Chloracol (chloramphenicol) Disease Interactions
There are 3 disease interactions with Chloracol (chloramphenicol):
Chloramphenicol (Includes Chloracol) ↔ Bone Marrow Suppression
Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility
Applies to: Bone Marrow Depression/Low Blood Counts
Chloramphenicol may cause bone marrow depression and other hematologic toxicities, which can be irreversible or reversible. The former type is independent of dose and results in aplastic anemia with a high rate of mortality, generally from hemorrhage or infection. It has been reported following both systemic and topical administration of chloramphenicol and has an estimated incidence of 1 in 25,000 to 1 in 40,000 courses of therapy. Bone marrow aplasia or hypoplasia may occur after a single dose but more often develops weeks or months after the drug has been discontinued. A reversible myelosuppression occurs much more frequently and is characterized by anemia, vacuolation of red blood cells, decreased reticulocyte count, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, increased serum iron concentrations, and increased serum iron-binding capacity. It is dose-dependent, occurring regularly at chloramphenicol dosages exceeding 4 g/day (in adults) or at plasma drug concentrations >= 25 mcg/mL, and usually responds to withdrawal of the drug. Therapy with chloramphenicol should be administered cautiously, if at all, in patients with preexisting blood dyscrasias and/or bone marrow depression. Complete blood counts and differential reticulocyte counts should be performed in all patients prior to initiating therapy and approximately every 2 days during therapy. Marked depression of blood counts and/or development of other hematologic abnormalities may be indication for withdrawal of chloramphenicol therapy.
- American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
- Fraunfelder FT, Bagby GC, Kelly DJ "Fatal aplastic anemia following topical administration of ophthalmic chloramphenicol." Am J Ophthalmol 93 (1982): 356-60
- Doona M, Walsh JB "Use of chloramphenicol as topical eye medication: time to cry halt? bone marrow aplasia also occurs with ocular use." BMJ 310 (1995): 1217-8
Chloramphenicol (Includes Chloracol) ↔ Renal/Liver Disease
Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility
Applies to: Liver Disease, Renal Dysfunction
Chloramphenicol is primarily inactivated by glucuronyl transferase in the liver and eliminated in the urine as both parent drug and metabolites. In adults with normal renal and hepatic function, only 5% to 15% of a dose of chloramphenicol is excreted unchanged by the kidney, but approximately 30% is excreted when chloramphenicol is administered intravenously as the sodium succinate ester. However, the fraction of drug excreted unchanged may be highly variable, especially in neonates and children. Therapy with chloramphenicol should be administered cautiously in patients with significantly impaired renal and/or hepatic function, since drug accumulation may occur in such patients. The dosage should be reduced based on the degree of impairment as well as plasma drug concentrations.
- Narang AP, Dattta DV, Nath N, Mathur VS "Pharmacokinetic study of chloramphenicol in patients with liver disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 20 (1981): 479-83
- Nahata MC, Powell DA "Bioavailability and clearance of chloramphenicol after intravenous chloramphenicol succinate." Clin Pharmacol Ther 30 (1981): 368-72
- Azzollini F, Gazzaniga A, Lodola E, Natangelo R "Elimination of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol in subjects with cirrhosis of the liver." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 6 (1972): 130-4
Antibiotics (Includes Chloracol) ↔ Colitis
Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility
Applies to: Colitis/Enteritis (Noninfectious)
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with most antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening, with an onset of up to two months following cessation of therapy. Antibiotic therapy can alter the normal flora of the colon and permit overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, whose toxin is believed to be a primary cause of antibiotic- associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe, persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps, and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. The most common culprits are clindamycin, lincomycin, the aminopenicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin), and the cephalosporins. Therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and other agents with significant antibacterial activity should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly colitis. There is some evidence that pseudomembranous colitis, if it occurs, may run a more severe course in these patients and that it may be associated with flares in their underlying disease activity. The offending antibiotic(s) should be discontinued if significant diarrhea occurs during therapy. Stool cultures for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically. A large bowel endoscopy may be considered to establish a definitive diagnosis in cases of severe diarrhea.
- Moriarty HJ, Scobie BA "Pseudomembranous colitis in a patient on rifampicin and ethambutol." N Z Med J 04/23/80 (1980): 294-5
- Thomas E, Mehta JB "Pseudomembranous colitis due to oxacillin therapy." South Med J 77 (1984): 532-3
- Harmon T, Burkhart G, Applebaum H "Perforated pseudomembranous colitis in the breast-fed infant." J Pediatr Surg 27 (1992): 744-6
Chloracol (chloramphenicol) drug Interactions
There are 426 drug interactions with Chloracol (chloramphenicol)
Drug Interaction Classification
|Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.|
|Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.|
|Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.|
|No information available.|
Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.
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