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FazaClo (clozapine) Disease Interactions

There are 20 disease interactions with FazaClo (clozapine):

Major

Atypical Antipsychotic Agents (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Dementia

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Dementia

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death, mostly from cardiovascular (e.g., heart failure, sudden death) or infectious (e.g., pneumonia) causes. A causal relationship with antipsychotic use has not been established. In controlled trials, treatment with some atypical antipsychotic drugs had was also associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular adverse events (e.g., stroke, transient ischemic attack), including fatalities, in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis. These agents are not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.

Major

Clozapine (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Agranulocytosis

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Neutropenia

The use of clozapine is contraindicated in patients with myeloproliferative disorders, preexisting bone marrow depression, or a history of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis or severe granulocytopenia. Clozapine therapy is associated with the development of agranulocytosis, defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) below 500/mm3. The cumulative incidence is estimated at 1% to 2% after one year of use. The onset is generally between 4 to 16 weeks following initiation of therapy, and it is usually reversible if detected early and the drug discontinued promptly. All patients should have a white blood cell (WBC) count prior to initiating therapy, and clozapine should not be administered if baseline WBC count is less than 3500/mm3. WBC counts and differential should be monitored closely during therapy and for 4 weeks after end of therapy according to product labeling. Also, patients should be advised to immediately report signs of infection such as fever, sore throat, malaise, lethargy, and flu-like symptoms. Individuals who develop clozapine-induced agranulocytosis or severe granulocytopenia (WBC count < 2000/mm3 or ANC < 1000/mm3) should not be rechallenged following recovery, since the condition may recur, often with a shorter latency on reexposure. If continued neuroleptic therapy is necessary, other agents may be used with little apparent risk of cross-sensitivity.

References

  1. Gerson SL "Clozapine--deciphering the risks.." N Engl J Med 329 (1993): 204-5
  2. Weide R, Koppler H, Heymanns J, Pfluger KH, Havemann K "Successful treatment of clozapine induced agranulocytosis with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)." Br J Haematol 80 (1992): 557-9
  3. Gullion G, Yeh HS "Treatment of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis with recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor." J Clin Psychiatry 55 (1994): 401-5
View all 21 references
Major

Clozapine (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Anticholinergic Effects

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Gastrointestinal Obstruction, Glaucoma/Intraocular Hypertension, Urinary Retention

Neuroleptic agents have anticholinergic activity, to which elderly patients are particularly sensitive. Clozapine and low-potency agents such as chlorpromazine and thioridazine tend to exhibit greater anticholinergic effects than other agents in the class. Clozapine use has been associated with impairment of intestinal peristalsis ranging from constipation to intestinal obstruction, fecal impaction, and paralytic ileus. Therapy with neuroleptic agents should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting conditions that are likely to be exacerbated by anticholinergic activity, such as urinary retention or obstruction; angle-closure glaucoma, untreated intraocular hypertension, or uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma; and gastrointestinal obstructive disorders.

References

  1. Marinkovic D, Timotijevic I, Babinski T, Totic S, Paunovic VR "The side-effects of clozapine: a four year follow-up study." Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 18 (1994): 537-44
  2. Tueth M "Side effects of clozipine (Clozaril) requiring emergency treatment." Am J Emerg Med 11 (1993): 312-3
  3. Cohen MAA, Alfonso CA, Mosquera M "Development of urinary retention during treatment with clozapine and meclizine." Am J Psychiatry 151 (1994): 619-20
View all 6 references
Major

Clozapine (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Hepatitis

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Hepatitis has been reported in association with the use of clozapine, both in patients with and without underlying liver function abnormalities. Therapy with clozapine should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting liver disease. The drug should be discontinued if clinically significant elevations of liver function tests or symptoms of jaundice occur.

References

  1. Kellner M, Wiedemann K, Krieg JC, Berg PA "Toxic hepatitis by clozapine treatment." Am J Psychiatry 150 (1993): 985-6
  2. Grohmann R, Ruther E, Sassim N, Schmidt LG "Adverse effects of clozapine." Psychopharmacology (Berl) 99 (1989): s101-4
  3. "Product Information. Clozaril (clozapine)." Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.
View all 4 references
Major

Neuroleptics (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Acute Alcohol Intoxication

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Alcoholism

The use of neuroleptic agents is contraindicated in patients with acute alcohol intoxication exhibiting depressed vital signs. The central nervous system depressant effects of neuroleptic agents may be additive with those of alcohol. Severe respiratory depression and respiratory arrest may occur. Therapy with neuroleptic agents should be administered cautiously in patients who might be prone to acute alcohol intake.

References

  1. "Product Information. Orap Tablets (pimozide)." Gate Pharmaceuticals, Sellersville, PA.
  2. "Product Information. Geodon (ziprasidone)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  3. "Product Information. Zyprexa (olanzapine)." Lilly, Eli and Company, Indianapolis, IN.
View all 10 references
Major

Neuroleptics (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Cns Depression

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Altered Consciousness, Respiratory Arrest

The use of neuroleptic agents is contraindicated in comatose patients and patients with severe central nervous system depression. Neuroleptic agents may potentiate the CNS and respiratory depression in these patients.

References

  1. "Product Information. Haldol (haloperidol)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Navane (thiothixene)." Roerig Division, New York, NY.
  3. "Product Information. Moban (molindone)." Gate Pharmaceuticals, Sellersville, PA.
View all 7 references
Major

Neuroleptics (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Nms

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

The central dopaminergic blocking effects of neuroleptic agents may precipitate or aggravate a potentially fatal symptom complex known as neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). NMS is observed most frequently when high-potency agents like haloperidol are administered intramuscularly, but may occur with any neuroleptic agent given for any length of time. Clinical manifestations of NMS include hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis and cardiac arrhythmias). Additional signs may include elevated creatine phosphokinase, myoglobinuria, and acute renal failure. Neuroleptic agents should not be given to patients with active NMS and should be immediately discontinued if currently being administered in such patients. In patients with a history of NMS, introduction or reintroduction of neuroleptic agents should be carefully considered, since NMS may recur.

References

  1. Anderson ES, Powers PS "Neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with clozapine use." J Clin Psychiatry 52 (1991): 102-4
  2. "Product Information. Haldol (haloperidol)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  3. Sharma R, Trappler B, Ng YK, Leeman CP "Risperidone-induced neutroleptic malignant syndrome." Ann Pharmacother 30 (1996): 775-8
View all 40 references
Major

Neuroleptics (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Tardive Dyskinesia

Severe Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Tardive Dyskinesia

Neuroleptic agents may precipitate symptoms of tardive dyskinesia (TD), a syndrome consisting of rhythmic involuntary movements variously involving the tongue, face, mouth, lips, jaw, and/or trunk and extremities, following chronic use of at least several months but often years. Elderly patients, particularly women, are most susceptible. Both the risk of developing the syndrome and the likelihood that it will become irreversible increase with the duration and total cumulative dose of neuroleptic therapy administered. However, patients may infrequently develop symptoms after relatively brief treatment periods at low dosages. If TD occurs during neuroleptic therapy, prompt withdrawal of the offending agent or at least a lowering of the dosage should be considered. TD symptoms may become more severe after drug discontinuation or a dosage reduction, but may gradually improve over months to years. In patients with preexisting drug-induced TD, initiating or increasing the dosage of neuroleptic therapy may temporarily mask the symptoms of TD but could eventually worsen the condition. The newer, atypical neuroleptic agents (e.g., risperidone, quetiapine, olanzapine) tend to be associated with a substantially reduced risk of inducing TD and are considered the drugs of choice in patients being treated for psychosis.

References

  1. Ghelber D, Belmaker RH "Tardive dyskinesia with quetiapine." Am J Psychiat 156 (1999): 796-7
  2. Pinder RM, Brogden RN, Swayer R, Speight TM, Spencer R, Avery GS "Pimozide: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic uses in psychiatry." Drugs 12 (1976): 1-40
  3. "Product Information. Risperdal (risperidone)." Janssen Pharmaceutica, Titusville, NJ.
View all 42 references
Moderate

Antipsychotic Agents (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Aspiration

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Dysphagia

Esophageal dysmotility and aspiration have been associated with the use of antipsychotic drugs. These drugs should be administered cautiously in patients at risk for aspiration pneumonia.

Moderate

Antipsychotic Agents (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Seizure

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Alcoholism, Seizures, Head Injury

Antipsychotic drugs can lower the seizure threshold and trigger seizures in a dose-dependent manner. This risk is greatest in patients with a history of seizures or with conditions that lower the seizure threshold. Therapy with Antipsychotic drugs should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or other predisposing factors, such as head trauma, CNS abnormalities, and alcoholism.

Moderate

Atypical Antipsychotic Agents (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Hyperglycemia/Diabetes

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Diabetes Mellitus, Obesity

Hyperglycemia, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported with the use of atypical antipsychotic agents. Patients with diabetes should be monitored for worsening control of blood glucose when treated with these agents. It is recommended that patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus starting treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment, and periodically thereafter. Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. In some cases, hyperglycemia has resolved when treatment with these agents was discontinued; however, some patients required continuation of anti-diabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the atypical antipsychotic drug.

Moderate

Atypical Antipsychotic Agents (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Hypotension

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hypotension, Syncope, Dehydration, Diarrhea, Vomiting, Ischemic Heart Disease, Congestive Heart Failure, History - Myocardial Infarction, Arrhythmias, Cerebrovascular Insufficiency

The use of atypical antipsychotic agents has been associated with orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Therapy with atypical antipsychotics should be administered cautiously in patients with hypotension or conditions that could be exacerbated by hypotension, such as a history of myocardial infarction, angina, or ischemic stroke. Patients with dehydration (e.g., due to severe diarrhea or vomiting) may be predisposed to hypotension and should also be managed carefully during therapy with atypical antipsychotics. Blood pressure should be monitored at regular intervals, particularly during dosage escalation or whenever dosage has been altered, and patients should be advised not to rise abruptly from a sitting or recumbent position.

Moderate

Atypical Antipsychotic Agents (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Lipid Alterations

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hyperlipidemia

Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with undesirable alterations in lipid levels. While all agents in the class have been shown to produce some changes, each drug has its own specific risk profile. Before or soon after initiation of antipsychotic medication, obtain a fasting lipid profile at baseline and monitor periodically during treatment.

Moderate

Atypical Antipsychotic Agents (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Weight Gain

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Obesity

Weight gain has been observed with atypical antipsychotic use. While all agents in the class have been shown to produce some changes, each drug has its own specific risk profile. When treating pediatric patients with atypical antipsychotic agents, weight gain should be monitored and assessed against that expected for normal growth. Monitor weight at baseline and frequently thereafter.

Moderate

Clozapine (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Hyperglycemia

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Diabetes Mellitus, Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

Severe hyperglycemia, sometimes resulting in ketoacidosis, has been reported during clozapine treatment in patients with no prior history of hyperglycemia. Glucose levels normalized in most cases following discontinuation of clozapine, and a rechallenge in one patient produced a recurrence of hyperglycemia. While a causal relationship has not been established, patients with or predisposed to hyperglycemia should be monitored during clozapine therapy. Dosage adjustments in insulin or oral hypoglycemic medications may be necessary in patients with diabetes.

References

  1. Wehring H, Alexander B, Perry PJ "Diabetes mellitus associated with clozapine therapy." Pharmacotherapy 20 (2000): 844-7
  2. "Product Information. Clozaril (clozapine)." Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.
Moderate

Clozapine (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Renal Dysfunction

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

Clozapine is extensively metabolized by the liver and subsequently excreted in the urine (50%) and feces (35%), primarily as metabolites. One of the metabolites appears to have only limited pharmacologic activity, while the others are inactive. However, the effects of possible metabolite accumulation have not been studied. The manufacturer recommends that therapy with clozapine be administered cautiously in patients with impaired renal function.

References

  1. "Product Information. Clozaril (clozapine)." Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.
  2. Jann MW, Grimsley SR, Gray EC, Chang WH "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clozapine." Clin Pharmacokinet 24 (1993): 161-76
Moderate

Clozapine (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Thromboembolic Events

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Pulmonary Embolism, Thrombotic/Thromboembolic Disorder

Thromboembolic events such as deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism have been noted during clozapine therapy. Therapy with clozapine should be administered cautiously in patients with an active or past history of thromboembolic events.

Moderate

Neuroleptics (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Liver Disease

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Most neuroleptic agents are extensively metabolized by the liver. The plasma concentrations of these agents may be increased and the half-lives prolonged in patients with impaired hepatic function. Therapy with neuroleptic agents should be administered cautiously in patients with significant liver disease. Lower initial dosages and slower titration may be appropriate.

References

  1. Hobbs DC "Metabolism of thiothixene." J Pharm Sci 57 (1968): 105-11
  2. Jann MW, Grimsley SR, Gray EC, Chang WH "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clozapine." Clin Pharmacokinet 24 (1993): 161-76
  3. "Product Information. Geodon (ziprasidone)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
View all 11 references
Moderate

Neuroleptics (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Parkinsonism

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Parkinsonism

The use of neuroleptic agents is associated with pseudo-parkinsonian symptoms such as akinesia, bradykinesia, tremors, pill-rolling motion, cogwheel rigidity, and postural abnormalities including stooped posture and shuffling gait. The onset is usually 1 to 2 weeks following initiation of therapy or an increase in dosage. Older neuroleptic agents such as haloperidol are more likely to induce these effects, and their use may be contraindicated in patients with Parkinson's disease or parkinsonian symptoms.

References

  1. "Product Information. Orap Tablets (pimozide)." Gate Pharmaceuticals, Sellersville, PA.
  2. Pinder RM, Brogden RN, Swayer R, Speight TM, Spencer R, Avery GS "Pimozide: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic uses in psychiatry." Drugs 12 (1976): 1-40
  3. Moleman P, Janzen G, von Bargen BA, et al "Relationship between age and incidence of parkinsonism in psychiatric patients treated with haloperidol." Am J Psychiatry 143 (1986): 232-4
View all 14 references
Moderate

Neuroleptics (Includes FazaClo) ↔ Seizure Disorders

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Alcoholism, CNS Disorder

Neuroleptic agents can lower the seizure threshold and induce seizures, particularly when dosages are high or increased rapidly and during the initiation of therapy. Clozapine appears to have the greatest epileptogenic potential, while most of the other newer, atypical neuroleptic agents (e.g., risperidone, quetiapine, olanzapine), as well as haloperidol and molindone, have the least. Therapy with neuroleptic agents should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of seizures or other factors predisposing to seizures such as abnormal EEG, preexisting CNS pathology, or head trauma. Adequate anticonvulsant therapy should be maintained during administration of neuroleptic agents. Clozapine should not be used in patients with uncontrolled epilepsy.

References

  1. Mahr GC, Berchou R, Balon R "A grand mal seizure associated with desipramine and haloperidol." Can J Psychiatry 32 (1987): 463-4
  2. Welch J, Manschreck T, Redmond D "Clozapine-induced seizures and EEG changes." J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 6 (1994): 250-6
  3. Pinder RM, Brogden RN, Swayer R, Speight TM, Spencer R, Avery GS "Pimozide: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic uses in psychiatry." Drugs 12 (1976): 1-40
View all 29 references

FazaClo (clozapine) drug Interactions

There are 1264 drug interactions with FazaClo (clozapine)

FazaClo (clozapine) alcohol/food Interactions

There are 5 alcohol/food interactions with FazaClo (clozapine)

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.

Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

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