Emtricitabine Side Effects
More frequently reported side effects include: increased serum alanine aminotransferase, increased serum amylase, increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, and neutropenia. See below for a comprehensive list of adverse effects.
For the Consumer
Applies to emtricitabine: oral capsule, oral solution
In addition to its needed effects, some unwanted effects may be caused by emtricitabine. In the event that any of these side effects do occur, they may require medical attention.
Major Side Effects
You should check with your doctor immediately if any of these side effects occur when taking emtricitabine:More common:
- Burning, crawling, itching, numbness, prickling, "pins and needles”, or tingling feelings
- chest pain or tightness
- cough or hoarseness
- fever or chills
- lower back or side pain
- painful or difficult urination
- pale skin
- troubled breathing with exertion
- unusual bleeding or bruising
- unusual tiredness or weakness
- Sensation of pins and needles
- stabbing pain
Minor Side Effects
Some of the side effects that can occur with emtricitabine may not need medical attention. As your body adjusts to the medicine during treatment these side effects may go away. Your health care professional may also be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these side effects. If any of the following side effects continue, are bothersome or if you have any questions about them, check with your health care professional:More common:
- Abdominal or stomach pain
- abnormal dreams
- darkening or redness of the skin
- heartburn or indigestion
- itching skin
- puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
- rash, hives, or welts on the skin
- spots on your skin resembling a blister or pimple
- Joint pain or swelling
- muscle stiffness
- trouble sleeping
- unsteadiness or awkwardness
- weakness in the arms, hands, legs, or feet
For Healthcare Professionals
Applies to emtricitabine: oral capsule, oral solution
The most common side effects reported during any of 3 large controlled clinical trials were headache, diarrhea, nausea, fatigue, dizziness, depression, insomnia, abnormal dreams, rash, abdominal pain, asthenia, increased cough, and rhinitis.
During 2 clinical trials, the most common side effects associated with emtricitabine in combination with other antiretrovirals were headache, diarrhea, nausea, and rash. Most were of mild to moderate severity. Treatment was discontinued due to these adverse effects in approximately 1% of patients.
Side effects have been reported for emtricitabine when taken in combination with other antiretroviral agents.[Ref]
Dermatological side effects have included rash event (any Grade: up to 30%; Grades 2 to 4: 7%). "Rash event" included rash, pruritus, maculopapular rash, urticaria, vesiculobullous rash, pustular rash, exfoliative rash, generalized rash, macular rash, pruritic rash, vesicular rash, and allergic reaction. Skin discoloration (palmar-plantar hyperpigmentation) has been reported.[Ref]
Nervous system side effects have included dizziness (any Grade: up to 25%; Grades 2 to 4: 8%), headache (any Grade: up to 22%; Grades 2 to 4: 6%), insomnia (any Grade: up to 16%; Grades 2 to 4: 5%), paresthesia (any Grade: up to 6%), neuropathy/peripheral neuritis (any Grade: 4%), and somnolence.[Ref]
Gastrointestinal side effects have included diarrhea (any Grade: 23%; Grades 2 to 4: 9%), nausea (any Grade: up to 18%; Grades 2 to 4: 9%), vomiting (any Grade: 9%; Grades 2 to 4: 2%), and dyspepsia (any Grade: up to 8%).[Ref]
Metabolic side effects have included blood glucose changes (less than 40 or greater than 250 mg/dL; up to 3%), hyperglycemia (greater than 250 mg/dL; 2%), and increased fasting cholesterol (greater than 240 mg/dL; 22%), triglycerides (greater than 750 mg/dL; up to 10%), serum amylase (greater than 2 times ULN: up to 5%; greater than 175 units/L: 8%), fasting triglycerides (greater than 750 mg/dL; 4%), pancreatic amylase (greater than 2 times ULN; up to 2%), serum lipase (greater than 2 times ULN; up to 1%), and alkaline phosphatase (greater than 550 units/L; 1%). Redistribution/accumulation of body fat including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement, peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and "cushingoid appearance" have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy.[Ref]
Respiratory side effects have included rhinitis (any Grade: up to 18%), increased cough (any Grade: 14%), sinusitis (Grades 2 to 4: 8%), upper respiratory tract infections (Grades 2 to 4: 8%), and nasopharyngitis (Grades 2 to 4: 5%).[Ref]
Other side effects have included asthenia (any Grade: up to 16%), abdominal pain (any Grade: up to 14%), and fatigue (Grades 2 to 4: 9%).[Ref]
Increased creatine kinase (greater than 990 units/L in males and 845 units/L in females) has been reported in 9% of patients.[Ref]
Musculoskeletal side effects have included elevated creatine kinase (greater than 4 times ULN; up to 12%), myalgia (any Grade: up to 6%), and arthralgia (any Grade: up to 5%).[Ref]
Psychiatric side effects have included abnormal dreams (any Grade: up to 11%), depressive disorders (any Grade: up to 9%), and depression (Grades 2 to 4: 9%).
Hepatic side effects have included elevated AST (greater than 5 times ULN; up to 6%), ALT (greater than 5 times ULN; up to 5%), and bilirubin (greater than 2.5 times ULN; up to 1%). Lactic acidosis and severe hepatomegaly with steatosis, including fatal cases, have been reported with the use of emtricitabine and other nucleoside analogs alone or in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B have been reported in patients coinfected with HIV-1 and hepatitis B after discontinuation of emtricitabine and were associated with liver failure and liver decompensation in some patients.[Ref]
Increased AST (greater than 180 units/L in males and 170 units/L in females) has been reported in 3% of patients. Increased ALT (greater than 215 units/L in males and 170 units/L in females) has been reported in 2% of patients.[Ref]
Immunologic side effects have included immune reconstitution syndrome. Autoimmune disorders (e.g., Graves' disease, polymyositis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome) have been reported in the setting of immune reconstitution.
Hematologic side effects have included decreased neutrophils (less than 750/mm3; up to 5%).[Ref]
Genitourinary side effects have included hematuria (greater than 75 RBC/HPF; 3%) and glycosuria (3 plus; less than 1%).
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Not all side effects for emtricitabine may be reported. You should always consult a doctor or healthcare professional for medical advice. Side effects can be reported to the FDA here.
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- Drug class: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
Other brands: Emtriva
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