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Chloracol (chloramphenicol) Disease Interactions

There are 3 disease interactions with Chloracol (chloramphenicol):

Major

Chloramphenicol (Includes Chloracol) ↔ Bone Marrow Suppression

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Bone Marrow Depression/Low Blood Counts

Chloramphenicol may cause bone marrow depression and other hematologic toxicities, which can be irreversible or reversible. The former type is independent of dose and results in aplastic anemia with a high rate of mortality, generally from hemorrhage or infection. It has been reported following both systemic and topical administration of chloramphenicol and has an estimated incidence of 1 in 25,000 to 1 in 40,000 courses of therapy. Bone marrow aplasia or hypoplasia may occur after a single dose but more often develops weeks or months after the drug has been discontinued. A reversible myelosuppression occurs much more frequently and is characterized by anemia, vacuolation of red blood cells, decreased reticulocyte count, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, increased serum iron concentrations, and increased serum iron-binding capacity. It is dose-dependent, occurring regularly at chloramphenicol dosages exceeding 4 g/day (in adults) or at plasma drug concentrations >= 25 mcg/mL, and usually responds to withdrawal of the drug. Therapy with chloramphenicol should be administered cautiously, if at all, in patients with preexisting blood dyscrasias and/or bone marrow depression. Complete blood counts and differential reticulocyte counts should be performed in all patients prior to initiating therapy and approximately every 2 days during therapy. Marked depression of blood counts and/or development of other hematologic abnormalities may be indication for withdrawal of chloramphenicol therapy.

References

  1. Fraunfelder FT, Bagby GC, Kelly DJ "Fatal aplastic anemia following topical administration of ophthalmic chloramphenicol." Am J Ophthalmol 93 (1982): 356-60
  2. American Medical Association, Division of Drugs and Toxicology "Drug evaluations annual 1994." Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; (1994):
  3. Doona M, Walsh JB "Use of chloramphenicol as topical eye medication: time to cry halt? bone marrow aplasia also occurs with ocular use." BMJ 310 (1995): 1217-8
  4. Del Giacco GS, Petrini MT, Jannelli S, Carcassi U "Fatal bone marrow hypoplasia in a shepherd using chloramphenicol spray." Lancet 1 (1981): 945
  5. West BC, DeVault GA Jr, Clement JC, Williams DM "Aplastic anemia associated with parenteral chloramphenicol: review of 10 cases, including the second case of possible increased risk with cimetidine." Rev Infect Dis 10 (1988): 1048-51
  6. Abrams SM, Degnan TJ, Vinciguerra V "Marrow aplasia following topical application of chloramphenicol eye ointment." Arch Intern Med 140 (1980): 576-7
  7. Calderwood SB, Moellering RC "Common adverse effects of antibacterial agents on major organ systems." Surg Clin North Am 60 (1980): 65-81
  8. Alavi JB "Aplastic anemia associated with intravenous chloramphenicol." Am J Hematol 15 (1983): 375-9
  9. "Product Information. Chloromycetin (chloramphenicol)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  10. Farber BF, Brody JP "Rapid development of aplastic anemia after intravenous chloramphenicol and cimetidine therapy." South Med J 74 (1981): 1257-8
View all 10 references
Major

Chloramphenicol (Includes Chloracol) ↔ Renal/Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease, Renal Dysfunction

Chloramphenicol is primarily inactivated by glucuronyl transferase in the liver and eliminated in the urine as both parent drug and metabolites. In adults with normal renal and hepatic function, only 5% to 15% of a dose of chloramphenicol is excreted unchanged by the kidney, but approximately 30% is excreted when chloramphenicol is administered intravenously as the sodium succinate ester. However, the fraction of drug excreted unchanged may be highly variable, especially in neonates and children. Therapy with chloramphenicol should be administered cautiously in patients with significantly impaired renal and/or hepatic function, since drug accumulation may occur in such patients. The dosage should be reduced based on the degree of impairment as well as plasma drug concentrations.

References

  1. Narang AP, Dattta DV, Nath N, Mathur VS "Pharmacokinetic study of chloramphenicol in patients with liver disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 20 (1981): 479-83
  2. Nahata MC, Powell DA "Bioavailability and clearance of chloramphenicol after intravenous chloramphenicol succinate." Clin Pharmacol Ther 30 (1981): 368-72
  3. Azzollini F, Gazzaniga A, Lodola E, Natangelo R "Elimination of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol in subjects with cirrhosis of the liver." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 6 (1972): 130-4
  4. "Product Information. Chloromycetin (chloramphenicol)." Parke-Davis, Morris Plains, NJ.
  5. Slaughter RL, Pieper JA, Cerra FB, et al "Chloramphenicol sodium succinate kinetics in critically ill patients." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1979): 69-77
  6. Koup JR, Lau AH, Brodsky B, Slaughter RL "Chloramphenicol pharmacokinetics in hospitalized patients." Antimicrob Agents Chemother 15 (1979): 651-7
  7. Burke JT, Wargin WA, Sheretz RJ, et al "Pharmacokinetics of intravenous chloramphenicol sodium succinate in adult patients with normal renal and hepatic function." J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 10 (1982): 601-14
View all 7 references
Moderate

Antibiotics (Includes Chloracol) ↔ Colitis

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Colitis/Enteritis (Noninfectious)

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with most antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening, with an onset of up to two months following cessation of therapy. Antibiotic therapy can alter the normal flora of the colon and permit overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, whose toxin is believed to be a primary cause of antibiotic- associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe, persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps, and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. The most common culprits are clindamycin, lincomycin, the aminopenicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin), and the cephalosporins. Therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and other agents with significant antibacterial activity should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly colitis. There is some evidence that pseudomembranous colitis, if it occurs, may run a more severe course in these patients and that it may be associated with flares in their underlying disease activity. The offending antibiotic(s) should be discontinued if significant diarrhea occurs during therapy. Stool cultures for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically. A large bowel endoscopy may be considered to establish a definitive diagnosis in cases of severe diarrhea.

References

  1. Moriarty HJ, Scobie BA "Pseudomembranous colitis in a patient on rifampicin and ethambutol." N Z Med J 04/23/80 (1980): 294-5
  2. Thomas E, Mehta JB "Pseudomembranous colitis due to oxacillin therapy." South Med J 77 (1984): 532-3
  3. Harmon T, Burkhart G, Applebaum H "Perforated pseudomembranous colitis in the breast-fed infant." J Pediatr Surg 27 (1992): 744-6
  4. Davies J, Beck E "Recurrent colitis following antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Postgrad Med J 57 (1981): 599-601
  5. Milstone EB, McDonald AJ, Scholhamer CF Jr "Pseudomembranous colitis after topical application of clindamycin." Arch Dermatol 117 (1981): 154-5
  6. Burt RA "A review of the drug events reported by 12,917 patients treated with cephalexin." Postgrad Med J 59 (1983): 47-50,51-3
  7. Meadowcroft AM, Diaz PR, Latham GS "Clostridium difficile toxin-induced colitis after use of clindmycin phosphate vaginal cream." Ann Pharmacother 32 (1998): 309-11
  8. Dan M, Samra Z "Clostridium difficile colitis associated with ofloxacin therapy." Am J Med 87 (1989): 479
  9. Saadah HA "Carbenicillin and pseudomembranous enterocolitis." Ann Intern Med 93 (1980): 645
  10. Bauwens JE, McFarland LV, Melcher SA "Recurrent clostridium difficile disease following ciprofloxacin use." Ann Pharmacother 31 (1997): 1090
  11. Daly JJ, Chowdary KV "Pseudomembranous colitis secondary to metronidazole." Dig Dis Sci 28 (1983): 573-4
  12. Trexler MF, Fraser TG, Jones MP "Fulminant pseudomembranous colitis caused by clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream." Am J Gastroenterol 92 (1997): 2112-3
  13. Lyon JA "Imipenem/cilastatin: the first carbapenem antibiotic." Drug Intell Clin Pharm 19 (1985): 894-8
  14. O'Meara TF, Simmons RA "Carbenicillin and pseudomembranous enterocolitis." Ann Intern Med 92 (1980): 440-1
  15. Calandra GB, Brown KR, Grad LC, et al "Review of adverse experiences and tolerability in the first 2,516 patients treated with imipenem/cilastatin." Am J Med 78 (1985): 73-8
  16. Ehrenpreis ED, Lievens MW, Craig RM "Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea after norfloxacin." J Clin Gastroenterol 12 (1990): 188-9
  17. Bernstein L "Adverse reaction to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, with particular reference to long-term therapy." Can Med Assoc J 112 (1975): s96-8
  18. Hutcheon DF, Milligan FD, Yardley JH, Hendrix TR "Cephalosporin-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Am J Dig Dis 23 (1978): 321-6
  19. Bingley PJ, Harding GM "Clostridium difficile colitis following treatment with metronidazole and vancomycin." Postgrad Med J 63 (1987): 993-4
  20. Van Ness MM, Cattau EL Jr "Fulminant colitis complicating antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis: case report and review of the clinical manifestations and treatment." Am J Gastroenterol 82 (1987): 374-7
  21. Cone JB, Wetzel W "Toxic megacolon secondary to pseudomembranous colitis." Dis Colon Rectum 25 (1982): 478-82
  22. Hinton NA "The effect of oral tetracycline HCl and doxycycline on the intestinal flora." Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 12 (1970): 341-52
  23. Cannon SR, Dyson PH, Sanderson PJ "Pseudomembranous colitis associated with antibiotic prophylaxis in orthopaedic surgery." J Bone Joint Surg Br 70-B (1988): 600-2
  24. Wang C, Calandra GB, Aziz MA, Brown KR "Efficacy and safety of imipenem/cilastatin: a review of worldwide clinical experience." Rev Infect Dis 7 (1985): s528-36
  25. Clissold SP, Todd PA, Campoli-Richards DM "Imipenem/cilastatin: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy." Drugs 33 (1987): 185-241
  26. Pokorney BH, Nichols TW, Jr "Pseudomembranous colitis. A complication of sulfasalazine therapy in a patient with Crohn's colitis." Am J Gastroenterol 76 (1981): 374-6
  27. Miller DL, Sedlack JD, Holt RW "Perforation complicating rifampin-associated pseudomembranous enteritis." Arch Surg 124 (1989): 1082
  28. Miller SN, Ringler RP "Vancomycin-induced pseudomembranous colitis." J Clin Gastroenterol 9 (1987): 114-5
  29. Osler T, Lott D, Bordley J, et al "Cefazolin-induced pseudomembranous colitis resulting in perforation of the sigmoid colon." Dis Colon Rectum 29 (1986): 140-3
  30. Parry MF, Rha CK "Pseudomembranous colitis caused by topical clindamycin phosphate." Arch Dermatol 122 (1986): 583-4
  31. Midtvedt T, Carlstedt-Duke B, Hoverstad T, et al "Influence of peroral antibiotics upon the biotransformatory activity of the intestinal microflora in healthy subjects." Eur J Clin Invest 16 (1986): 11-7
  32. Altamirano A, Bondani A "Adverse reactions to furazolidone and other drugs. A comparative review." Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 169 (1989): 70-80
  33. Sankarankutty M, McGeorge D, Galasko CS "Pseudomembranous colitis following cephradine prophylaxis." Postgrad Med J 58 (1982): 726-8
  34. Boriello SP, Jones RH, Phillips I "Rifampicin-associated pseudomembranous colitis." Br Med J 281 (1980): 1180-1
  35. Gordin F, Gibert C, Schmidt ME "Clostridium difficile colitis associated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole given as prophylaxis for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia." Am J Med 96 (1994): 94-5
  36. Klinger D, Radford P, Collin J "Pneumoperitoneum without faecal peritonitis in a patient with pseudomembranous colitis." Br Med J 288 (1984): 1271-2
  37. Saginur R, Hawley CR, Bartlett JG "Colitis associated with metronidazole therapy." J Infect Dis 141 (1980): 772-4
  38. Sugarman B "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, pseudomembranous colitis, and spinal cord injury." South Med J 78 (1985): 711-3
  39. Edlund C, Brismar B, Nord CE "Effect of lomefloxacin on the normal oral and intestinal microflora." Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1 (1990): 35-9
  40. Golledge CL, Riley TV "Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea after doxycycline malaria prophylaxis." Lancet 345 (1995): 1377-8
  41. Ring FA, Hershfield NB, Machin GA, Scott RB "Sulfasalazine-induced colitis complicating idiopathic ulcerative colitis." Can Med Assoc J 131 (1984): 43-5
  42. Leigh DA, Simmons K, Williams S "Gastrointestinal side effects following clindamycin and lincomycin treatment: a follow up study." J Antimicrob Chemother 6 (1980): 639-45
  43. Friedman RJ, Mayer IE, Galambos JT, Hersh T "Oxacillin-induced pseudomembranous colitis." Am J Gastroenterol 73 (1980): 445-7
  44. "Multum Information Services, Inc. Expert Review Panel"
  45. Edlund C, Lidbeck A, Kager L, Nord CE "Effect of enoxacin on colonic microflora of healthy volunteers." Eur J Clin Microbiol 6 (1987): 298-300
  46. Hecht JR, Olinger EJ "Clostridium difficile colitis secondary to intravenous vancomycin." Dig Dis Sci 34 (1989): 148-9
  47. Brause BD, Romankiewicz JA, Gotz V, Franklin JE Jr, Roberts RB "Comparative study of diarrhea associated with clindamycin and ampicillin therapy." Am J Gastroenterol 73 (1980): 244-8
View all 47 references

Chloracol (chloramphenicol) drug Interactions

There are 437 drug interactions with Chloracol (chloramphenicol)

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

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