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Aliskiren / amlodipine / hydrochlorothiazide Disease Interactions

There are 18 disease interactions with aliskiren / amlodipine / hydrochlorothiazide:

Major

Aliskiren (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Diabetes

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Diabetes Mellitus

The use of aliskiren is contraindicated in patients with diabetes who are receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), as there is an increased risk of renal impairment, hyperkalemia, and hypotension.

Major

Ccbs (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Cardiogenic Shock/Hypotension

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Cardiogenic Shock, Hypotension

In general, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) should not be used in patients with hypotension (systolic pressure < 90 mm Hg) or cardiogenic shock. Due to potential negative inotropic and peripheral vasodilating effects, the use of CCBs may further depress cardiac output and blood pressure, which can be detrimental in these patients. The use of verapamil and diltiazem is specifically contraindicated under these circumstances.

References

  1. "Product Information. Calan (verapamil)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  2. "Product Information. Vascor (bepridil)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  3. Stehle G, Buss J, Eibach J, et al "Cardiogenic shock associated with verapamil in a patient with liver cirrhosis." Lancet 336 (1990): 1079
  4. Kubota K, Pearce GL, Inman WHW "Vasodilation-related adverse events in diltiazem and dihydropyridine calcium antagonists studied by prescription-event monitoring." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 48 (1995): 1-7
  5. Pahor M, Manto A, Pedone C, Carosella L, Guralnik JM, Carbonin P "Age and severe adverse drug reactions caused by nifedipine and verapamil." J Clin Epidemiol 49 (1996): 921-8
  6. "Product Information. Cardizem (diltiazem)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
View all 6 references
Major

Ccbs (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Coronary Artery Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, Low plausibility

Applies to: Ischemic Heart Disease

Increased frequency, duration, and/or severity of angina, as well as acute myocardial infarction, have rarely developed during initiation or dosage increase of calcium channel blockers (CCBs), particularly in patients with severe obstructive coronary artery disease and those treated with immediate-release formulations. The mechanism of this effect is not established. Therapy with CCBs should be administered cautiously in patients with significant coronary artery disease.

References

  1. Thomassen AR, Bagger JP, Nielsen TT "Hemodynamic and cardiac metabolic changes during nicardipine-induced myocardial ischemia." Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn 14 (1988): 41-3
  2. Kloner RA "Nifedipine in ischemic heart disease." Circulation 92 (1995): 1074-8
  3. Manga P, Vythilingum "Unstable angina precipitated by nifedipine." S Afr Med J 66 (1984): 144
  4. Myrhed M, Wiholm B-E "Nifedipine: a survey of adverse effects." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 58 (1986): 133-6
  5. Lambert CR, Hill JA, Feldman RL, Pepine CJ "Myocardial ischemia during intravenous nicardipine administration." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): 844-5
  6. Abernathy DR, Schwrtz JB "Calcium-antagonist drugs." N Engl J Med 341 (1999): 1447-57
  7. Oei SG, Oei SK, Brolmann HAM "Myocardial infarction during nifedipine therapy for preterm labor." N Engl J Med 340 (1999): 154
  8. "Product Information. Cardene (nicardipine)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  9. Schanzenbacher P, Deeg P, Liebau G, Kochsiek K "Paradoxical angina after nifedipine: angiographic documentation." Am J Cardiol 53 (1984): 345-6
  10. Sia STB, MacDonald PS, Triester B, et al "Aggravation of myocardial ischaemia by nifedipine." Med J Aust 142 (1985): 48-50
  11. "Product Information. Procardia (nifedipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  12. "Product Information. Sular (nisoldipine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  13. "Product Information. Norvasc (amlodipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  14. Yusuf S "Calcium antagonists in coronary artery disease and hypertension: time for reevaluation?" Circulation 92 (1995): 1079-82
  15. Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Meyer JV "Nifedipine: dose-related increase in mortality in patients with coronary heart disease." Circulation 92 (1995): 1326-31
View all 15 references
Major

Ccbs (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are extensively metabolized by the liver. The half-lives of CCBs may be prolonged substantially in patients with severe hepatic impairment, with the potential for significant drug accumulation. In addition, the use of some CCBs has been associated with elevations in serum transaminases, both with and without concomitant elevations in alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. While these effects may be transient and reversible, several patients have developed cholestasis or hepatocellular injury that was proven by rechallenge. Therapy with CCBs should be administered cautiously and often at reduced dosages in patients with significantly impaired hepatic function. Periodic monitoring of liver function and for excessive pharmacologic effects (e.g., abnormal prolongation of PR interval) is advised, and the dosage adjusted if necessary.

References

  1. "Product Information. Calan (verapamil)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  2. Stern EH, Pitchon R, King BD, Wiener I "Possible hepatitis from verapamil." N Engl J Med 306 (1982): 612-3
  3. Cotting J, Reichen J, Kutz K, Laplanche R, Nuesch E "Pharmacokinetics of isradipine in patients with chronic liver disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 38 (1990): 599-603
  4. Regardh CG, Edgar B, Olsson R, Kendall M, Collste P, Shansky C "Pharmacokinetics of felodipine in patients with liver disease." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 36 (1989): 473-9
  5. "Product Information. Procardia (nifedipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  6. "Product Information. Plendil (felodipine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  7. Giacomini KM, Massoud N, Wong FM, Giacomini JC "Decreased binding of verapamil to plasma proteins in patients with liver disease." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 6 (1984): 924-8
  8. Graham D, Dow R, Hall D, Alexander O, Mroszczak E, Freedman A "The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of nicardipine hydrochloride in man." Br J Clin Pharmacol 20 (1985): s23-8
  9. Scherling D, Karl W, Ahr G, Ahr HJ, Wehinger E "Pharmacokinetics of nisoldipine. III. Biotransformation of nisoldipine in rat, dog, monkey, and man." Arzneimittelforschung 38 (1988): 1105-10
  10. Babany G, Uzzan F, Larrey D, et al "Alcoholic-like liver lesions induced by nifedipine." J Hepatol 9 (1989): 252-5
  11. Ramsch KD, Graefe KH, Scherling D, et al "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of calcium-blocking agents nifedipine, nitrendipine, and nimodipine." Am J Nephrol 6 (1986): 73-80
  12. "Product Information. DynaCirc (isradipine)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  13. Guarascio P, D'Amato C, Sette P, et al "Liver damage from verapamil." Br Med J 288 (1984): 362-3
  14. Dunselman PH, Edgar B "Felodipine clinical pharmacokinetics." Clin Pharmacokinet 21 (1991): 418-30
  15. Elliott HL, Meredith PA "The clinical consequences of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of amlodipine." Postgrad Med J 67 (1991): s20-3
  16. Stopher DA, Beresford AP, Macrae PV, Humphrey MJ "The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of amlodipine in humans and animals." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 12 (1988): s55-9
  17. Brodsky SJ, Cutler SS, Weiner DA, Klein MD "Hepatotoxicity due to treatment with verapamil." Ann Intern Med 94 (1981): 490-1
  18. Kurosawa S, Kurosawa N, Owada E, et al "Pharmacokinetics of diltiazem in patients with liver cirrhosis." Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 10 (1990): 311-8
  19. "Product Information. Vascor (bepridil)." McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  20. "Product Information. Cardizem (diltiazem)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  21. Benet LZ "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of bepridil." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): c8-13
  22. Toner M, White A, Moriarty J, Clancy L "Allergic urticarial eruption, leukocytosis and abnormal liver function tests following nifedipine administration." Chest 93 (1988): 1320-1
  23. Abramson M, Littlejohn GO "Hepatic reactions to nifedipine." Med J Aust 142 (1985): 47-8
  24. Kleinbloesem CH, van Harten J, Wilson JP, et al "Nifedipine: kinetics and hemodynamic effects in patients with liver cirrhosis after intravenous and oral administration." Clin Pharmacol Ther 40 (1986): 21-8
  25. Toft E, Vyberg M, Therkelsen K "Diltiazem-induced granulomatous hepatitis." Histopathology 18 (1991): 474-5
  26. Raemsch KD, Sommer J "Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of nifedipine." Hypertension 5 (1983): 18-24
  27. Kates RE "Calcium antagonists: pharmacokinetic properties." Drugs 25 (1983): 113-24
  28. Shallcross H, Padley SP, Glynn MJ, Gibbs DD "Fatal renal and hepatic toxicity after treatment with diltiazem." Br Med J 295 (1987): 1256-7
  29. "Product Information. Norvasc (amlodipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  30. Gengo FM, Fagan SC, Krol G, Bernhard H "Nimodipine disposition and haemodynamic effects in patients with cirrhosis and age-matched controls." Br J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1987): 47-53
  31. Meredith P, Elliott H "Clinical pharmacokinetics of amlodipine." Clin Pharmacokinet 22 (1992): 22-31
  32. "Product Information. Sular (nisoldipine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  33. Stehle G, Buss J, Eibach J, et al "Cardiogenic shock associated with verapamil in a patient with liver cirrhosis." Lancet 336 (1990): 1079
  34. Rush WR, Alexander O, Hall DJ, Cairncross L, Dow RJ, Graham DJ "The metabolism of nicardipine hydrochloride in healthy male volunteers." Xenobiotica 16 (1986): 341-9
  35. Tse FL, Jaffe JM "Pharmacokinetics of PN 200-110 (isradipine), a new calcium antagonist, after oral administration in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 32 (1987): 361-5
  36. "Product Information. Cardene (nicardipine)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  37. Challenor VF, Waller DG, Renwick AG, et al "The trans-hepatic extraction of nifedipine." Br J Clin Pharmacol 24 (1987): 473-7
  38. Finucci GF, Padrini R, Piovan D, et al "Verapamil pharmacokinetics and liver function in patients with cirrhosis." Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 8 (1988): 123-6
  39. Abernathy DR, Schwrtz JB "Calcium-antagonist drugs." N Engl J Med 341 (1999): 1447-57
  40. "Product Information. Nimotop (nimodipine)." Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  41. Dow RJ, Graham DJM "A reveiw of the human metabolism and pharmacokinetics of nicardipine hydrochloride." Br J Clin Pharmacol 22 (1986): s195-202
  42. Johnson KE, Balderston SM, Pieper JA, Mann DE, Reiter MJ "Electrophysiologic effects of verapamil metabolites in the isolated heart." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 17 (1991): 830-7
  43. Woodcock BG, Rietbrock I, Vohringer HF, Rietbrock N "Verapamil disposition in liver disease and intensive-care patients: kinetics, clearance, and apparent blood flow relationships." Clin Pharmacol Ther 29 (1981): 27-34
  44. Echizen H, Eichelbaum M "Clinical pharmacokinetics of verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem." Clin Pharmacokinet 11 (1986): 425-49
  45. McAllister RG Jr, Hamann SR, Blouin RA "Pharmacokinetics of calcium-entry blockers." Am J Cardiol 55 (1985): b30-40
  46. Woodcock BG, Rietbrock N "Verapamil bioavailability and dosage in liver disease." Br J Clin Pharmacol 13 (1982): 240-1
  47. Kumar KL, Colley CA "Verapamil-induced hepatotoxicity." West J Med 160 (1994): 485-6
  48. Traverse JH, Swenson LJ, Mcbride JW "Acute hepatic injury after treatment with diltiazem." Am Heart J 127 (1994): 1636-9
  49. Colombo G, Zucchella G, Planca E, Grieco A "Intravenous diltiazem in the treatment of unstable angina: a study of efficacy and tolerance." Clin Ther 9 (1987): 536-47
  50. Razak TA, McNeil JJ, Sewell RB, Drummer OH, Smallwood RA, Conway EL, Louis WJ "The effect of hepatic cirrhosis on the pharmacokinetics and blood pressure response to nicardipine." Clin Pharmacol Ther 47 (1990): 463-9
  51. Hare DL, Horowitz JD "Verapamil hepatotoxicity: a hypersensitivity reaction." Am Heart J 111 (1986): 610-11
  52. Saracheck NS, London RL, Matulewicz TJ, et al "Diltiazem and granulomatous hepatitis." Gastroenterology 88 (1985): 1260-2
  53. Somogyi A, Albrecht M, Kliems G, et al "Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and ECG response of verapamil in patients with liver cirrhosis." Br J Clin Pharmacol 12 (1981): 51-60
View all 53 references
Major

Thiazides (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Anuria

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Anuria

The use of thiazide diuretics is contraindicated in patients with anuria.

References

  1. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  2. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  3. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  4. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  5. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  6. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  7. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  9. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
View all 9 references
Major

Thiazides (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Electrolyte Losses

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Hypokalemia, Diarrhea, Electrolyte Abnormalities, Hyperaldosteronism, Hyponatremia, Magnesium Imbalance, Malnourished, Vomiting, Ventricular Arrhythmia, Dehydration

The use of thiazide diuretics is commonly associated with loss of electrolytes, most significantly potassium but also sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, and magnesium. The loss of other electrolytes such as phosphate, bromide and iodide is usually slight. Potassium and magnesium depletion may lead to cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Other electrolyte-related complications include metabolic alkalosis and hyponatremia, which are rarely life-threatening. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with or predisposed to fluid and electrolyte depletion, including patients with primary or secondary aldosteronism (may have low potassium levels); those with severe or prolonged diarrhea or vomiting; and those with poor nutritional status. Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities should be corrected prior to initiating therapy, and blood pressure as well as serum electrolyte concentrations monitored periodically and maintained at normal ranges during therapy. Patients should be advised to immediately report signs and symptoms of fluid or electrolyte imbalance, including dry mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, arrhythmia, or gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting. Digitalized patients and patients with a history of ventricular arrhythmias should be monitored carefully, since development of hypokalemia may be particularly dangerous in these patients. The risk of hypokalemia may be minimized by slow diuresis, a lower thiazide dosage, potassium supplementation, or combined use with a potassium-sparing diuretic.

References

  1. Bain PG, Egner W, Walker PR "Thiazide-induced dilutional hyponatraemia masquerading as subarachnoid haemorrhage ." Lancet 2 (1986): 634
  2. Peters RW, Hamilton J, Hamilton BP "Incidence of cardiac arrhythmias associated with mild hypokalemia induced by low-dose diuretic therapy for hypertension." South Med J 82 (1989): 966-9,
  3. Jorgensen FS, Brunner S "The long-term effect of bendroflumethiazide on renal calcium and magnesium excretion and stone formation in patients with recurring renal stones." Scand J Urol Nephrol 8 (1974): 128-31
  4. Medical Research Council Working Party on Mild to Moderate Hypertension. "Ventricular extrasystoles during thiazide treatment: substudy of MRC mild hypertension trial." Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 287 (1983): 1249-53
  5. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  6. Hollifield JW, Slaton PE "Thiazide diuretics, hypokalemia and cardiac arrhythmias." Acta Med Scand Suppl 647 (1981): 67-73
  7. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  8. Landmann-Suter R, Struyvenberg A "Initial potassium loss and hypokalaemia during chlorthalidone administration in patients with essential hypertension: the influence of dietary sodium restriction." Eur J Clin Invest 8 (1978): 155-64
  9. Brors O, Jacobsen S, Foss OP, Aakvaag A "Effect of repeated doses of hydroflumethiazide on renal excretion of electrolytes and uric acid in healthy subjects." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 48 (1981): 145-50
  10. Mroczek WJ "Indapamide: clinical pharmacology, therapeutic efficacy in hypertension, and adverse effects." Pharmacotherapy 3 (1983): 61-7
  11. Ljunghall S, Backman U, Danielson BG, Fellstrom B, Johansson G, Wikstrom B "Calcium and magnesium metabolism during long-term treatment with thiazides." Scand J Urol Nephrol 15 (1981): 257-62
  12. Oh SJ, Douglas JE, Brown RA "Hypokalemic vacuolar myopathy associated with chlorthalidone treatment." JAMA 216 (1971): 1858-9
  13. Starr JM, Whalley LJ "Hypertensive Old People in Edinburgh (HOPE) Study: electrocardiographic changes after captopril or bendrofluazide treatment." Age Ageing 22 (1993): 343-8
  14. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  15. Brater DC "Drug therapy: Diuretic therapy." N Engl J Med 339 (1998): 387-95
  16. Fichman MP, Vorherr H, Kleeman CR, Telfer N "Diuretic-induced hyponatremia." Ann Intern Med 75 (1971): 853-63
  17. el-Meheiry MM, Nabih AE, Soliman MD "A clinical study of a new diuretic, Trichlormethiazide." J Trop Med Hyg 69 (1966): 209-14
  18. Kuller LH, Hulley SB, Cohen JD, Neaton J "Unexpected effects of treating hypertension in men with electrocardiographic abnormalities: a critical analysis." Circulation 73 (1986): 114-23
  19. Berglund G, Andersson O, Larsson O, Wilhelmsen L "Antihypertensive effect and side-effects of bendroflumethiazide and propranolol." Acta Med Scand 199 (1976): 499-506
  20. Elmfeldt D, Berglund G, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L "Incidence and importance of metabolic side-effects during antihypertensive therapy." Acta Med Scand Suppl 672 (1983): 79-83
  21. Lee MR, Morgan DB "Familial hyperkalaemia responsive to benzothiadiazine diuretic." Lancet 1 (1980): 879
  22. Chan TY "Indapamide-induced severe hyponatremia and hypokalemia." Ann Pharmacother 29 (1995): 1124-8
  23. Seelig CB "Magnesium deficiency in two hypertensive patient groups." South Med J 83 (1990): 739-42
  24. Black W, Shiner P, Roman J "Severe electrolyte disturbances associated with metolazone and furosemide." South Med J 71 (1978): 381
  25. Itescu S, Haskell LP, Tannenberg AM "Thiazide-induced clinically significant hypophosphatemia ." Clin Nephrol 27 (1987): 161-2
  26. Struthers AD, Whitesmith R, Reid JL "Prior thiazide diuretic treatment increases adrenaline-induced hypokalaemia." Lancet 1 (1983): 1358-61
  27. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  28. Winchester JF, Kellett RJ, Boddy K, Boyle P, Dargie HJ, Mahaffey ME, Ward DM, Kennedy AC "Metolazone and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension: physiologic and metabolic observations." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 611-8
  29. Slotkoff L "Clinical efficacy and safety of indapamide in the treatment of edema." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 233-7
  30. Lindy S, Tarssanen L "Serum calcium and phosphorus in patients treated with thiazides and furosemide." Acta Med Scand 194 (1973): 319-22
  31. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  32. Chowdhury FR, Bleicher SJ "Chlorthalidone--induced hypokalemia and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism." Horm Metab Res 2 (1970): 13-6
  33. Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics in treating hypertension." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 223-6
  34. Polanska AI, Baron DN "Hyponatraemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide treatment ." Br Med J 1 (1978): 175-6
  35. Pinnock CA "Hyponatraemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide treatment ." Br Med J 1 (1978): 48
  36. Husby S, Marthedal NJ "Hyponatraemia due to a thiazide diuretic. A case report." Acta Med Scand 210 (1981): 523-4
  37. Cembrowski GS, Huntington RW, 3d "Probable fatal cardiac dysrhythmia secondary to diuretic-induced hypokalemia." Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2 (1981): 243-8
  38. Simunic M, Rumboldt Z, Ljutic D, Sardelic S "Ramipril decreases chlorthalidone-induced loss of magnesium and potassium in hypertensive patients." J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1995): 1150-5
  39. Gudbrandsson T, Hansson L "Combination therapy with saluretics and atenolol in essential hypertension. Effects on blood pressure, electrolytes and uric acid." Acta Med Scand Suppl 625 (1979): 86-91
  40. Katz FH, Eckert RC, Gebott MD "Hypokalemia caused by surreptitious self-administration of diuretics." Ann Intern Med 76 (1972): 85-90
  41. Byatt CM, Millard PH, Levin GE "Diuretics and electrolyte disturbances in 1000 consecutive geriatric admissions." J R Soc Med 83 (1990): 704-8
  42. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  43. Hesp R, Wilkinson PR "Potassium supplementation of thiazide therapy." Lancet 2 (1976): 1144
  44. Gould L, Reddy CV, Zen B, Singh BK "Life-threatening reaction to thiazides." N Y State J Med 80 (1980): 1975-6
  45. Papademetriou V, Price M, Notargiacomo A, Gottdiener J, Fletcher RD, Freis ED "Effect of diuretic therapy on ventricular arrhythmias in hypertensive patients with or without left ventricular hypertrophy." Am Heart J 110 (1985): 595-9
  46. Mozes B, Pines A, Werner D, Olchovsky D, Lieberman P, Frankl O "Thiazide-induced hyponatremia: an unusual neurologic course." South Med J 79 (1986): 629-31
  47. Falch DK, Schreiner AM "Changes in urinary electrolytes versus serum electrolytes during treatment of primary hypertension with chlorthalidone alone and in combination with spironolactone." Acta Med Scand 209 (1981): 111-4
  48. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  49. Toner JM, Ramsay LE "Thiazide-induced hypokalaemia; prevalence higher in women." Br J Clin Pharmacol 18 (1984): 449-52
  50. Ragnarsson J, Hardarson T, Snorrason SP "Ventricular dysrhythmias in middle-aged hypertensive men treated either with a diuretic agent or a beta-blocker." Acta Med Scand 221 (1987): 143-8
  51. Berg KJ, Gisholt K, Wideroe TE "Potassium deficiency in hypertensives treated with diuretics. Analysis of three alternative treatments by an oral test for potassium deficiency." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 7 (1974): 401-5
  52. Read SJ, Trenerry HM, Whiting GF "Hyponatraemia and raised creatine kinase level associated with indapamide." Med J Aust 161 (1994): 607-8
  53. Kone B, Gimenez L, Watson AJ "Thiazide-induced hyponatremia." South Med J 79 (1986): 1456-7
  54. Moore TD, Bechtel TP "Hyponatremia secondary to tolbutamide and chlorothiazide." Am J Hosp Pharm 36 (1979): 1107-10
  55. Remenchik AP, Johnston LC "Potassium depletion produced by administration of chlorthalidone to nonedematous patients with arterial hypertensin." Am J Med Sci 252 (1966): 171-6
  56. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  57. Petri M, Cumber P, Grimes L, Treby D, Bryant R, Rawlins D, Ising H "The metabolic effects of thiazide therapy in the elderly: a population study." Age Ageing 15 (1986): 151-5
  58. Kaur J, Wahi PL "Polythiazide as a diuretic. A clinical trial." J Indian Med Assoc 48 (1967): 13-7
  59. Beling S, Vukovich RA, Neiss ES, Zisblatt M, Webb E, Losi M "Long-term experience with indapamide." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 258-62
  60. Sumiye L, Vivian AS, Frisof KB, Podany EC "Potassium loss associated with hydrochlorothiazide versus chlorthalidone." Clin Ther 4 (1981): 308-20
  61. Papademetriou V, Fletcher R, Khatri IM, Freis ED "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia in uncomplicated systemic hypertension: effect of plasma potassium correction on cardiac arrhythmias." Am J Cardiol 52 (1983): 1017-22
  62. Leigh H "Letter: Factitious hypokalemia." Ann Intern Med 80 (1974): 111-2
  63. Navarro RP, O'Brien DK, Nuffort P, Spencer DL "Diuretic induced hypokalemia in the elderly." J Fam Pract 14 (1982): 685-9
  64. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  65. Carney SL, Morgan TO "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia and altered renal function." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 24 (1986): 665-7
  66. Brors O, Enger E, Jacobsen S, Aakvaag A, Foss OP "Effects of hydroflumethiazide in congestive heart failure: renal electrolyte excretion related to urinary thiazide excretion and aldosterone." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 49 (1981): 399-406
  67. Kuller L, Farrier N, Caggiula A, Borhani N, Dunkle S "Relationship of diuretic therapy and serum magnesium levels among participants in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial." Am J Epidemiol 122 (1985): 1045-59
  68. Holland OB, Kuhnert L, Pollard J, Padia M, Anderson RJ, Blomqvist G "Ventricular ectopic activity with diuretic therapy." Am J Hypertens 1 (1988): 380-5
  69. Condon JR, Nassim R "Hypophosphataemia and hypokalaemia." Br Med J 1 (1970): 110
  70. Mouallem M, Friedman E, Shemesh Y, Mayan H, Pauzner R, Farfel Z "Cardiac conduction defects associated with hyponatremia." Clin Cardiol 14 (1991): 165-8
  71. Benfield GF, Haffner C, Harris P, Stableforth DE "Dilutional hyponatraemia masquerading as subarachnoid haemorrhage in patient on hydrochlorothiazide/amiloride/timolol combined drug ." Lancet 2 (1986): 341
  72. Stern A "Metolazone, a diuretic agent." Am Heart J 91 (1976): 262-3
  73. Jensen OB, Mosdal C, Reske-Nielsen E "Hypokalemic myopathy during treatment with diuretics." Acta Neurol Scand 55 (1977): 465-82
  74. Krishna GG, Narins RG "Hemodynamic consequences of diuretic-induced hypokalemia." Am J Kidney Dis 12 (1988): 329-31
  75. Ghose RR "Letter: Hyponatraemia and diuretics." Lancet 1 (1975): 578-9
  76. Stewart DE, Ikram H, Espiner EA, Nicholls MG "Arrhythmogenic potential of diuretic induced hypokalaemia in patients with mild hypertension and ischaemic heart disease." Br Heart J 54 (1985): 290-7
  77. Papademetriou V, Fletcher R, Khatri IM, Freis ED "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia in uncomplicated systemic hypertension: effect of plasma potassium correction on cardiac arrhythmias." Am J Cardiol 52 (1983): 1017-22
View all 77 references
Major

Thiazides (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Liver Disease

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Liver Disease

Patients with severe liver disease or cirrhosis are very susceptible to thiazide-induced hypokalemic hypochloremic alkalosis. Blood ammonia concentrations may be further increased in patients with previously elevated concentrations. Hepatic encephalopathy and death have occurred secondary to the electrolyte alterations accompanying diuretic use. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, and discontinued promptly if signs of impending hepatic coma appear (e.g., tremors, confusion, and increased jaundice).

References

  1. Sherlock S, Senewiratne B, Scott A, Walker JG "Complications of diuretic therapy in hepatic cirrhosis." Lancet 1 (1966): 1049-52
  2. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  3. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  4. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  5. Sherlock S, Walker JG, Senewiratne B, Scott A "The complications of diuretic therapy in patients with cirrhosis." Ann N Y Acad Sci 139 (1966): 497-505
  6. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  7. Aneckstein AG, Weingold AB "Chlorothiazide-induced hepatic coma in pregnancy." Am J Obstet Gynecol 95 (1966): 136-7
  8. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  9. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  10. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  11. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  12. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
View all 12 references
Major

Thiazides (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Lupus Erythematosus

Severe Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Lupus Erythematosus

The use of thiazide diuretics has been reported to possibly exacerbate or activate systemic lupus erythematosus. Reported cases have generally been associated with chlorothiazide and hydrochlorothiazide. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with a history or risk of SLE.

References

  1. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  2. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  3. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  4. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  5. Rich MW, Eckman JM "Can hydrochlorothiazide cause lupus?" J Rheumatol 22 (1995): 1001
  6. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  7. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  9. Brown CW, Deng JS "Thiazide diuretics induce cutaneous lupus-like adverse reaction." J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 33 (1995): 729-33
  10. Goodrich AL, Kohn SR "Hydrochlorothiazide-induced lupus erythematosus: a new variant?" J Am Acad Dermatol 28 (1993): 1001-2
  11. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  12. Parodi A, Romagnoli M, Rebora A "Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus-like eruption caused by hydrochlorothiazide." Photodermatol 6 (1989): 100-2
  13. Reed BR, Huff JC, Jones SK, Orton PW, Lee LA, Norris DA "Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus associated with hydrochlorothiazide therapy." Ann Intern Med 103 (1985): 49-51
  14. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
View all 14 references
Major

Thiazides (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Renal Function Disorders

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction

Thiazide diuretics may be ineffective when the glomerular filtration rate is low (GFR < 25 mL/min) because they are not expected to be filtered into the renal tubule, their site of action. In addition, thiazide diuretics decrease the GFR and may precipitate azotemia in renal disease. Cumulative effects may also develop because most of these drugs are excreted unchanged in the urine by glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously at reduced dosages in patients with renal impairment. If renal function becomes progressively worse, as indicated by rising BUN or serum creatinine levels, an interruption or discontinuation of thiazide therapy should be considered.

References

  1. Riess W, Dubach UC, Burckhardt D, Theobald W, Vuillard P, Zimmerli M "Pharmacokinetic studies with chlorthalidone (Hygroton) in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 12 (1977): 375-82
  2. Klunk LJ, Ringel S, Neiss ES "The disposition of 14C-indapamide in man." J Clin Pharmacol 23 (1983): 377-84
  3. Brennan L, Wu MJ, Laquer UJ "A multicenter study of indapamide in hypertensive patients with impaired renal function." Clin Ther 5 (1982): 121-8
  4. el-Meheiry MM, Nabih AE, Soliman MD "A clinical study of a new diuretic, Trichlormethiazide." J Trop Med Hyg 69 (1966): 209-14
  5. Magil AB "Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas." Hum Pathol 14 (1983): 36-41
  6. Craswell PW, Ezzat E, Kopstein J, Varghese Z, Moorhead JF "Use of metolazone, a new diuretic, in patients with renal disease." Nephron 12 (1974): 63-73
  7. Sketris IS, Skoutakis VA, Acchiardo SR, Meyer MC "The pharmacokinetics of trichlormethiazide in hypertensive patients with normal and compromised renal function." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 20 (1981): 453-7
  8. Fleuren HLJ, Verwey-van Wissen C, van Rossum JM "Dose-dependent urinary excretion of chlorthalidone." Clin Pharmacol Ther 25 (1979): 806-12
  9. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  10. Hobbs DC, Twomey TM "Kinetics of polythiazide." Clin Pharmacol Ther 23 (1978): 241-6
  11. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  12. Larsson GB, Langer L, Nassberger L "Thiazide-induced kidney damage with circulating antibodies against myeloperoxidase and cardiolipin." J Intern Med 233 (1993): 493-4
  13. Gehr TW, Sica DA, Brater DC, et al "Metolazone pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in renal transplantation." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 29 (1991): 116-23
  14. Acchiardo SR, Skoutakis VA "Clinical efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of indapamide in renal impairment." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 237-44
  15. Lant AF, Baba WI, Wilson GM "Localization of the site of action of oral diuretics in the human kidney." Clin Sci 33 (1967): 11-27
  16. Read SJ, Trenerry HM, Whiting GF "Hyponatraemia and raised creatine kinase level associated with indapamide." Med J Aust 161 (1994): 607-8
  17. Delevett AF, Recalde M "Diuretic-induced renal colic." JAMA 225 (1973): 992
  18. Yakatan GJ, Smith RB, Frome EL, Doluisio JT "Pharmacokinetics of orally administered hydroflumethiazide in man." J Clin Pharmacol 17 (1977): 37-47
  19. Beermann B, Groschinsky-Grind M, Rosen A "Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of hydrochlorothiazide." Clin Pharmacol Ther 19 (1975): 531-7
  20. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  21. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  22. Magil AB, Ballon HS, Cameron EC, Rae A "Acute interstitial nephritis associated with thiazide diuretics. Clinical and pathologic observations in three cases." Am J Med 69 (1980): 939-43
  23. Beermann B, Groschinsky-Grind M, Lindstrom B, Wikland B "Pharmacokinetics of bendroflumenthiazide in hypertensive patients." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 13 (1978): 119-24
  24. Niemeyer C, Hasenfub G, Wais U, et al "Pharmacokinetics of hydrochlorothiazide in relation to renal function." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 24 (1983): 661-5
  25. Beermann B, Groschinsky-Grind M, Lindstrom B "Pharmacokinetics of bendroflumethiazide." Clin Pharmacol Ther 22 (1977): 385-8
  26. Seyffart, G "Drug Dosage in Renal Insufficiency." Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers 1 (1991): 227-8
  27. Brors O, Jacobsen S "Distribution of elimination of hydroflumethiazide in man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 16 (1979): 125-31
  28. Carney SL, Morgan TO "Diuretic-induced hypokalemia and altered renal function." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 24 (1986): 665-7
  29. Newstead CG, Moore RH, Barnes AJ "Interstitial nephritis associated with indapamide." BMJ 300 (1990): 1344
  30. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  31. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  32. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  33. Madkour H, Gadallah M, Plante GE, Massry SG "Comparison between the effects of indapamide and hydrochlorothiazide on creatinine clearance in patients with impaired renal function and hypertension." Am J Nephrol 15 (1995): 251-5
  34. Jones B, Nanra RS "Double-blind trial of antihypertensive effect of chlorothiazide in severe renal failure." Lancet 2 (1979): 1258-60
  35. Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, eds. "Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed." New York, NY: Pergamon Press Inc. (1990):
  36. Bennett WM, Porter GA "Efficacy and safety of metolazone in renal failure and the nephrotic syndrome." J Clin Pharmacol 13 (1973): 357-64
  37. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  38. Brater DC "Drug therapy: Diuretic therapy." N Engl J Med 339 (1998): 387-95
  39. Tilstone WJ, Dargie H, Dargie EN, Morgan HG, Kennedy AC "Pharmacokinetics of metolazone in normal subjects and in patients with cardiac or renal failure." Clin Pharmacol Ther 16 (1974): 322-9
  40. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  41. Brors O, Haffner JF, Jacobsen S "Excretion of hydroflumethiazide in bile and urine of man." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 15 (1979): 287-9
View all 41 references
Moderate

Aliskiren (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Hypotension

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Dehydration, Hyponatremia

Symptomatic hypotension may occur after treatment initiation with aliskiren in patients with marked volume depletion, salt depletion, or with combined use of aliskiren and other agents acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. It is recommended to correct the volume or salt depletion before administering aliskiren. Close monitoring is recommended.

Moderate

Aliskiren (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Renal Impairment

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Renal Dysfunction, Congestive Heart Failure, History - Myocardial Infarction

Renal function should be monitored periodically in patients treated with aliskiren, as changes can occur including acute renal failure. Patients on aliskiren whose renal function may depend in part of the RAAS (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), such as patients with renal artery stenosis, severe heart failure, or postmyocardial infarction may be at higher risk for developing acute renal failure. Treatment should be discontinued in any patients who develop clinically significant decrease in renal function. Patients with renal impairment should be observed closely. The safety and effectiveness of aliskiren have not been established in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl < 30 mL/min), as these patients were excluded from clinical trials.

Moderate

Ccbs (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Chf/Ami

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Congestive Heart Failure, Myocardial Infarction

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) may have varying degrees of negative inotropic effect. Congestive heart failure (CHF), worsening of CHF, and pulmonary edema have occurred in some patients treated with a CCB, primarily verapamil. Some CCBs have also caused mild to moderate peripheral edema due to localized vasodilation of dependent arterioles and small blood vessels, which can be confused with the effects of increasing left ventricular dysfunction. Although some CCBs have been used in the treatment of CHF, therapy with CCBs should be administered cautiously in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (e.g., ejection fraction < 30%) or moderate to severe symptoms of cardiac failure and in patients with any degree of ventricular dysfunction if they are receiving a beta-adrenergic blocker. Likewise, caution is advised in patients with acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary congestion documented by X-ray on admission, since associated heart failure may be acutely worsened by administration of a CCB.

References

  1. Batlouni M, Armaganijan D, Ghorayeb N, Magliano MF "Clinical efficacy and tolerability of isradipine in the treatment of mild-to-moderate hypertension in young and elderly patients." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 19 (1992): s53-7
  2. "Product Information. Procardia (nifedipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  3. Sleight P "Calcium antagonists during and after myocardial infarction." Drugs 51 (1996): 216-25
  4. Fagan TC, Haggert BE, Liss C "Efficacy and tolerability of extended-release felodipine and extended-release nifedipine in patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension." Clin Ther 16 (1994): 634-46
  5. Brogden RN, Sorkin EM "Isradipine: an update of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension." Drugs 49 (1995): 618-49
  6. Batra AK, Segall PH, Ahmed T "Pulmonary edema with nifedipine in primary pulmonary hypertension." Respiration 47 (1985): 161-3
  7. Kubota K, Pearce GL, Inman WHW "Vasodilation-related adverse events in diltiazem and dihydropyridine calcium antagonists studied by prescription-event monitoring." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 48 (1995): 1-7
  8. Walton T, Symes LR "Felodipine and isradipine: new calcium-channel-blocking agents for the treatment of hypertension." Clin Pharm 12 (1993): 261-75
  9. "Product Information. Norvasc (amlodipine)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  10. "Product Information. DynaCirc (isradipine)." Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ.
  11. Scheidt S, LeWinter MM, Hermanovich J, Venkataraman K, Freedman D "Efficacy and safety of nicardipine for chronic, stable angina pectoris: a multicenter randomized trial." Am J Cardiol 58 (1986): 715-21
  12. Elkayam U "Calcium channel blockers in heart failure." Cardiology 89 (1998): 38-46
  13. Lorimer AR, Pringle SD "The safety of felodipine." J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 15 (1990): s85-9
  14. Schaefer RM, Aldons PM, Burgess ED, Tilvis R, Singh GP, Rehn L, Morgan TO "Improved tolerability of felodipine compared with amlodipine in elderly hypertensives: A randomised, double-blind study in 535 patients, focusing on vasodilatory adverse events." Int J Clin Pract 52 (1998): 381
  15. Yedinak KC, Lopez LM "Felodipine: a new dihydropyridine calcium-channel antagonist." DICP 25 (1991): 1193-206
  16. Taylor SH, Frais MA, Lee P, Verma SP, Jackson N, Reynolds G, Silke B "A study of the long-term efficacy and tolerability of oral nicardipine in hypertensive patients." Br J Clin Pharmacol 20 (1985): s139-42
  17. Prigogine T, Waterlot Y, Gottignies P, et al "Acute nonhemodynamic pulmonary edema with nifedipine in primary pulmonary hypertension." Chest 100 (1991): 563-4
  18. Johnson BF, Eisner GM, Mcmahon FG, Jain AK, Rudd P, Sowers JR "A multicenter comparison of adverse reaction profiles of isradipine and enalapril at equipotent doses in patients with essential hypertension." J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1995): 484-92
  19. "Product Information. Sular (nisoldipine)." Zeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE.
  20. Blecker D "Antihypertensive therapy with isradipine in patients with special safety concerns." Angiology 45 (1994): 997-1008
  21. "Product Information. Plendil (felodipine)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  22. Abernathy DR, Schwrtz JB "Calcium-antagonist drugs." N Engl J Med 341 (1999): 1447-57
  23. Gillmer DJ, Kark P "Pulmonary oedema precipitated by nifedipine." Br Med J 280 (1980): 1420-1
  24. "Product Information. Nimotop (nimodipine)." Bayer, West Haven, CT.
  25. Ruegg PC, Nelson DJ "Safety and efficacy of isradipine, alone and in combination, in the treatment of angina pectoris." Am J Med 86 (1989): 70-4
  26. Dubois C, Blanchard D "Efficacy and safety of nicardipine in 29,104 patients with hypertension." Clin Ther 11 (1989): 452-60
  27. "Product Information. Cardene (nicardipine)." Syntex Laboratories Inc, Palo Alto, CA.
  28. Myrhed M, Wiholm B-E "Nifedipine: a survey of adverse effects." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 58 (1986): 133-6
  29. Sundstedt CD, Ruegg PC, Keller A, Waite R "A multicenter evaluation of the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of isradipine in the treatment of essential hypertension." Am J Med 86 (1989): 98-102
View all 29 references
Moderate

Thiazides (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Asthma

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Asthma

Thiazide diuretics should be used with caution in patients with history of bronchial asthma as sensitivity reactions may occur.

Moderate

Thiazides (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Diabetes

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Diabetes Mellitus, Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

Thiazide diuretics may cause hyperglycemia and glycosuria in patients with diabetes. They may also precipitate diabetes in prediabetic patients. These effects are usually reversible following discontinuation of the drugs. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in patients with diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance, or a predisposition to hyperglycemia. Patients with diabetes mellitus should be monitored more closely during thiazide therapy, and their antidiabetic regimen adjusted accordingly.

References

  1. Nielsen S, Schmitz A, Knudsen RE, Dollerup J, Mogensen CE "Enalapril versus bendroflumethiazide in type 2 diabetes complicated by hypertension." Q J Med 87 (1994): 747-54
  2. Diamond MT "Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma associated with hydrochlorothiazide and pancreatitis." N Y State J Med 72 (1972): 1741-2
  3. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  4. Jones IG, Pickens PT "Diabetes mellitus following oral diuretics." Practitioner 199 (1967): 209-10
  5. Blayac JP, Ribes G, Buys D, Puech R, Loubatieres-Mariani MM "Effects of a new benzothiadiazine derivative, LN 5330, on insulin secretion." Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 253 (1981): 154-63
  6. Elmfeldt D, Berglund G, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L "Incidence and importance of metabolic side-effects during antihypertensive therapy." Acta Med Scand Suppl 672 (1983): 79-83
  7. Pickkers P, Schachter M, Hughes AD, Feher MD, Sever PS "Thiazide-induced hyperglycaemia: a role for calcium-activated potassium channels?" Diabetologia 39 (1996): 861-4
  8. Andersen OO, Persson I "Carbohydrate metabolism during treatment with chlorthalidone and ethacrynic acid." Br Med J 2 (1968): 798-801
  9. Seltzer HS, Allen EW "Hyperglycemia and inhibition of insulin secretion during administration of diazoxide and trichlormethiazide in man." Diabetes 18 (1969): 19-28
  10. Murphy MB, Kohner E, Lewis PJ, Schumer B, Dollery CT "Glucose intolerance in hypertensive patients treated with diuretics: a fourteen-year follow-up." Lancet 2 (1982): 1293-5
  11. Harper R, Ennis CN, Heaney AP, Sheridan B, Gormley M, Atkinson AB, Johnston GD, Bell PM "A comparison of the effects of low- and conventional-dose thiazide diuretic on insulin action in hypertensive patients with NIDDM." Diabetologia 38 (1995): 853-9
  12. Miller NR, Moses H "Transient oculomotor nerve palsy. Association with thiazide-induced glucose intolerance." JAMA 240 (1978): 1887-8
  13. Beling S, Vukovich RA, Neiss ES, Zisblatt M, Webb E, Losi M "Long-term experience with indapamide." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 258-62
  14. Petri M, Cumber P, Grimes L, Treby D, Bryant R, Rawlins D, Ising H "The metabolic effects of thiazide therapy in the elderly: a population study." Age Ageing 15 (1986): 151-5
  15. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  16. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  17. Curtis J, Horrigan F, Ahearn D, Varney R, Sandler SG "Chlorthalidone-induced hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma." JAMA 220 (1972): 1592-3
  18. Chowdhury FR, Bleicher SJ "Chlorthalidone--induced hypokalemia and abnormal carbohydrate metabolism." Horm Metab Res 2 (1970): 13-6
  19. Kansal PC, Buse J, Buse MG "Thiazide diuretics and control of diabetes mellitus." South Med J 62 (1969): 1372-9
  20. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  21. Slotkoff L "Clinical efficacy and safety of indapamide in the treatment of edema." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 233-7
  22. Berglund G, Andersson O, Widgren B "Low-dose antihypertensive treatment with a thiazide diuretic is not diabetogenic. A 10-year controlled trial with bendroflumethiazide." Acta Med Scand 220 (1986): 419-24
  23. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  24. Domenet JG "Diabetogenic effect of oral diuretics." Br Med J 3 (1968): 188
  25. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  26. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  27. Berlin I "Prazosin, diuretics, and glucose intolerance." Ann Intern Med 119 (1993): 860
  28. Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C "A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension." N Engl J Med 321 (1989): 868-73
  29. Bell DS "Insulin resistance. An often unrecognized problem accompanying chronic medical disorders." Postgrad Med 93 (1993): 99-103,
  30. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  31. Goldman JA, Neri A, Ovadia J, Eckerling B, Vries A, de "Effect of chlorothiazide on intravenous glucose tolerance in pregnancy." Am J Obstet Gynecol 105 (1969): 556-60
  32. Schmitz O, Hermansen K, Nielsen OH, Christensen CK, Arnfred J, Hansen HE, Mogensen CE, Orskov H, Beck-Nielsen H "Insulin action in insulin-dependent diabetics after short-term thiazide therapy." Diabetes Care 9 (1986): 631-6
  33. Rowe P, Mather H "Hyperosmolar non-ketotic diabetes mellitus associated with metolazone." Br Med J 291 (1985): 25-6
  34. Winchester JF, Kellett RJ, Boddy K, Boyle P, Dargie HJ, Mahaffey ME, Ward DM, Kennedy AC "Metolazone and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension: physiologic and metabolic observations." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 611-8
  35. Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics in treating hypertension." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 223-6
  36. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
View all 36 references
Moderate

Thiazides (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Hyperlipidemia

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hyperlipidemia

Thiazide diuretics may increase serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels, primarily LDL and VLDL. Whether these effects are dose-related and sustained during chronic therapy are unknown. Patients with preexisting hyperlipidemia may require closer monitoring during thiazide therapy, and adjustments made accordingly in their lipid-lowering regimen

References

  1. Ames RP "A comparison of blood lipid and blood pressure responses during the treatment of systemic hypertension with indapamide and with thiazides." Am J Cardiol 77 (1996): b12-6
  2. Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics in treating hypertension." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 223-6
  3. Slotkoff L "Clinical efficacy and safety of indapamide in the treatment of edema." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 233-7
  4. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  5. Elmfeldt D, Berglund G, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L "Incidence and importance of metabolic side-effects during antihypertensive therapy." Acta Med Scand Suppl 672 (1983): 79-83
  6. Winchester JF, Kellett RJ, Boddy K, Boyle P, Dargie HJ, Mahaffey ME, Ward DM, Kennedy AC "Metolazone and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension: physiologic and metabolic observations." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 611-8
  7. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  8. Ames RP, Hill P "Increase in serum-lipids during treatment of hypertension with chlorthalidone." Lancet 1 (1976): 721-3
  9. Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C "A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension." N Engl J Med 321 (1989): 868-73
  10. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  11. Smith WM "Diuretics and cholesterol elevation." JAMA 242 (1979): 1612
  12. Kasiske BL, Ma JZ, Kalil RS, Louis TA "Effects of antihypertensive therapy on serum lipids." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 133-41
  13. Beling S, Vukovich RA, Neiss ES, Zisblatt M, Webb E, Losi M "Long-term experience with indapamide." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 258-62
  14. Pollare T, Lithell H, Berne C "A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension." N Engl J Med 321 (1989): 868-73
  15. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  16. Fager G, Berglund G, Bondjers G, Elmfeldt D, Lager I, Olofsson SO, Smith U, Wiklund O "Effects of anti-hypertensive therapy on serum lipoproteins. Treatment with metoprolol, propranolol and hydrochlorothiazide." Artery 11 (1983): 283-96
  17. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  18. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  19. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  20. Petri M, Cumber P, Grimes L, Treby D, Bryant R, Rawlins D, Ising H "The metabolic effects of thiazide therapy in the elderly: a population study." Age Ageing 15 (1986): 151-5
  21. Luther RR, Glassman HN, Estep CB, Maurath CJ, Jordan DC "The effects of terazosin and methyclothiazide on blood pressure and serum lipids." Am Heart J 117 (1989): 842-7
  22. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  23. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
View all 23 references
Moderate

Thiazides (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Hyperparathyroidism

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Hyperparathyroidism

Urinary calcium excretion is decreased by thiazide diuretics during chronic administration. Pathologic changes in the parathyroid gland with hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia have been reported during prolonged therapy. However, the common complications of hyperparathyroidism such as renal lithiasis, bone resorption, and peptic ulceration have not been seen. Clinicians should be cognizant of these effects when prescribing or administering thiazide therapy to patients with hyperparathyroidism. These drugs should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function.

References

  1. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  2. Lindy S, Tarssanen L "Serum calcium and phosphorus in patients treated with thiazides and furosemide." Acta Med Scand 194 (1973): 319-22
  3. Paloyan E, Farland M, Pickleman JR "Hyperparathyroidism coexisting with hypertension and prolonged thiazide administration." JAMA 210 (1969): 1243-5
  4. Itescu S, Haskell LP, Tannenberg AM "Thiazide-induced clinically significant hypophosphatemia ." Clin Nephrol 27 (1987): 161-2
  5. Duarte CG, Winnacker JL, Becker KL, Pace A "Thiazide-induced hypercalcemia." N Engl J Med 284 (1971): 828-30
  6. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  7. Parfitt AM "Thiazide-induced hypercalcemia in vitamin D-treated hypoparathyroidism." Ann Intern Med 77 (1972): 557-63
  8. Klimiuk PS, Davies M, Adams PH "Primary hyperparathyroidism and thiazide diuretics." Postgrad Med J 57 (1981): 80-3
  9. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  10. Balizet L "Recurrent parathyroid adenoma. Association with prolonged thiazide administration." JAMA 225 (1973): 1238-9
  11. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  12. Paloyan E, Farland M, Pickleman JR "Hyperparathyroidism coexisting with hypertension and prolonged thiazide administration." JAMA 210 (1969): 1243-5
  13. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  14. Jorgensen FS, Brunner S "The long-term effect of bendroflumethiazide on renal calcium and magnesium excretion and stone formation in patients with recurring renal stones." Scand J Urol Nephrol 8 (1974): 128-31
  15. Hakim R, Tolis G, Goltzman D, Meltzer S, Friedman R "Severe hypercalcemia associated with hydrochlorothiazide and calcium carbonate therapy." Can Med Assoc J 121 (1979): 591-4
  16. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  17. Gammon GD, Docherty JP "Thiazide-induced hypercalcemia in a manic-depressive patient." Am J Psychiatry 137 (1980): 1453-5
  18. Ljunghall S, Backman U, Danielson BG, Fellstrom B, Johansson G, Wikstrom B "Calcium and magnesium metabolism during long-term treatment with thiazides." Scand J Urol Nephrol 15 (1981): 257-62
  19. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  20. Popovtzer MM, Subryan VL, Alfrey AC, Reeve EB, Schrier RW "The acute effect of chlorothiazide on serum-ionized calcium. Evidence for a parathyroid hormone-dependent mechanism." J Clin Invest 55 (1975): 1295-302
  21. Parfitt AM "Chlorothiazide-induced hypercalcemia in juvenile osteoporosis and hyperparathyroidism." N Engl J Med 281 (1969): 55-9
  22. Byatt CM, Millard PH, Levin GE "Diuretics and electrolyte disturbances in 1000 consecutive geriatric admissions." J R Soc Med 83 (1990): 704-8
  23. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  24. Hilker RR "Reversible hypercalcemia associated with prolonged thiazide administration to control hypertension." J Occup Med 12 (1970): 444-5
  25. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  26. Anderson PE, Ellis GG, Austin SM "Case report: metolazone-associated hypercalcemia and acute pancreatitis." Am J Med Sci 302 (1991): 235-7
  27. Palmer FJ "Letter: Chlorthalidone-induced hypercalcemia." JAMA 229 (1974): 267
View all 27 references
Moderate

Thiazides (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Hyperuricemia

Moderate Potential Hazard, High plausibility

Applies to: Gout

Thiazide diuretics decrease the rate of uric acid excretion. Hyperuricemia occurs frequently but is usually asymptomatic and rarely leads to clinical gout except in patients with a history of gout or chronic renal failure. Therapy with thiazide diuretics should be administered cautiously in such patients.

References

  1. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  2. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  3. Beling S, Vukovich RA, Neiss ES, Zisblatt M, Webb E, Losi M "Long-term experience with indapamide." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 258-62
  4. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  5. Labeeuw M, Pozet N, Aissa AH, Zech PY, Sassard J, Laville M "Uric acid renal handling: spontaneous changes and influence of a thiazide alone or associated with triamterene." Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 26 (1988): 79-83
  6. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  7. Petri M, Cumber P, Grimes L, Treby D, Bryant R, Rawlins D, Ising H "The metabolic effects of thiazide therapy in the elderly: a population study." Age Ageing 15 (1986): 151-5
  8. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  9. Freis ED "The efficacy and safety of diuretics in treating hypertension." Ann Intern Med 122 (1995): 223-6
  10. Lapidus PW, Guidotti FP "Gout in orthopaedic practice: review of 232 cases." Clin Orthop 28 (1963): 97-110
  11. Slotkoff L "Clinical efficacy and safety of indapamide in the treatment of edema." Am Heart J 106 (1983): 233-7
  12. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  13. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  14. Gudbrandsson T, Hansson L "Combination therapy with saluretics and atenolol in essential hypertension. Effects on blood pressure, electrolytes and uric acid." Acta Med Scand Suppl 625 (1979): 86-91
  15. Brors O, Jacobsen S, Foss OP, Aakvaag A "Effect of repeated doses of hydroflumethiazide on renal excretion of electrolytes and uric acid in healthy subjects." Acta Pharmacol Toxicol (Copenh) 48 (1981): 145-50
  16. Ljunghall S, Backman U, Danielson BG, Fellstrom B, Johansson G, Odlind B, Wikstrom B "Effects of bendroflumethiazide on urate metabolism during treatment of patients with renal stones." J Urol 127 (1982): 1207-10
  17. Winchester JF, Kellett RJ, Boddy K, Boyle P, Dargie HJ, Mahaffey ME, Ward DM, Kennedy AC "Metolazone and bendroflumethiazide in hypertension: physiologic and metabolic observations." Clin Pharmacol Ther 28 (1980): 611-8
  18. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  19. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  20. Elmfeldt D, Berglund G, Wedel H, Wilhelmsen L "Incidence and importance of metabolic side-effects during antihypertensive therapy." Acta Med Scand Suppl 672 (1983): 79-83
View all 20 references
Moderate

Thiazides (Includes Aliskiren/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide) ↔ Thyroid Function Tests

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

Applies to: Thyroid Disease

Thiazide diuretics may decrease serum PBI (protein-bound iodine) levels without associated thyroid disturbance. Clinicians should be cognizant of this effect when prescribing or administering thiazide therapy to patients with thyroid disorders.

References

  1. Bech K, Skovsted L, Siersbaek-Nielsen K, Hansen JM "Influence of thiazides on thyroid parameters in man." Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 89 (1978): 673-8
  2. "Product Information. Thalitone (chlorthalidone)." Monarch Pharmaceuticals Inc, Bristol, TN.
  3. "Product Information. Renese-R (reserpine-polythiazide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  4. "Product Information. Lozol (indapamide)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  5. "Product Information. HydroDIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  6. "Product Information. Diucardin (hydroflumethiazide)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  7. "Product Information. Zaroxolyn (metolazone)." Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Collegeville, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Enduron (methyclothiazide)." Abbott Pharmaceutical, Abbott Park, IL.
  9. "Product Information. Diuril (chlorothiazide)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  10. "Product Information. Metahydrin (trichlormethiazide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
View all 10 references

aliskiren / amlodipine / hydrochlorothiazide drug Interactions

There are 1032 drug interactions with aliskiren / amlodipine / hydrochlorothiazide

aliskiren / amlodipine / hydrochlorothiazide alcohol/food Interactions

There are 5 alcohol/food interactions with aliskiren / amlodipine / hydrochlorothiazide

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

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