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Probenecid Side Effects

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Jun 19, 2022.

For the Consumer

Applies to probenecid: oral tablet

Side effects requiring immediate medical attention

Along with its needed effects, probenecid may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking probenecid:


  • Fast or irregular breathing
  • puffiness or swellings of the eyelids or around the eyes
  • shortness of breath, troubled breathing, tightness in chest, or wheezing
  • changes in the skin color of the face occurring together with any of the other side effects listed here
  • or skin rash, hives, or itching occurring together with any of the other side effects listed here

Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur while taking probenecid:

Less common

  • Bloody urine
  • difficult or painful urination
  • lower back or side pain (especially if severe or sharp)
  • skin rash, hives, or itching (occurring without other signs of an allergic reaction)


  • Cloudy urine
  • cough or hoarseness
  • fast or irregular breathing
  • fever
  • pain in back and/or ribs
  • sores, ulcers, or white spots on lips or in mouth
  • sore throat and fever with or without chills
  • sudden decrease in the amount of urine
  • swelling of face, fingers, feet, and/or lower legs
  • swollen and/or painful glands
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • yellow eyes or skin
  • weight gain

Side effects not requiring immediate medical attention

Some side effects of probenecid may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.

Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common

Less common

  • Dizziness
  • flushing or redness of face (occurring without any signs of an allergic reaction)
  • frequent urge to urinate
  • sore gums

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to probenecid: oral tablet


In therapeutic doses, probenecid is generally well tolerated and has a low incidence of side effects.[Ref]


Frequency not reported: Anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria, pruritus[Ref]


Frequency not provided: Precipitation of acute gouty arthritis[Ref]


Frequency not reported: Uric acid stones with or without hematuria, costovertebral pain, urinary frequency[Ref]


Frequency not reported: Nephrotic syndrome, with or without renal failure[Ref]


Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency may increase the risk of probenecid-induced hemolytic anemia in some patients. However, probenecid has also been implicated in at least two cases of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. In both cases, serum antibodies reacted with red blood cells only in the presence of probenecid. In one patient, a generalized rash, fever, malaise, and anorexia were also present.[Ref]

Rarely (less than 0.1%): Aplastic anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia

Frequency not reported: Anemia, hemolytic anemia (which could be related to genetic deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD) in red blood cells)[Ref]


Frequency not reported: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, sore gums[Ref]


Rare (less than 0.1%): Hepatic necrosis[Ref]

Nervous system

Frequency not reported: Headache, dizziness[Ref]


Rare (less than 0.1%): Toxic epidermal necrolysis (in combination with colchicine)

Frequency not reported: Dermatitis, alopecia, flushing[Ref]


1. Gutman AB "Uricosuric drugs with special reference to probenecid and sulfinpyrazone." Adv Pharmacol 4 (1966): 91-142

2. Kickler TS, Buck S, Ness P, et al. "Probenecid induced immune hemolytic anemia." J Rheumatol 13 (1986): 208-9

3. Myers KW, Katial RK, Engler RJM "Probenecid hypersensitivity in AIDS: a case report." Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 80 (1998): 416-8

4. "Product Information. Probenecid (probenecid)." Marlex Pharmaceuticals (2004):

5. Cerner Multum, Inc. "Australian Product Information." O 0

6. Scott JT, O'Brien PK "Probenecid, nephrotic syndrome, and renal failure." Ann Rheum Dis 27 (1968): 249-52

7. Hertz P, Yager H, Richardson JA "Probenecid-induced nephrotic syndrome." Arch Pathol 94 (1972): 241-3

8. Sosler SD, Behzad O, Garratty G, et al. "Immune hemolytic anemia associated with probenecid." Am J Clin Pathol 84 (1985): 391-4

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Some side effects may not be reported. You may report them to the FDA.