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A hemoglobin A1c test
is a blood test that measures your average blood sugar level for the past 2 to 3 months. It is also called an HbA1c or glycohemoglobin test. An A1c test can help diagnose prediabetes or diabetes. It can also tell you how well your diabetes plan is working. A1c testing can help your healthcare provider make changes to your treatment plan. These changes can help improve or control your blood sugar levels. Good control of your blood sugar levels can decrease your risk for problems caused by diabetes. Examples include heart attack, stroke, blindness, kidney disease, and neuropathy (nerve problems).
Risk factors for diabetes:
You may need an A1c test if you have any of the following risk factors for diabetes:
- Heart disease
- High blood pressure
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome
- A first-degree relative with diabetes, such as a parent, brother, sister, or child
- Being overweight
- Lack of exercise or activity
- History of gestational diabetes and poor nutrition while pregnant
Who should get an A1c test:
- Adults who are overweight and have 1 or more risk factors for diabetes
- Adults 45 years of age or older
- Children 10 to 18 years who are overweight and have 2 or more risk factors for diabetes
- Anyone with signs or symptoms of diabetes such as increased thirst, slow-healing infections, or increased urination
What the results of an A1c test mean:
The results are given in percentages.
- An A1c of 5.6% or lower means you do not have diabetes.
- An A1c of 5.7% to 6.4% means you are at risk for diabetes. This is also called prediabetes.
- An A1c of 6.5% or higher means you have diabetes.
- If you currently have diabetes in good control, your A1c goal may be 7% or lower. Your healthcare provider will decide what your goal should be. This decision is based on your diabetes history and other medical conditions. You may need an A1c test 2 to 4 times each year, depending on your blood sugar level control.
How to prepare for the test:
You do not need to do anything to prepare for the test. Wear a short-sleeved or loose shirt to the test. This will make it easier to draw your blood. Other tests may be needed to diagnose or monitor diabetes if you have certain conditions. Tell your healthcare provider if you have any of the following:
- Iron-deficiency or B12-deficiency anemia
- Cystic fibrosis
- Recent heavy blood loss or a blood transfusion
- Recent erythropoietin therapy
- Sickle cell disease or thalassemia
- Kidney failure or liver disease
What will happen after the test:
Schedule a follow-up appointment with your healthcare provider to talk about your test results.
- If your A1c is lower than your goal , your medicines may be changed.
- If your A1c is at your goal , you may not need any changes to your diabetes treatment plan.
- If your A1c is higher than your goal , you may need changes to your medicines, eating plan, or exercise plan.
What else you should know about an A1c test:
- You may get an estimated Average Glucose (eAG) with your A1c results. The eAG gives your A1c result in numbers like you see on your glucose meter. For example, an A1c of 6% will be reported as an eAG of 126 mg/dL. This means your average blood sugar level was 126 mg/dL over the last 2 to 3 months. The eAG can help you understand if your A1c result is on target for what your healthcare provider recommends.
- You are at risk for an uncommon type of hemoglobin if you are African, Mediterranean, or Southeast Asian. This type of hemoglobin can affect your A1c test results. Tell your healthcare provider if you come from any of these backgrounds. You may need to have your A1c sent to a lab with certain equipment. This will help make sure your results are accurate.
Follow up with your healthcare provider as directed:
Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.
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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.