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Tirofiban (Monograph)

Brand name: Aggrastat
Drug class: Platelet-aggregation Inhibitors
- Antithrombotic Agents
- Platelet-aggregation Inhibitors
- GPIIb/IIIa Receptor Inhibitors
ATC class: B01AC17
Chemical name: N-(butylsulfonyl)-4-[4-(4-piperidyl)butoxy]-l-phenylalanine monohydrochloride monohydrate
Molecular formula: C22H36N2O5S
CAS number: 144494-65-5

Medically reviewed by on Sep 8, 2023. Written by ASHP.


Platelet-aggregation inhibitor; a platelet glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa)-receptor inhibitor.

Uses for Tirofiban

Non-ST-Segment-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes

Adjunct to anticoagulant therapy (e.g., heparin [referring throughout this monograph to unfractionated heparin], low molecular weight heparin), aspirin, and a P2Y12-receptor antagonist (e.g., clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor) to reduce risk of acute cardiac ischemic events (death and/or MI) in patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) (i.e., unstable angina or non-ST-segment-elevation MI [NSTEMI]), including those who are to receive medical management or to undergo PCI.

Adjunctive therapy with a GP IIb/IIIa-receptor inhibitor can reduce the incidence of cardiac ischemic events, including subsequent MI and death, in patients with NSTE ACS.

The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and AHA recommend either clopidogrel or IV administration of a GP IIb/IIIa-receptor inhibitor in addition to aspirin therapy prior to diagnostic angiography (“upstream”) in patients in whom an initial invasive management strategy is planned; eptifibatide or tirofiban is the preferred GP IIb/IIIa-receptor inhibitor for this use.

The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) states that a clear risk-benefit profile has not been established for the use of GP IIb/IIIa-receptor inhibitors in patients with ACS who are not routinely scheduled for early revascularization.

In patients undergoing PCI, ACCF, AHA, and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Intervention (SCAI) state that administration of a GP IIb/IIIa-receptor inhibitor at the time of PCI may be used as an adjunct to heparin in those with high-risk features (e.g., elevated troponin) who are not receiving bivalirudin and are not adequately pretreated with clopidogrel.

Regarding choice of GP IIb/IIIa-receptor inhibitor in patients undergoing PCI, IV abciximab, “double-bolus” IV eptifibatide, and high-dose tirofiban by direct IV injection all produce a high degree of platelet inhibition and reduce ischemic complications.

Tirofiban and eptifibatide not recommended by AHA in women with NSTE ACS who are at lower risk for adverse events and are managed with a conservative strategy, because of little demonstrated benefit and possible detrimental effects.

ACCF, AHA, SCAI, and other experts currently do not recommend routine use of GP IIb/IIIa-receptor inhibitors in patients with ST-segment-elevation MI (STEMI) undergoing PCI; however, selective use of these drugs as an adjunct to heparin may be reasonable in certain high-risk patients (e.g., those with large anterior MI and/or large thrombus).

Tirofiban Dosage and Administration


Adjunctive Antithrombotic Therapy


IV Administration

For solution and drug compatibility information, see Compatibility under Stability.

Administer by IV infusion using either diluted injection concentrate or premixed injection in plastic (IntraVia™) containers.

Discard unused portion.

The plastic container of the premixed injection may be somewhat opaque because of moisture absorption during sterilization; this opacity will diminish gradually.

Do not introduce additives into the injection container.

Do not use the plastic IV container in series connections with other plastic containers; such use may result in air embolism.


Tirofiban hydrochloride injection concentrate for IV infusion must be diluted to 50 mcg/mL (the same concentration as the premixed injection) before administration.

Prepare injection concentrate for infusion by withdrawing and discarding 50 or 100 mL of solution from a 250- or 500-mL bag, respectively, of 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose injection and replacing this volume with an equivalent volume (i.e., 50 or 100 mL, respectively) of tirofiban hydrochloride injection to achieve a final concentration of 50 mcg/mL.

Alternatively, a vial labeled as containing 5 mg of tirofiban may be added to a 100 mL bag of 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection.

Mix solutions well prior to infusion.

Rate of Administration

Administer as a continuous infusion.


Available as tirofiban hydrochloride; dosage expressed in terms of tirofiban.



Patients receiving medical therapy: IV loading dose of 0.4 mcg/kg per minute for 30 minutes given as soon as possible after diagnosis, followed by continuous IV infusion of 0.1 mcg/kg per minute for at least 24–48 hours.

Patients who undergo PCI: IV loading dose of 0.4 mcg/kg per minute for 30 minutes followed by continuous IV infusion of 0.1 mcg/kg per minute given during angiography and for 12–24 hours after angioplasty or atherectomy.

Special Populations

Hepatic Impairment

No specific dosage recommendations at this time.

Renal Impairment

In patients with severe renal impairment (i.e., Clcr ≤30 mL/minute), decrease the usual loading and maintenance rate of infusion by 50%.

Geriatric Patients

Dosage adjustment not required.

Cautions for Tirofiban




Hematologic Effects

Risk of major bleeding (e.g., intracranial hemorrhage, GU or GI bleeding, bleeding at arterial access site) and minor bleeding (e.g., spontaneous gross hematuria, spontaneous hematemesis); may require blood or platelet transfusions. (See Bleeding Precautions and also see Laboratory Monitoring under Cautions.)

Pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage, spinal-epidural hematoma, retroperitoneal bleeding, and hemopericardium reported rarely.

Fatal hemorrhage reported rarely.

Use with caution in patients with platelet count <150,000/mm3, anemia (hemoglobin <10–12 g/dL), hemorrhagic retinopathy, and those requiring chronic hemodialysis.

Use with caution in patients receiving other drugs that affect hemostasis (e.g., thrombolytic agents, oral anticoagulants, NSAIAs, dipyridamole, ticlopidine, and clopidogrel). (See Specific Drugs under Interactions.)

If bleeding cannot be controlled by pressure, discontinue tirofiban and concomitant heparin.

Sensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Anaphylaxis and other severe allergic reactions reported on the first day of infusion, during initial treatment, and during readministration of the drug.

Severe allergic reactions sometimes associated with severe thrombocytopenia (platelet counts <10,000/mm3).

General Precautions

Bleeding Precautions

To reduce risk of bleeding, adhere to strict anticoagulation guidelines; use a short course of low-dose, weight-adjusted heparin; avoid vascular and other trauma; carefully manage vascular (e.g., femoral artery) access site; and monitor all potential bleeding sites during and following treatment.

In patients undergoing PCI, use caution in the placement, maintenance, and removal of vascular access sheath; avoid femoral vein sheath placement. When inserting sheath, puncture only anterior wall of femoral artery; avoid Seldinger (through and through) technique. Observe appropriate precautions while sheath is in place (e.g., complete bed rest, elevation of head ≤30°, restrain limb in which sheath is inserted, frequent monitoring of vascular access site and distal pulse in the involved limb). Following PCI, consider early sheath removal (during tirofiban IV infusion). Prior to removal of sheath, discontinue heparin for 3–4 hours and allow aPTT to return to <45 seconds or ACT to <180 seconds. Discontinue tirofiban and heparin and achieve hemostasis (by applying pressure to femoral artery for at least 20–30 minutes after sheath removal ) at least 4 hours before hospital discharge. Measure and monitor hematomas for enlargement.

To avoid vascular and other trauma, minimize needle punctures (e.g., arterial, IM, IV, lumbar, sub-Q, intradermal), cutdown sites, and use of nasotracheal intubation, nasogastric tubes, urinary catheters, and automatic BP cuffs during and following treatment; avoid establishment of IV access at noncompressible sites (e.g., subclavian or jugular veins); consider using an indwelling venipuncture device (e.g., heparin lock) for drawing blood; document and monitor vascular puncture sites; and remove dressings gently and carefully.


Thrombocytopenia reported. Severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <20,000/mm3) reported less frequently than with abciximab.

Determine platelet counts prior to treatment and periodically (e.g., within the first 6 hours of the loading infusion, and daily thereafter) during concomitant tirofiban and heparin therapy. Consider possibility of pseudothrombocytopenia or heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in patients receiving concomitant heparin therapy. (See Thrombocytopenia under Cautions.)

If true thrombocytopenia is verified, discontinue tirofiban and initiate appropriate treatment and monitoring. Thrombocytopenia usually reversible following discontinuance of GP IIb/IIIa-receptor inhibitors and anticoagulant (heparin) therapy; consider platelet transfusions for the management of severe thrombocytopenia.

Use with caution in patients with platelet count <150,000/mm3; contraindicated in patients with a history of thrombocytopenia following prior exposure to tirofiban.

Laboratory Monitoring

Prior to administration, within the first 6 hours of the loading infusion and at least daily thereafter, obtain hematocrit and hemoglobin, and platelet counts.

Closely monitor ACT or aPTT. Monitor aPTT 6 hours after the start of the heparin infusion and maintain at 50–70 seconds or approximately 2 times the control value unless PCI is to be performed. In patients undergoing PCI, measure the ACT. In patients undergoing PCI in clinical studies, ACT was maintained between 300–400 seconds during PCI; ACCP suggests targeting ACT between 200–250 seconds to reduce risk of major bleeding. Monitor aPTT or ACT prior to arterial sheath removal; do not remove sheath unless aPTT <45 seconds or ACT <180 seconds.

Determine platelet counts prior to administration, within the first 6 hours of the loading infusion and at least daily thereafter. Perform additional platelet counts if a patient experiences a reduction in platelet count to <90,000/mm3 to exclude the possibility of pseudothrombocytopenia.

Specific Populations


Category B.


Distributed into milk in rats; not known whether distributed into human milk. Discontinue nursing or the drug.

Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy not established.

Geriatric Use

No substantial differences in efficacy relative to younger adults. However, increased incidence of bleeding complications and non-bleeding adverse events in some studies.


Increased incidence of minor bleeding complications and non-bleeding adverse events in some studies.

Hepatic Impairment

Clearance not affected in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment; information on plasma clearance limited in patients with severe hepatic impairment since these patients were excluded from participation in clinical studies.

Renal Impairment

Substantially decreased clearance (>50%) in patients with severe renal impairment (i.e., Clcr ≤30 mL/minute), including patients requiring hemodialysis; reduced dosage recommended in such patients. (See Renal Impairment under Dosage and Administration.)

Use with caution in patients requiring chronic hemodialysis.

Common Adverse Effects

Bleeding, pelvic pain, coronary artery dissection, bradycardia, leg pain, dizziness, edema/swelling, vasovagal reaction, sweating.

Drug Interactions

Specific Drugs




Anticoagulants, oral

Potential increased risk of bleeding

Use with caution


Potential increased risk of bleeding

Use with caution


Increased risk of bleeding

Some clinicians recommend against concomitant use


Potential increased risk of bleeding

Use with caution

GP IIb/IIIa-receptor inhibitors (abciximab, eptifibatide)

Possible additive pharmacologic effects

Concomitant use contraindicated


Increased risk of bleeding; possible additive effects on ACT

Monitor aPTT or ACT during therapy; consider dosage adjustment of heparin


Possible increased tirofiban clearance

Clinical importance not known


Potential increased risk of bleeding

Use with caution


Possible increased tirofiban clearance

Clinical importance not known


Increased risk of bleeding

Use concomitantly with caution; no concomitant use studies to date


Potential increased risk of bleeding

Use with caution

Tirofiban Pharmacokinetics



Rapid onset; 90% inhibition of platelet aggregation occurs by the end of the IV loading infusion administration.


Short duration of action; platelet aggregation persists during maintenance infusion. Platelet function generally recovers within 4–8 hours following discontinuance of infusion.



Distributed into milk in rats and crosses the placenta in pregnant rats and rabbits. Not known whether tirofiban crosses the placenta or is distributed into milk in humans.

Plasma Protein Binding

Approximately 65%.



Metabolism appears limited.

Elimination Route

Excreted in urine (65%) and in feces (25%) mainly as unchanged drug.


Approximately 1.2–2 hours.

Special Populations

Plasma clearance may decrease substantially (>50%) in patients with severe renal impairment (i.e., Clcr ≤30 mL/minute and those requiring hemodialysis) (See Renal Impairment under Dosage and Administration.)

Removed by hemodialysis.

Plasma clearance decreased approximately 19–26% in geriatric patients.




For Injection, Concentrate, for IV Infusion

25°C (may be exposed to 15–30°C). Do not freeze; protect from light.

Contains no preservative; discard unused solution.

Injection, for IV Infusion

25°C (may be exposed to 15–30°C). Do not freeze; protect from light.

Contains no preservative; discard unused solution.



Solution CompatibilityHID


Dextrose 5% in sodium chloride 0.45%

Dextrose 5% in water

Sodium chloride 0.9%

Drug Compatibility
Y-Site Compatibility1HID


Amiodarone HCl

Atropine sulfate


Dobutamine HCl

Dopamine HCl

Epinephrine HCl

Famotidine HCl


Heparin sodium

Lidocaine HCl

Midazolam HCl

Morphine sulfate


Potassium chloride

Propranolol HCl




Advice to Patients


Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

Please refer to the ASHP Drug Shortages Resource Center for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations.

Tirofiban Hydrochloride


Dosage Forms


Brand Names



For injection, concentrate, for IV infusion

250 mcg (of tirofiban) per mL (5 and 12.5 mg)



Tirofiban Hydrochloride in Sodium Chloride


Dosage Forms


Brand Names



Injection, for IV infusion

50 mcg (of tirofiban) per mL (5 and 12.5 mg) in 0.9% Sodium Chloride

Aggrastat Premixed in Iso-osmotic Sodium Chloride Injection (in IntraVia flexible container)


AHFS DI Essentials™. © Copyright 2024, Selected Revisions September 18, 2017. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 4500 East-West Highway, Suite 900, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

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