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Clindamycin Disease Interactions

There are 4 disease interactions with clindamycin:

Major

Antibiotics (applies to clindamycin) colitis

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Colitis/Enteritis (Noninfectious)

Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD), formerly pseudomembranous colitis, has been reported with almost all antibacterial drugs and may range from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. The most common culprits include clindamycin and lincomycin. Antibacterial therapy alters the normal flora of the colon, leading to overgrowth of C difficile, whose toxins A and B contribute to CDAD development. Morbidity and mortality are increased with hypertoxin-producing strains of C difficile; these infections can be resistant to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea after antibacterial use. Since CDAD has been reported to occur more than 2 months after antibacterial use, careful medical history is necessary. Therapy with broad-spectrum antibacterials and other agents with significant antibacterial activity should be administered cautiously in patients with history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis; pseudomembranous colitis (generally characterized by severe, persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps, and sometimes associated with the passage of blood and mucus), if it occurs, may be more severe in these patients and may be associated with flares in underlying disease activity. Antibacterial drugs not directed against C difficile may need to be stopped if CDAD is suspected or confirmed. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C difficile, and surgical evaluation should be started as clinically indicated.

References

  1. Moriarty HJ, Scobie BA "Pseudomembranous colitis in a patient on rifampicin and ethambutol." N Z Med J 04/23/80 (1980): 294-5
  2. Saadah HA "Carbenicillin and pseudomembranous enterocolitis." Ann Intern Med 93 (1980): 645
  3. Daly JJ, Chowdary KV "Pseudomembranous colitis secondary to metronidazole." Dig Dis Sci 28 (1983): 573-4
  4. Trexler MF, Fraser TG, Jones MP "Fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream." Am J Gastroenterol 92 (1997): 2112-3
  5. Lyon JA "Imipenem/cilastatin: the first carbapenem antibiotic." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 19 (1985): 894-8
  6. O'Meara TF, Simmons RA "Carbenicillin and pseudomembranous enterocolitis." Ann Intern Med 92 (1980): 440-1
  7. Bauwens JE, McFarland LV, Melcher SA "Recurrent clostridium difficile disease following ciprofloxacin use." Ann Pharmacother 31 (1997): 1090
  8. Meadowcroft AM, Diaz PR, Latham GS "Clostridium difficile toxin-induced colitis after use of clindmycin phosphate vaginal cream." Ann Pharmacother 32 (1998): 309-11
  9. Dan M, Samra Z "Clostridium difficile colitis associated with ofloxacin therapy." Am J Med 87 (1989): 479
  10. Ehrenpreis ED, Lievens MW, Craig RM "Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea after norfloxacin." J Clin Gastroenterol 12 (1990): 188-9
  11. Bernstein L "Adverse reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, with particular reference to long-term therapy." Can Med Assoc J 112 (1975): s96-8
  12. Cone JB, Wetzel W "Toxic megacolon secondary to pseudomembranous colitis." Dis Colon Rectum 25 (1982): 478-82
  13. Osler T, Lott D, Bordley J, et al "Cefazolin-induced pseudomembranous colitis resulting in perforation of the sigmoid colon." Dis Colon Rectum 29 (1986): 140-3
  14. Thomas E, Mehta JB "Pseudomembranous colitis due to oxacillin therapy." South Med J 77 (1984): 532-3
  15. Parry MF, Rha CK "Pseudomembranous colitis caused by topical clindamycin phosphate." Arch Dermatol 122 (1986): 583-4
  16. Clissold SP, Todd PA, Campoli-Richards DM "Imipenem/cilastatin: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy." Drugs 33 (1987): 185-241
  17. Van Ness MM, Cattau EL Jr "Fulminant colitis complicating antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis: case report and review of the clinical manifestations and treatment." Am J Gastroenterol 82 (1987): 374-7
  18. Cannon SR, Dyson PH, Sanderson PJ "Pseudomembranous colitis associated with antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery." J Bone Joint Surg Br 70-B (1988): 600-2
  19. Miller DL, Sedlack JD, Holt RW "Perforation complicating rifampin-associated pseudomembranous enteritis." Arch Surg 124 (1989): 1082
  20. Miller SN, Ringler RP "Vancomycin-induced pseudomembranous colitis." J Clin Gastroenterol 9 (1987): 114-5
  21. Wang C, Calandra GB, Aziz MA, Brown KR "Efficacy and safety of imipenem/cilastatin: a review of worldwide clinical experience." Rev Infect Dis 7 (1985): s528-36
  22. Hinton NA "The effect of oral tetracycline HCl and doxycycline on the intestinal flora." Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 12 (1970): 341-52
  23. Pokorney BH, Nichols TW, Jr "Pseudomembranous colitis. A complication of sulfasalazine therapy in a patient with Crohn's colitis." Am J Gastroenterol 76 (1981): 374-6
  24. Sankarankutty M, McGeorge D, Galasko CS "Pseudomembranous colitis following cephradine prophylaxis." Postgrad Med J 58 (1982): 726-8
  25. Sugarman B "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pseudomembranous colitis, and spinal cord injury." South Med J 78 (1985): 711-3
  26. Gordin F, Gibert C, Schmidt ME "Clostridium difficile colitis associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole given as prophylaxis for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia." Am J Med 96 (1994): 94-5
  27. Saginur R, Hawley CR, Bartlett JG "Colitis associated with metronidazole therapy." J Infect Dis 141 (1980): 772-4
  28. Golledge CL, Riley TV "Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea after doxycycline malaria prophylaxis." Lancet 345 (1995): 1377-8
  29. Edlund C, Lidbeck A, Kager L, Nord CE "Effect of enoxacin on colonic microflora of healthy volunteers." Eur J Clin Microbiol 6 (1987): 298-300
  30. Ring FA, Hershfield NB, Machin GA, Scott RB "Sulfasalazine-induced colitis complicating idiopathic ulcerative colitis." Can Med Assoc J 131 (1984): 43-5
  31. Friedman RJ, Mayer IE, Galambos JT, Hersh T "Oxacillin-induced pseudomembranous colitis." Am J Gastroenterol 73 (1980): 445-7
  32. "Multum Information Services, Inc. Expert Review Panel"
  33. Leigh DA, Simmons K, Williams S "Gastrointestinal side effects following clindamycin and lincomycin treatment: a follow up study." J Antimicrob Chemother 6 (1980): 639-45
  34. Davies J, Beck E "Recurrent colitis following antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Postgrad Med J 57 (1981): 599-601
  35. Hecht JR, Olinger EJ "Clostridium difficile colitis secondary to intravenous vancomycin." Dig Dis Sci 34 (1989): 148-9
  36. Brause BD, Romankiewicz JA, Gotz V, Franklin JE Jr, Roberts RB "Comparative study of diarrhea associated with clindamycin and ampicillin therapy." Am J Gastroenterol 73 (1980): 244-8
  37. Harmon T, Burkhart G, Applebaum H "Perforated pseudomembranous colitis in the breast-fed infant." J Pediatr Surg 27 (1992): 744-6
  38. Milstone EB, McDonald AJ, Scholhamer CF Jr "Pseudomembranous colitis after topical application of clindamycin." Arch Dermatol 117 (1981): 154-5
  39. Burt RA "A review of the drug events reported by 12,917 patients treated with cephalexin." Postgrad Med J 59 (1983): 47-50,51-3
  40. Calandra GB, Brown KR, Grad LC, et al "Review of adverse experiences and tolerability in the first 2,516 patients treated with imipenem/cilastatin." Am J Med 78 (1985): 73-8
  41. Bingley PJ, Harding GM "Clostridium difficile colitis following treatment with metronidazole and vancomycin." Postgrad Med J 63 (1987): 993-4
  42. Hutcheon DF, Milligan FD, Yardley JH, Hendrix TR "Cephalosporin-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Am J Dig Dis 23 (1978): 321-6
  43. Midtvedt T, Carlstedt-Duke B, Hoverstad T, et al "Influence of peroral antibiotics upon the biotransformatory activity of the intestinal microflora in healthy subjects." Eur J Clin Invest 16 (1986): 11-7
  44. Altamirano A, Bondani A "Adverse reactions to furazolidone and other drugs. A comparative review." Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 169 (1989): 70-80
  45. Boriello SP, Jones RH, Phillips I "Rifampicin-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Br Med J 281 (1980): 1180-1
  46. Klinger D, Radford P, Collin J "Pneumoperitoneum without faecal peritonitis in a patient with pseudomembranous colitis." Br Med J 288 (1984): 1271-2
  47. Edlund C, Brismar B, Nord CE "Effect of lomefloxacin on the normal oral and intestinal microflora." Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1 (1990): 35-9
View all 47 references
Major

MDVs (applies to clindamycin) prematurity

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Prematurity/Underweight in Infancy

Parenteral medications formulated in multidose vials often contain benzyl alcohol as a preservative. Their use is considered by drug manufacturers to be contraindicated in neonates, particularly premature infants and infants of low birth weight. When used in bacteriostatic saline intravascular flush and endotracheal tube lavage solutions, benzyl alcohol has been associated with fatalities and severe respiratory and metabolic complications in low-birth-weight premature infants. Thus, single-dose formulations should always be used in infants whenever possible. However, many experts feel that, in the absence of benzyl alcohol-free equivalents, the amount of the preservative present in these formulations should not necessarily preclude their use if they are clearly indicated. The American Academy of Pediatrics considers benzyl alcohol in low doses (such as when used as a preservative in some medications) to be safe for newborns. However, the administration of high dosages of these medications must take into account the total amount of benzyl alcohol administered. The level at which toxicity may occur is unknown.

References

  1. ""Inactive" ingredients in pharmaceutical products: update (subject review). American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. Available from: URL: http://www.aap.org/policy/re9706.html." Pediatrics 99 (1997): 268-78
  2. "Product Information. Fragmin (dalteparin)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  3. "Product Information. Tracrium (atracurium)." Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC.
  4. "Product Information. Mivacron (mivacurium)." Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC.
  5. "Product Information. Mesnex (mesna)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  6. "Product Information. Nuromax (doxacurium)." Glaxo Wellcome, Research Triangle Park, NC.
View all 6 references
Moderate

Clindamycin (applies to clindamycin) liver disease

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

Clindamycin is primarily metabolized by the liver. The serum concentration of clindamycin may be increased and the half-life prolonged in patients with severely impaired hepatic function. In addition, jaundice and liver enzyme abnormalities may occur during use of the drug. Therapy with clindamycin should be administered cautiously in patients with liver disease. Dosage adjustments may not be necessary when administered every 8 hours. However, serum concentrations should be monitored during high-dose therapy, and periodic liver function tests should be performed during prolonged therapy.

References

  1. "Product Information. Cleocin (clindamycin)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  2. Hinthorn DR, Baker LH, Romig DA, et al "Use of clindamycin in patients with liver disease." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 9 (1976): 498-501
  3. Eng RH, Gorski S, Person A, et al "Clindamycin elimination in patients with liver disease." J Antimicrob Chemother 8 (1981): 277-81
  4. Avant GR, Schenker S, Alford RH "The effect of cirrhosis on the disposition and elimination of clindamycin." Dig Dis 20 (1975): 223-30
View all 4 references
Moderate

Clindamycin (applies to clindamycin) renal dysfunction

Moderate Potential Hazard, Low plausibility.

Clindamycin is eliminated by the kidney to a limited extent. Therapy with clindamycin should be administered cautiously in patients with severely impaired renal function. Dosage adjustments are probably not necessary. However, serum clindamycin concentrations should be monitored during high-dose therapy, and periodic renal function tests should be performed during prolonged therapy.

References

  1. Eastwood JB, Gower PE "A study of the pharmacokinetics of clindamycin in normal subjects and patients with chronic renal failure." Postgrad Med J 50 (1974): 710-2
  2. "Product Information. Cleocin (clindamycin)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  3. Peddie BA, Dann E, Bailey RR "The effect of impairment of renal function and dialysis on the serum and urine levels of clindamycin." Aust N Z J Med 5 (1975): 198-202

Clindamycin drug interactions

There are 75 drug interactions with clindamycin

Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.