjustments. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Management: Patients taking the 441 mg dose of aripiprazole lauroxil increase their dose to 662 mg if used with a strong CYP3A4 inducer for more than 14 days. No dose adjustment is necessary for patients using the higher doses of aripiprazole lauroxil. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Management: Please refer to the full interaction monograph for details concerning the recommended dose adjustments. Consider therapy modification

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification

Dacomitinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Avoid concurrent use of dacomitinib with CYP2D6 subtrates that have a narrow therapeutic index. Consider therapy modification

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Deutetrabenazine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, the risk for akathisia, parkinsonism, or neuroleptic malignant syndrome may be increased. Monitor therapy

Dimethindene (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Doxylamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: The manufacturer of Diclegis (doxylamine/pyridoxine), intended for use in pregnancy, specifically states that use with other CNS depressants is not recommended. Monitor therapy

Dronabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Droperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider dose reductions of droperidol or of other CNS agents (eg, opioids, barbiturates) with concomitant use. Exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Consider therapy modification

Duvelisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Flunitrazepam: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Flunitrazepam. Consider therapy modification

Fosaprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Fosnetupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Guanethidine: Antipsychotic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Guanethidine. Monitor therapy

HYDROcodone: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of HYDROcodone. Management: Avoid concomitant use of hydrocodone and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

HydrOXYzine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Imatinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Iohexol: Agents With Seizure Threshold Lowering Potential may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Iohexol. Specifically, the risk for seizures may be increased. Management: Discontinue agents that may lower the seizure threshold 48 hours prior to intrathecal use of iohexol. Wait at least 24 hours after the procedure to resume such agents. In nonelective procedures, consider use of prophylactic anticonvulsants. Consider therapy modification

Iomeprol: Agents With Seizure Threshold Lowering Potential may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Iomeprol. Specifically, the risk for seizures may be increased. Management: Discontinue agents that may lower the seizure threshold 48 hours prior to intrathecal use of iomeprol. Wait at least 24 hours after the procedure to resume such agents. In nonelective procedures, consider use of prophylactic anticonvulsants. Consider therapy modification

Iopamidol: Agents With Seizure Threshold Lowering Potential may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Iopamidol. Specifically, the risk for seizures may be increased. Management: Discontinue agents that may lower the seizure threshold 48 hours prior to intrathecal use of iopamidol. Wait at least 24 hours after the procedure to resume such agents. In nonelective procedures, consider use of prophylactic anticonvulsants. Consider therapy modification

Ivosidenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Kava Kava: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Lithium: May enhance the neurotoxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Lithium may decrease the serum concentration of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically noted with chlorpromazine. Monitor therapy

Lofexidine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

Lumefantrine: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Magnesium Sulfate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Mequitazine: Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Mequitazine. Management: Consider alternatives to one of these agents when possible. While this combination is not specifically contraindicated, mequitazine labeling describes this combination as discouraged. Consider therapy modification

Methotrimeprazine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methotrimeprazine. Methotrimeprazine may enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Reduce adult dose of CNS depressant agents by 50% with initiation of concomitant methotrimeprazine therapy. Further CNS depressant dosage adjustments should be initiated only after clinically effective methotrimeprazine dose is established. Consider therapy modification

Methylphenidate: Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methylphenidate. Methylphenidate may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Monitor therapy

Metoclopramide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Avoid combination

MetyroSINE: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of MetyroSINE. Monitor therapy

MetyroSINE: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Monitor therapy

MiFEPRIStone: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Minimize doses of CYP3A4 substrates, and monitor for increased concentrations/toxicity, during and 2 weeks following treatment with mifepristone. Avoid cyclosporine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, fentanyl, pimozide, quinidine, sirolimus, and tacrolimus. Consider therapy modification

Minocycline: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Mirtazapine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Mirtazapine. Monitor therapy

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Nabilone: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Netupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Opioid Analgesics: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Opioid Analgesics. Management: Avoid concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

Orphenadrine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Orphenadrine. Avoid combination

Oxomemazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Avoid combination

OxyCODONE: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of OxyCODONE. Management: Avoid concomitant use of oxycodone and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

Palbociclib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Panobinostat: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Paraldehyde: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Paraldehyde. Avoid combination

Peginterferon Alfa-2b: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Peginterferon Alfa-2b may increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Perampanel: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Patients taking perampanel with any other drug that has CNS depressant activities should avoid complex and high-risk activities, particularly those such as driving that require alertness and coordination, until they have experience using the combination. Consider therapy modification

Perhexiline: CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors) may increase the serum concentration of Perhexiline. Perhexiline may increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Piribedil: Antipsychotic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Piribedil. Piribedil may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Management: Use of piribedil with antiemetic neuroleptics is contraindicated, and use with antipsychotic neuroleptics, except for clozapine, is not recommended. Avoid combination

Pitolisant: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Combined use of pitolisant with a CYP3A4 substrate that has a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Other CYP3A4 substrates should be monitored more closely when used with pitolisant. Consider therapy modification

Quinagolide: Antipsychotic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Quinagolide. Monitor therapy

QuiNINE: May increase the serum concentration of CYP2D6 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Rufinamide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Specifically, sleepiness and dizziness may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: CNS Depressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Specifically, the risk of psychomotor impairment may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Serotonin Modulators: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Specifically, serotonin modulators may enhance dopamine blockade, possibly increasing the risk for neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the serotonergic effect of Serotonin Modulators. This could result in serotonin syndrome. Exceptions: Nicergoline. Monitor therapy

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Sodium Oxybate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider alternatives to combined use. When combined use is needed, consider minimizing doses of one or more drugs. Use of sodium oxybate with alcohol or sedative hypnotics is contraindicated. Consider therapy modification

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Sulpiride: Antipsychotic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Sulpiride. Avoid combination

Suvorexant: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Suvorexant. Management: Dose reduction of suvorexant and/or any other CNS depressant may be necessary. Use of suvorexant with alcohol is not recommended, and the use of suvorexant with any other drug to treat insomnia is not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Tapentadol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Avoid concomitant use of tapentadol and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

Tetrabenazine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Antipsychotic Agents. Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Thalidomide. Avoid combination

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Trimeprazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Zolpidem: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Zolpidem. Management: Reduce the Intermezzo brand sublingual zolpidem adult dose to 1.75 mg for men who are also receiving other CNS depressants. No such dose change is recommended for women. Avoid use with other CNS depressants at bedtime; avoid use with alcohol. Consider therapy modification

Adverse Reactions

>10%: Central nervous system: Akathisia (11%)

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (5%), parkinsonian-like syndrome (4%), insomnia (3% to 4%), restlessness (3%), dystonia (2%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Weight gain (2%; ≥7% increase: 9% to 10%)

Local: Pain at injection site (3% to 4%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Increased creatine phosphokinase (1% to 2%)

Frequency not defined:

Cardiovascular: Angina pectoris, palpitations, tachycardia

Central nervous system: Anxiety, dizziness, myasthenia

Gastrointestinal: Constipation, xerostomia

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Asthenia

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Erythema at injection site, impulse control disorder (including compulsive shopping, intense gambling urges, binge eating, and hypersexuality), induration at injection site, orthostatic hypotension (patient taking 882 mg aripiprazole lauroxil), swelling at injection site

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Increased mortality in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis:

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. Aripiprazole lauroxil is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Altered cardiac conduction: May alter cardiac conduction; life-threatening arrhythmias have occurred with therapeutic doses of antipsychotics.

• Blood dyscrasias: Leukopenia, neutropenia, and agranulocytosis (sometimes fatal) have been reported in clinical trials and postmarketing reports with antipsychotic use; presence of risk factors (eg, preexisting low WBC/ANC or history of drug-induced leuko-/neutropenia) should prompt periodic blood count assessment. Discontinue therapy at first signs of blood dyscrasias or if absolute neutrophil count <1,000/mm3.

• CNS depression: May cause CNS depression, which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks that require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery, driving).

• Dyslipidemia: Lipid changes, including increases in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides and decreases in HDL cholesterol, have been reported; risk profile may differ between antipsychotic agents. Compared to other antipsychotics, the risk of dyslipidemia with aripiprazole lauroxil is minimal-to-low (Solmi 2017).

• Esophageal dysmotility/aspiration: Antipsychotic use has been associated with esophageal dysmotility and aspiration; risk increases with age. Use with caution in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia (eg, Alzheimer disease), particularly in patients >75 years (Herzig 2017; Maddalena 2004).

• Extrapyramidal symptoms: May cause extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), including pseudoparkinsonism, acute dystonic reactions, akathisia, and tardive dyskinesia (risk of these reactions is generally much lower relative to typical/conventional antipsychotics; frequencies reported are similar to placebo). Risk of dystonia (and probably other EPS) may be greater with increased doses, use of conventional antipsychotics, males, and younger patients. Factors associated with greater vulnerability to tardive dyskinesia include older in age, female gender combined with postmenopausal status, Parkinson disease, pseudoparkinsonism symptoms, affective disorders (particularly major depressive disorder), concurrent medical diseases such as diabetes, previous brain damage, alcoholism, poor treatment response, and use of high doses of antipsychotics (APA [Lehman 2004]; Soares-Weiser 2007). Consider therapy discontinuation with signs/symptoms of tardive dyskinesia.

• Falls: May increase the risk for falls due to somnolence, orthostatic hypotension, and motor or sensory instability. Complete fall risk assessments at baseline and periodically during treatment in patients with diseases or on medications that may also increase fall risk.

• Hyperglycemia: Atypical antipsychotics have been associated with development of hyperglycemia; in some cases, may be extreme and associated with ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar coma, or death. All patients should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia (eg, polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, weakness). Use with caution in patients with diabetes or other disorders of glucose regulation; monitor for worsening of glucose control. Patients with risk factors for diabetes (eg, obesity or family history) should have a baseline fasting blood sugar (FBS) and periodic assessment of glucose regulation. Hyperglycemia may resolve with discontinuation of therapy; however, some patients may require treatment of diabetes after discontinuation of therapy. Compared to other antipsychotics, the risk of hyperglycemia with aripiprazole lauroxil is minimal-to-low (Solmi 2017).

• Impulse control disorders: Has been associated with compulsive behaviors and/or loss of impulse control, which has manifested as pathological gambling, uncontrolled sexual urges, uncontrolled spending, binge or compulsive eating, and/or other intense urges. Patients with prior history of impulse control issues may be at increased risk. Dose reduction or discontinuation of therapy has been reported to reverse these behaviors in most, but not all, cases (Gaboriau 2014; Moore 2014; Smith 2011).

• Neuroleptic malignant syndrome: Use may be associated with neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS); monitor for mental status changes, fever, muscle rigidity and/or autonomic instability.

• Orthostatic hypotension: May cause orthostatic hypotension; use with caution in patients at risk of this effect or in those who would not tolerate transient hypotensive episodes (cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, hypovolemia, or concurrent medication use which may predispose to hypotension/bradycardia).

• Temperature regulation: Impaired core body temperature regulation may occur; caution with strenuous exercise, heat exposure, dehydration, and concomitant medication possessing anticholinergic effects.

• Weight gain: Significant weight gain has been observed with antipsychotic therapy; incidence varies with product. Monitoring of weight is recommended. Compared to other antipsychotics, the risk of weight gain with aripiprazole lauroxil is minimal (Solmi 2017).

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with cardiac disease, cerebrovascular disease, prior myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, or conditions which predispose to hypotension.

• Dementia: [US Boxed Warning]: Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotics are at an increased risk of death compared to placebo. Most deaths appeared to be either cardiovascular (eg, heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (eg, pneumonia) in nature. Use with caution in dementia with Lewy bodies; antipsychotics may worsen dementia symptoms and patients with dementia with Lewy bodies are more sensitive to the extrapyramidal side effects (APA [Rabins 2007]). Aripiprazole lauroxil is not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis.

• Parkinson disease: Use with caution in patients with Parkinson disease; antipsychotics may aggravate motor disturbances (APA [Lehman 2004; Rabins 2007]).

• Seizures: Use with caution in patients at risk of seizures, including those with a history of seizures, head trauma, brain damage, alcoholism, or concurrent therapy with medications which may lower seizure threshold. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of seizures due to an increased prevalence of predisposing factors.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• CYPD26 poor metabolizers: Known CYP2D6 poor metabolizers may be at risk for elevated aripiprazole concentrations. Avoid use of the 675 mg strength aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) in this population; dose adjustment is required with other strengths of aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada).

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Medication errors, including substitution and dispensing errors, could occur between the 675 mg strength aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) and other aripiprazole lauroxil strengths (Aristada). The 675 mg strength (Aristada Initio) is not intended for repeat dosing, and is only used as a single dose in combination with oral aripiprazole for initiation of long-term treatment with intramuscular aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada) or as a single dose to reinitiate treatment after a missed dose of intramuscular aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada). The 675 mg strength aripiprazole lauroxil (Aristada Initio) is not interchangeable with other aripiprazole lauroxil strengths (Aristada).

Monitoring Parameters

Mental status; vital signs (as clinically indicated); blood pressure (baseline; repeat 3 months after antipsychotic initiation, then yearly); weight, height, BMI, waist circumference (baseline; repeat at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after initiating or changing therapy, then quarterly; consider switching to a different antipsychotic for a weight gain ≥5% of initial weight); CBC (as clinically indicated; monitor frequently during the first few months of therapy in patients with preexisting low WBC or history of drug-induced leukopenia/neutropenia); electrolytes and liver function (annually and as clinically indicated); personal and family history of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease (baseline; repeat annually); fasting plasma glucose level/HbA1c (baseline; repeat 3 months after starting antipsychotic, then yearly); fasting lipid panel (baseline; repeat 3 months after initiation of antipsychotic; if LDL level is normal repeat at 2- to 5-year intervals or more frequently if clinical indicated); changes in menstruation, libido, development of galactorrhea, erectile and ejaculatory function (yearly); abnormal involuntary movements or parkinsonian signs (baseline; repeat weekly until dose stabilized for at least 2 weeks after introduction and for 2 weeks after any significant dose increase); tardive dyskinesia (every 12 months; high-risk patients every 6 months); ocular examination (yearly in patients >40 years; every 2 years in younger patients) (ADA 2004; Lehman 2004; Marder 2004).

Pregnancy Considerations

Aripiprazole crosses the placenta; aripiprazole and dehydro-aripiprazole can be detected in the cord blood at delivery (Nguyen 2011; Watanabe 2011).

Antipsychotic use during the third trimester of pregnancy has a risk for abnormal muscle movements (extrapyramidal symptoms [EPS]) and/or withdrawal symptoms in newborns following delivery. Symptoms in the newborn may include agitation, feeding disorder, hypertonia, hypotonia, respiratory distress, somnolence, and tremor; these effects may be self-limiting or require hospitalization.

Data collection to monitor pregnancy and infant outcomes following exposure to aripiprazole lauroxil is ongoing. Healthcare providers are encouraged to enroll women exposed to aripiprazole lauroxil during pregnancy in the National Pregnancy Registry for Atypical Antipsychotics at 1-866-961-2388 or visit http://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/pregnancyregistry.

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience weight gain, agitation, or injection site irritation. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of infection, signs of high blood sugar (confusion, fatigue, increased thirst, increased hunger, polyuria, flushing, fast breathing, or breath that smells like fruit), abnormal movements, twitching, change in balance, difficulty swallowing, difficulty speaking, severe dizziness, passing out, tachycardia, uncontrollable urges, seizures, signs of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (fever, muscle cramps or stiffness, dizziness, severe headache, confusion, change in thinking, tachycardia, abnormal heartbeat, or sweating a lot), or signs of tardive dyskinesia (unable to control body movements; tongue, face, mouth, or jaw sticking out; mouth puckering; or puffing cheeks) (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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