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Ribociclib

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Aug 18, 2020.

Pronunciation

(rye boe SYE klib)

Index Terms

  • LEE-011
  • LEE011

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet Therapy Pack, Oral:

Kisqali (200 MG Dose): 200 mg (21 ea) [contains soybean lecithin]

Kisqali (400 MG Dose): 200 mg (14 ea, 42 ea) [contains soybean lecithin]

Kisqali (600 MG Dose): 200 mg (21 ea, 63 ea) [contains soybean lecithin]

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Kisqali (200 MG Dose)
  • Kisqali (400 MG Dose)
  • Kisqali (600 MG Dose)

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antineoplastic Agent, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor

Pharmacology

Ribociclib is a small molecule cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor which is selective for CDK 4 and 6; it blocks retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and prevents progression through the cell cycle, resulting in arrest at the G1 phase (Hortobagyi 2016). The combination of ribociclib and an aromatase inhibitor causes increased inhibition of tumor growth compared with each agent alone. The combination of ribociclib and fulvestrant resulted in tumor growth inhibition in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer models.

Distribution

Vss/F: 1,090 L

Metabolism

Extensively hepatic, predominantly via CYP3A4; undergoes oxidation to circulating metabolites M13, M4, and M1, although clinical activity is primarily due to the parent drug.

Excretion

Feces (69%; 17% as parent drug, 14% as metabolite M1, ≤3% as other metabolites); Urine (23%; 12% as parent drug, 4% as M1, ≤3% as other metabolites)

Time to Peak

1 to 4 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Terminal: ~30 to 55 hours

Protein Binding

~70%

Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment

AUCinf increased by 2.37-fold and 3.81-fold, and Cmax increased by 2.1-fold and 2.68-fold, respectively, in subjects with severe renal impairment (eGFR 15 to <30 mL/minute/1.73 m2) and end-stage renal disease (eGFR <15 mL/minute/1.73 m2) compared to subjects with normal renal function.

Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment

The mean ribociclib exposure was increased less than 2-fold in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh classes B and C).

Use: Labeled Indications

Breast cancer, advanced or metastatic:

Treatment of hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer (in combination with an aromatase inhibitor) in pre-/perimenopausal or postmenopausal females as initial endocrine-based therapy.

Treatment of HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer (in combination with fulvestrant) in postmenopausal females as initial endocrine-based therapy or following disease progression on endocrine therapy.

Contraindications

There are no contraindications listed in the manufacturer's US labeling.

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in the US labeling): Hypersensitivity to ribociclib or any component of the formulation; untreated congenital long QT syndrome, Fridericia-corrected QT interval (QTcF) ≥450 msec at baseline and patients at significant risk of developing QTc prolongation.

Dosing: Adult

Note: Ribociclib is associated with a moderate to high emetic potential; antiemetics are recommended to prevent nausea and vomiting (ASCO [Hesketh 2020]). A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist should be administered to pre-/perimenopausal females receiving ribociclib in combination with either an aromatase inhibitor or fulvestrant.

Breast cancer, advanced or metastatic, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative: Females: Oral: 600 mg once daily for 21 days, followed by a 7-day rest period to complete a 28-day treatment cycle (in combination with either an aromatase inhibitor or fulvestrant); continue until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity (Hortobagyi 2016; Im 2019; Slamon 2018; Slamon 2020; Tripathy 2018).

Missed doses: If a ribociclib dose is missed or vomited, do not administer an additional dose that day. Resume ribociclib dosing with the next scheduled dose.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Adjustment for Toxicity

Recommended Ribociclib Dose Modification for Adverse Reactions

Level

Ribociclib dose

aIf further dose reduction below 200 mg/day is required, discontinue ribociclib treatment.

Starting dose

600 mg/day

First dose reduction

400 mg/day

Second dose reduction

200 mg/daya

Note: For dosage adjustment of concomitant aromatase inhibitor or fulvestrant therapy, refer to aromatase inhibitor or fulvestrant monograph and/or prescribing information.

Ribociclib Dosage Adjustment and Management of Toxicities

Toxicity

Severity

Management

aBased on Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.03.

bSCARs = severe cutaneous adverse reactions.

cSJS = Stevens-Johnson syndrome. SJS (grade 3 and 4) defined as skin sloughing covering <10% BSA and 10% to 30% BSA, respectively, with associated signs (eg, erythema, purpura, epidermal detachment and mucous membrane detachment).

dTEN = toxic epidermal necrolysis. TEN (grade 4) defined as skin sloughing covering ≥30% BSA with associated symptoms (eg, erythema, purpura, epidermal detachment, and mucous membrane detachment).

Hematologic toxicity: Neutropenia

Grade 1 or 2 neutropenia (ANC 1,000/mm3 to below the lower limit of normal)

No ribociclib dosage adjustment necessary.

Grade 3 neutropenia (ANC 500 to <1,000/mm3)

Interrupt ribociclib treatment until recovery to grade 2 or lower and then resume ribociclib at the same dose. For recurrent grade 3 neutropenia, interrupt treatment until recovery and then resume ribociclib at the next lower dose level.

Grade 3 neutropenic fever (a single episode of fever >38.3°C or fever >38°C for >1 hour and/or concurrent infection)

Interrupt ribociclib treatment until recovery (of neutropenia) to grade 2 or lower and then resume ribociclib at the next lower dose level.

Grade 4 neutropenia (ANC <500/mm3)

Interrupt ribociclib treatment until recovery to grade 2 or lower and then resume ribociclib at the next lower dose level.

Cardiovascular toxicity: QT prolongation

QTcF >480 msec

Interrupt ribociclib treatment; when QTcF resolves to <481 msec, resume ribociclib at the next lower dose level. If QTcF ≥481 msec recurs, interrupt ribociclib treatment until QTcF resolves to <481 msec and resume ribociclib at the next lower dose level.

QTcF >500 msec

Interrupt ribociclib treatment for QTcF >500 msec; if QTcF resolves to <481 msec, may resume ribociclib at the next lower dose level. If QTcF interval prolongation is either >500 msec or >60 msec increase from baseline AND associated with torsades de pointes, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, unexplained syncope, or signs/symptoms of serious arrhythmia, permanently discontinue ribociclib.

Dermatologic toxicity (cutaneous adverse reactions, including SCARs)a,b

Grade 1 (<10% of BSA with active skin toxicity, no signs of systemic involvement)

No dosage adjustment required. Initiate appropriate medical management and monitor as clinically indicated.

Grade 2 (10% to 30% of BSA with active skin toxicity, no signs of systemic involvement)

No dosage adjustment required. Initiate appropriate medical management and monitor as clinically indicated.

Grade 3 (severe rash, not responsive to medical management, >30% of BSA with active skin toxicity, signs of systemic involvement; SJSc)

Interrupt ribociclib treatment until etiology of reaction has been determined.

If etiology is a SCAR, permanently discontinue ribociclib.

If etiology is not a SCAR, interrupt ribociclib until recovery to ≤ grade 1, then resume ribociclib at the same dose level. If the cutaneous adverse reaction still recurs at grade 3, resume ribociclib at the next lower dose level.

Grade 4 (any % BSA associated with extensive superinfection, with IV antibiotics indicated; life-threatening consequences, toxic epidermal necrolysisd)

Permanently discontinue ribociclib.

Pulmonary toxicity: Interstitial lung disease/pneumonitisa

Grade 1 (asymptomatic)

No ribociclib dose interruption or adjustment necessary. Initiate appropriate medical management and monitoring as clinically indicated.

Grade 2 (symptomatic)

Interrupt ribociclib treatment until recovery to grade 1 or lower and then consider resuming ribociclib at the next lower dose level, based on the risks versus benefits of resuming therapy.

If grade 2 toxicity recurs, discontinue ribociclib.

Grade 3 (severe symptomatic) or grade 4 (life-threatening)

Discontinue ribociclib.

Other nonhematologic toxicitiesa (excluding neutropenia, hepatobiliary toxicity, QT interval prolongation, interstitial lung disease/pneumonitis, and cutaneous adverse reactions, including SCARs)

Grade 1 or 2

No ribociclib dose adjustment necessary. Initiate appropriate medical management and monitoring as clinically indicated.

Grade 3

Interrupt ribociclib treatment until recovery to grade 1 or lower and then resume ribociclib at the same dose level. If grade 3 toxicity recurs, interrupt treatment until recovery to grade 1 or lower and then resume ribociclib at the next lower dose level.

Grade 4

Discontinue ribociclib.

Administration

Oral: May be administered with or without food. Administer at approximately the same time each day, preferably in the morning. Swallow tablets whole; do not crush, chew, or split tablets (do not ingest broken or cracked tablets).

Ribociclib is associated with a moderate to high emetic potential; antiemetics are recommended to prevent nausea and vomiting (ASCO [Hesketh 2020]).

Dietary Considerations

Avoid grapefruit and grapefruit juice.

Storage

Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Store in the original package.

Drug Interactions

Abametapir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Abemaciclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Abemaciclib. Management: Monitor for increased abemaciclib toxicities if combined with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider reducing the abemaciclib dose in 50 mg decrements if necessary. Monitor therapy

Acalabrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Acalabrutinib. Management: Reduce acalabrutinib dose to 100 mg once daily with concurrent use of a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor patient closely for both acalabrutinib response and evidence of adverse effects with any concurrent use. Consider therapy modification

Alfentanil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Alfentanil. Management: If use of alfentanil and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors is necessary, consider dosage reduction of alfentanil until stable drug effects are achieved. Frequently monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation when these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Alfuzosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Alfuzosin. Monitor therapy

Alitretinoin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Alitretinoin (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Amisulpride (Oral): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Moderate Risk). Monitor therapy

AmLODIPine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of AmLODIPine. Monitor therapy

Apixaban: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Apixaban. Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Aprepitant. Avoid combination

ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Monitor for increased aripiprazole pharmacologic effects. Aripiprazole dose adjustments may or may not be required based on concomitant therapy, indication, or dosage form. Consult full interaction monograph for specific recommendations. Monitor therapy

ARIPiprazole Lauroxil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Monitor therapy

Asunaprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Avoid combination

Avanafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Avanafil. Management: The maximum avanafil dose is 50 mg per 24-hour period when used together with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Patients receiving such a combination should also be monitored more closely for evidence of adverse effects (eg, hypotension, syncope, priapism). Consider therapy modification

Avapritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Avapritinib. Management: Avoid use of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with avapritinib. If this combination cannot be avoided, reduce the avapritinib dose from 300 mg once daily to 100 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Axitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Axitinib. Monitor therapy

Baricitinib: Immunosuppressants may enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Baricitinib. Management: Use of baricitinib in combination with potent immunosuppressants such as azathioprine or cyclosporine is not recommended. Concurrent use with antirheumatic doses of methotrexate or nonbiologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is permitted. Consider therapy modification

Barnidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Barnidipine. Monitor therapy

BCG (Intravesical): Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of BCG (Intravesical). Avoid combination

BCG (Intravesical): Myelosuppressive Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of BCG (Intravesical). Avoid combination

Benzhydrocodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Benzhydrocodone. Specifically, the concentration of hydrocodone may be increased. Monitor therapy

Blonanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Blonanserin. Monitor therapy

Bortezomib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Bortezomib. Monitor therapy

Bosutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Bosutinib. Avoid combination

Brexpiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Brexpiprazole. Management: The brexpiprazole dose should be reduced to 25% of usual if used together with both a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and a strong or moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor, or if a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is used in a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. Monitor therapy

Brigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Brigatinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of brigatinib with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If such a combination cannot be avoided, reduce the dose of brigatinib by approximately 40% (ie, from 180 mg to 120 mg, from 120 mg to 90 mg, or from 90 mg to 60 mg). Consider therapy modification

Bromocriptine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Bromocriptine. Management: The bromocriptine dose should not exceed 1.6 mg daily with use of a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. The Cycloset brand specifically recommends this dose limitation, but other bromocriptine products do not make such specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Budesonide (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Systemic). Management: Avoid the concomitant use of CYP3A4 inhibitors and oral budesonide. If patients receive both budesonide and CYP3A4 inhibitors, they should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of corticosteroid excess. Consider therapy modification

Budesonide (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Topical). Avoid combination

Cabozantinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Cabozantinib. Monitor therapy

Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabis. More specifically, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol serum concentrations may be increased. Monitor therapy

Chloramphenicol (Ophthalmic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Myelosuppressive Agents. Monitor therapy

Cilostazol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Cilostazol. Management: Consider reducing the cilostazol dose to 50 mg twice daily in adult patients who are also receiving moderate inhibitors of CYP3A4. Consider therapy modification

Citalopram: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Citalopram. Monitor therapy

Cladribine: May enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Immunosuppressants. Avoid combination

Cladribine: May enhance the myelosuppressive effect of Myelosuppressive Agents. Avoid combination

Clofazimine: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Cobimetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Cobimetinib. Management: Avoid this combination when possible. If concurrent short term (14 days or less) use cannot be avoided, reduce the cobimetinib dose from 60 mg to 20 mg daily. Avoid concomitant use in patients already receiving reduced cobimetinib doses. Consider therapy modification

Coccidioides immitis Skin Test: Immunosuppressants may diminish the diagnostic effect of Coccidioides immitis Skin Test. Monitor therapy

Codeine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Codeine. Monitor therapy

Colchicine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Management: Reduce colchicine dose as directed when using with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, and increase monitoring for colchicine-related toxicity. See interaction monograph for details. Use extra caution in patients with impaired renal and/or hepatic function. Consider therapy modification

Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Copanlisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Copanlisib. Monitor therapy

Crizotinib: QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Crizotinib. QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Crizotinib. Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of Ribociclib. Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Ribociclib. Management: Avoid use of ribociclib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible; if combined use cannot be avoided, reduce ribociclib dose to 400 mg once daily. Exceptions are discussed in separate monographs. Exceptions: Ceritinib; Clarithromycin; Saquinavir; Voriconazole. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Exceptions: Alitretinoin (Systemic); Bromperidol; Copanlisib; Praziquantel; Ripretinib; Trabectedin; Vinorelbine. Monitor therapy

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification

Dapoxetine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Dapoxetine. Management: The dose of dapoxetine should be limited to 30 mg per day when used together with a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4. Consider therapy modification

Darifenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Darifenacin. Monitor therapy

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Deferiprone: Myelosuppressive Agents may enhance the neutropenic effect of Deferiprone. Management: Avoid the concomitant use of deferiprone and myelosuppressive agents whenever possible. If this combination cannot be avoided, monitor the absolute neutrophil count more closely. Consider therapy modification

Deflazacort: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Management: Administer one third of the recommended deflazacort dose when used together with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Denosumab: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Immunosuppressants. Specifically, the risk for serious infections may be increased. Monitor therapy

Dipyrone: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Myelosuppressive Agents. Specifically, the risk for agranulocytosis and pancytopenia may be increased Avoid combination

Domperidone: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Domperidone. Avoid combination

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Management: Seek alternatives to moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors in patients treated with doxorubicin whenever possible. One U.S. manufacturer (Pfizer Inc.) recommends that these combinations be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Dronabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Dronabinol. Monitor therapy

Duvelisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Echinacea: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Immunosuppressants. Management: Consider avoiding Echinacea in patients receiving therapeutic immunosuppressants. If coadministered, monitor for reduced efficacy of the immunosuppressant during concomitant use. Consider therapy modification

Eletriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Eletriptan. Management: The use of eletriptan within 72 hours of a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor should be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor. Management: When combined with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors, two elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor (100 mg/50 mg/75 mg) tablets should be given in the morning, every other day. Ivacaftor (150 mg) should be given in the morning, every other day on alternate days. Consider therapy modification

Eliglustat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Eliglustat. Management: Reduce eliglustat dose to 84 mg daily in CYP2D6 EMs when used with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Use in CYP2D6 EMs who are also taking strong or moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors is contraindicated. Avoid use of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors in CYP2D6 IMs or PMs. Consider therapy modification

Encorafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Encorafenib. Management: Avoid use of encorafenib and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, decrease the encorafenib dose from 450 mg to 225 mg; 300 mg to 150 mg; and 225 mg or 150 mg to 75 mg. Resume prior dose once inhibitor discontinued for 3 to 5 half-lives. Consider therapy modification

Encorafenib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Encorafenib. Management: Avoid use of encorafenib and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, decrease encorafenib dose from 450 mg to 225 mg; 300 mg to 150 mg; and 225 mg or 150 mg to 75 mg. Monitor closely for QT interval prolongation. Consider therapy modification

Entrectinib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Entrectinib. Avoid combination

Eplerenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Eplerenone. Management: When used concomitantly with moderate inhibitors of CYP3A4, eplerenone dosing recommendations vary by indication and international labeling. See full drug interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Erdafitinib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Erdafitinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Erythromycin (Systemic): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

Estrogen Derivatives: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Everolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Everolimus. Monitor therapy

Fedratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Fedratinib. Monitor therapy

FentaNYL: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of FentaNYL. Management: Consider fentanyl dose reductions when combined with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for respiratory depression and sedation. Upon discontinuation of a CYP3A4 inhibitor, consider a fentanyl dose increase; monitor for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. Consider therapy modification

Fexinidazole [INT]: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Moderate Risk). Avoid combination

Fingolimod: Immunosuppressants may enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Fingolimod. Management: Avoid the concomitant use of fingolimod and other immunosuppressants when possible. If combined, monitor patients closely for additive immunosuppressant effects (eg, infections). Consider therapy modification

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Management: Use of flibanserin with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated. If starting flibanserin, start 2 weeks after the last dose of the CYP3A4 inhibitor. If starting a CYP3A4 inhibitor, start 2 days after the last dose of flibanserin. Avoid combination

Fluconazole: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Fosaprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Fosaprepitant. Avoid combination

Fosnetupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Grapefruit Juice: May increase the serum concentration of Ribociclib. Avoid combination

GuanFACINE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of GuanFACINE. Management: Reduce the extended-release guanfacine dose 50% when combined with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for increased guanfacine toxicities when these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Haloperidol: QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Haloperidol. Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

HYDROcodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of HYDROcodone. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ibrutinib. Management: When treating B-cell malignancies, decrease ibrutinib to 280 mg daily when combined with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. When treating graft versus host disease, monitor patients closely and reduce the ibrutinib dose as needed based on adverse reactions. Consider therapy modification

Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Ifosfamide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. Monitor therapy

Imatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Imatinib. Monitor therapy

Inebilizumab: May enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Immunosuppressants. Monitor therapy

Ivabradine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ivabradine. Avoid combination

Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ivacaftor. Management: Ivacaftor dose reductions may be required; consult full drug interaction monograph content for age- and weight-specific dosage recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Lapatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lapatinib. Monitor therapy

Larotrectinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Larotrectinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Larotrectinib. Monitor therapy

Lefamulin: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Do not use lefamulin tablets with QT-prolonging CYP3A4 substrates. Lefamulin prescribing information lists this combination as contraindicated. Avoid combination

Leflunomide: Immunosuppressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Leflunomide. Specifically, the risk for hematologic toxicity such as pancytopenia, agranulocytosis, and/or thrombocytopenia may be increased. Management: Consider not using a leflunomide loading dose in patients receiving other immunosuppressants. Patients receiving both leflunomide and another immunosuppressant should be monitored for bone marrow suppression at least monthly. Consider therapy modification

Lemborexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lemborexant. Avoid combination

Lercanidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lercanidipine. Monitor therapy

Levamlodipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Levamlodipine. Monitor therapy

Lomitapide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide. Avoid combination

Lorlatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lorlatinib. Monitor therapy

Lumateperone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lumateperone. Avoid combination

Lurasidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Management: US labeling recommends reducing lurasidone dose by 50% with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and initiating 20 mg/day, max 80 mg/day. Some non-US labels recommend initiating lurasidone 20 mg/day, max 40 mg/day. Avoid concurrent use of grapefruit products. Consider therapy modification

Lurbinectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lurbinectedin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of lurbinectedin and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, consider a lurbinectedin dose reduction as clinically indicated. Consider therapy modification

Macitentan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Macitentan. Monitor therapy

Manidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Manidipine. Monitor therapy

Meperidine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Meperidine. Monitor therapy

Mesalamine: May enhance the myelosuppressive effect of Myelosuppressive Agents. Monitor therapy

MiFEPRIStone: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Minimize doses of CYP3A4 substrates, and monitor for increased concentrations/toxicity, during and 2 weeks following treatment with mifepristone. Avoid cyclosporine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, fentanyl, pimozide, quinidine, sirolimus, and tacrolimus. Consider therapy modification

Mirodenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Mirodenafil. Monitor therapy

Naldemedine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Naldemedine. Monitor therapy

Nalfurafine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Nalfurafine. Monitor therapy

Naloxegol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Naloxegol. Management: The use of naloxegol and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided. If concurrent use is unavoidable, reduce naloxegol dose to 12.5 mg once daily and monitor for signs of opiate withdrawal (eg, hyperhidrosis, chills, diarrhea, anxiety, irritability). Consider therapy modification

Natalizumab: Immunosuppressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Natalizumab. Specifically, the risk of concurrent infection may be increased. Avoid combination

Neratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Neratinib. Monitor therapy

Netupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Nilotinib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Ribociclib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Monitor therapy

Nivolumab: Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Nivolumab. Management: Avoid use of immunosuppressants (including systemic corticosteroids) prior to initiation of nivolumab. Use of immunosuppressants after administration of nivolumab (eg, for immune-related toxicity) is unlikely to affect nivolumab efficacy. Consider therapy modification

Ocrelizumab: May enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Immunosuppressants. Monitor therapy

Olaparib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Olaparib. Management: Avoid use of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with olaparib, if possible. If such concurrent use cannot be avoided, the dose of olaparib tablets should be reduced to 150 mg twice daily and the dose of olaparib capsules should be reduced to 200 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Oliceridine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Oliceridine. Monitor therapy

Ondansetron: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

OxyCODONE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of OxyCODONE. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of OxyCODONE. Serum concentrations of the active metabolite Oxymorphone may also be increased. Monitor therapy

Ozanimod: Immunosuppressants may enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Ozanimod. Monitor therapy

Palbociclib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

PAZOPanib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Monitor therapy

Pemigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Pemigatinib. Management: If combined use cannot be avoided, reduce the pemigatinib dose from 13.5 mg daily to 9 mg daily, or from 9 mg daily to 4.5 mg daily. Resume prior pemigatinib dose after stopping the moderate inhibitor once 3 half-lives of the inhibitor has passed. Consider therapy modification

Pentamidine (Systemic): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

Pexidartinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Pexidartinib. Management: Avoid use of pexidartinib with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors if possible. If combined, the pexidartinib dose should be reduced. Decrease 800 mg or 600 mg daily doses to 200 mg twice daily. Decrease doses of 400 mg per day to 200 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Pidotimod: Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Pidotimod. Monitor therapy

Pimecrolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Immunosuppressants. Avoid combination

Pimozide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Avoid combination

Pimozide: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Moderate Risk). Avoid combination

Posaconazole: May increase the serum concentration of QT-prolonging CYP3A4 Substrates. Such increases may lead to a greater risk for proarrhythmic effects and other similar toxicities. Avoid combination

Promazine: May enhance the myelosuppressive effect of Myelosuppressive Agents. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Ribociclib. Avoid combination

QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Exceptions: Citalopram. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Antipsychotics (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antipsychotics (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Exceptions: Pimozide; QUEtiapine. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Class IC Antiarrhythmics (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Kinase Inhibitors (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Kinase Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of QT-prolonging Kinase Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Exceptions: Encorafenib; Entrectinib. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Exceptions: Domperidone. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk): Ribociclib may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Ribociclib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ribociclib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors that prolong the QTc interval whenever possible. If combined, decrease the ribociclib dose to 400 mg daily. Monitor for ribociclib toxicities including QTc prolongation and arrhythmias. Consider therapy modification

QUEtiapine: QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QUEtiapine. QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of QUEtiapine. Management: Monitor for increased quetiapine toxicities including QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Management: Limit the ranolazine dose to a maximum of 500 mg twice daily in patients concurrently receiving moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased ranolazine effects and toxicities during concomitant use. Consider therapy modification

Rimegepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Rimegepant. Management: Avoid a second dose of rimegepant within 48 hours when used concomitantly with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Roflumilast: May enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Immunosuppressants. Management: Consider avoiding concomitant use of roflumilast and immunosuppressants as recommended by the Canadian product monograph. Inhaled or short-term corticosteroids are unlikely to be problematic. Consider therapy modification

Rupatadine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Rupatadine. Monitor therapy

Ruxolitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ruxolitinib. Monitor therapy

Salmeterol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Salmeterol. Monitor therapy

Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

SAXagliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of SAXagliptin. Monitor therapy

Selumetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Selumetinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use when possible. If combined, selumetinib dose reductions are recommended and vary based on body surface area and selumetinib dose. For details, see the full drug interaction monograph or selumetinib prescribing information. Consider therapy modification

Sildenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Sildenafil. Monitor therapy

Silodosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Silodosin. Monitor therapy

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Avoid combination

Siponimod: Immunosuppressants may enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Siponimod. Monitor therapy

Sipuleucel-T: Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Sipuleucel-T. Management: Evaluate patients to see if it is medically appropriate to reduce or discontinue therapy with immunosuppressants prior to initiating sipuleucel-T therapy. Consider therapy modification

Sirolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus. Management: Monitor for increased serum concentrations of sirolimus if combined with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Lower initial sirolimus doses or sirolimus dose reductions will likely be required. Consider therapy modification

Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine (Live): Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine (Live). Monitor therapy

Sonidegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Sonidegib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of sonidegib and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. When concomitant use cannot be avoided, limit CYP3A4 inhibitor use to less than 14 days and monitor for sonidegib toxicity (particularly musculoskeletal adverse reactions). Consider therapy modification

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of Ribociclib. Avoid combination

Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Consider therapy modification

SUNItinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of SUNItinib. Monitor therapy

Suvorexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Suvorexant. Management: The recommended dose of suvorexant is 5 mg daily in patients receiving a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. The dose can be increased to 10 mg daily (maximum dose) if necessary for efficacy. Consider therapy modification

Tacrolimus (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Tacrolimus (Topical): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Immunosuppressants. Avoid combination

Tadalafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tadalafil. Monitor therapy

Tamoxifen: Ribociclib may increase the serum concentration of Tamoxifen. Management: Concurrent use of ribociclib with tamoxifen is not indicated. Use of this combination may increase the effects and toxicities of tamoxifen. Consider therapy modification

Tamsulosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tamsulosin. Monitor therapy

Tazemetostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tazemetostat. Management: Avoid when possible. If combined, reduce tazemetostat dose from 800 mg twice daily to 400 mg twice daily, from 600 mg twice daily to 400 mg in AM and 200 mg in PM, or from 400 mg twice daily to 200 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Tertomotide: Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Tertomotide. Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. Monitor therapy

Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor. Management: If combined with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors, give tezacaftor/ivacaftor in the morning, every other day; give ivacaftor in the morning, every other day on alternate days. Tezacaftor/ivacaftor dose depends on age and weight; see full Lexi-Interact monograph Consider therapy modification

Ticagrelor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ticagrelor. Monitor therapy

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Tofacitinib: Immunosuppressants may enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Tofacitinib. Management: Concurrent use with antirheumatic doses of methotrexate or nonbiologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is permitted, and this warning seems particularly focused on more potent immunosuppressants. Consider therapy modification

Tolvaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tolvaptan. Management: Avoid this combination with Samsca brand of tolvaptan. Reduce dose for Jynarque brand: 90 mg AM and 30 mg PM, reduce to 45 mg AM and 15 mg PM; 60 mg AM and 30 mg PM, reduce to 30 mg AM and 15 mg PM; 45 mg AM and 15 mg PM, reduce to 15 mg AM and PM. Consider therapy modification

Trabectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Trabectedin. Monitor therapy

Triazolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Triazolam. Management: Consider triazolam dose reduction in patients receiving concomitant moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Ubrogepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ubrogepant. Management: Use an initial ubrogepant dose of 50 mg and avoid a second dose for 24 hours when used with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Udenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Udenafil. Monitor therapy

Ulipristal: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ulipristal. Management: This is specific for when ulipristal is being used for signs/symptoms of uterine fibroids (Canadian indication). When ulipristal is used as an emergency contraceptive, patients receiving this combination should be monitored for ulipristal toxicity. Avoid combination

Upadacitinib: Immunosuppressants may enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Upadacitinib. Management: Concomitant use of upadacitinib with potent immunosuppressants is not recommended. Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in separate drug interaction monographs. Avoid combination

Vaccines (Inactivated): Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Inactivated). Management: Vaccine efficacy may be reduced. Complete all age-appropriate vaccinations at least 2 weeks prior to starting an immunosuppressant. If vaccinated during immunosuppressant therapy, revaccinate at least 3 months after immunosuppressant discontinuation. Consider therapy modification

Vaccines (Live): Immunosuppressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Avoid use of live organism vaccines with immunosuppressants; live-attenuated vaccines should not be given for at least 3 months after immunosuppressants. Exceptions: Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine (Live). Avoid combination

Vardenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Vardenafil. Management: Limit Levitra (vardenafil) dose to a single 5 mg dose within a 24-hour period if combined with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Avoid concomitant use of Staxyn (vardenafil) and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Combined use is contraindicated outside of the US. Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: Reduce the venetoclax dose by at least 50% in patients requiring concomitant treatment with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Resume the previous venetoclax dose 2 to 3 days after discontinuation of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Vilazodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Monitor therapy

VinBLAStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of VinBLAStine. Monitor therapy

VinCRIStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine. Monitor therapy

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Monitor therapy

Vindesine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Vindesine. Monitor therapy

Zanubrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Zanubrutinib. Management: Decrease the zanubrutinib dose to 80 mg twice daily during coadministration with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Further dose adjustments may be required for zanubrutinib toxicities, refer to prescribing information for details. Consider therapy modification

Zopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Zopiclone. Management: The starting adult dose of zopiclone should not exceed 3.75 mg if combined with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of zopiclone toxicity if these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Adverse Reactions

As reported with combination therapy.

>10%:

Cardiovascular: Peripheral edema (12% to 15%)

Central nervous system: Fatigue (37%), headache (22%), dizziness (13%), insomnia (12%)

Dermatologic: Alopecia (19% to 33%), skin rash (17% to 23%), pruritus (10% to 20%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Increased gamma-glutamyl transferase (42% to 52%), decreased serum glucose (10% to 23%), decreased serum albumin (12%), decreased serum potassium (11%)

Gastrointestinal: Nausea (31% to 52%), diarrhea (29% to 35%), vomiting (27% to 29%), constipation (16% to 25%), decreased appetite (16% to 19%), abdominal pain (11% to 17%), stomatitis (10% to 12%; grade 3: <1%)

Genitourinary: Urinary tract infection (11%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Neutropenia (69% to 78%; grade 3: 46% to 55%; grade 4: 7% to 10%), leukopenia (27% to 33%; grade 3: 12% to 20%; grade 4: ≤1%), anemia (17% to 19%; grade 3: 1% to 3%; grade 4: <1%), abnormal serum phosphorus level (decreased; 13% to 18%; grade 3: 2% to 5%; grade 4: 1%), lymphocytopenia (11%; grade 3: 6%; grade 4: 1%)

Hepatic: Increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (13% to 49%), increased serum alanine aminotransferase (13% to 46%), abnormal hepatic function tests (18%)

Infection: Infection (35% to 42%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Arthralgia (33%), back pain (20%), asthenia (12% to 14%)

Renal: Increased serum creatinine (20% to 65%)

Respiratory: Cough (15% to 22%), dyspnea (12% to 15%)

Miscellaneous: Fever (11% to 17%)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Prolonged QT interval on ECG (1% to 6%), syncope (≤3%)

Central nervous system: Vertigo (5%)

Dermatologic: Xeroderma (8%), erythema of skin (4%), vitiligo (3%)

Endocrine & metabolic: Hypocalcemia (2% to 4%)

Gastrointestinal: Dyspepsia (5% to 10%), dysgeusia (7%), xerostomia (5%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Thrombocytopenia (9%), febrile neutropenia (1%)

Hepatic: Increased serum bilirubin (1%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Limb pain (10%)

Ophthalmic: Dry eye syndrome (4% to 5%), increased lacrimation (4%)

Respiratory: Oropharyngeal pain (7%), interstitial pulmonary disease (≤1%), pneumonitis (≤1%)

<1%: Acute respiratory distress syndrome, gastroenteritis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary infiltrates, sepsis

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Bone marrow suppression: Neutropenia commonly occurs, including grades 3 and 4 neutropenia. The median time to onset for grade 2 or higher neutropenia was 16 days. The median recovery for grade 3 or higher neutropenia was 12 days (resolution to normal levels or to less than grade 3 toxicity). Neutropenic fever has been observed. Monitor blood counts (baseline, every 2 weeks for the first 2 cycles, at the beginning of each subsequent 4 cycles and as clinically necessary). Neutropenia may require treatment interruption, dose reduction and/or discontinuation (depending on the severity). Anemia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia have also been observed.

• Dermatologic toxicity: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DiHS)/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), may occur with ribociclib. If signs/symptoms of severe cutaneous reactions occur, interrupt ribociclib treatment until the etiology of the reaction has been established. To ensure appropriate management, consult a dermatologist early to allow for increased diagnostic accuracy and appropriate management. If SJS, TEN, or DiHS/DRESS is confirmed, permanently discontinue ribociclib. Do not reinitiate ribociclib treatment in patients who have experienced SCARs or other life-threatening cutaneous reactions during ribociclib treatment.

• GI toxicity: Ribociclib is associated with a moderate to high emetic potential; antiemetics are recommended to prevent nausea and vomiting (ASCO [Hesketh 2020]).

• Hepatobiliary toxicity: ALT and/or AST elevations have been observed, including grade 3 or 4 events. The median time to onset for grade 3 or higher transaminase elevations was 85 days; the median time for grade 3 or higher elevations to resolve to grade 2 or lower was 22 days. Concurrent elevation of ALT or AST >3 times ULN and total bilirubin >2 times ULN (with normal alkaline phosphatase and in the absence of cholestasis) occurred (rare); all cases resolved following ribociclib discontinuation. Monitor liver function tests (baseline, every 2 weeks for the first 2 cycles, at the beginning of each subsequent 4 cycles and as clinically necessary); if grade 2 or higher abnormalities occur, monitor more frequently. Depending on the severity, hepatobiliary toxicity may require treatment interruption, dose reduction and/or discontinuation.

• Pulmonary toxicity: Severe, life-threatening, and/or fatal interstitial lung disease (ILD) and/or pneumonitis may occur with ribociclib (and other cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors). Monitor closely for symptoms of ILD/pneumonitis, which may include hypoxia, cough, dyspnea, or interstitial infiltrates on radiologic exam. Exclude infectious, neoplastic, and other causes for pulmonary toxicity. ILD/pneumonitis may require treatment interruption, dose reduction, and/or discontinuation.

• QT prolongation: Ribociclib is associated with concentration-dependent QT prolongation, with an estimated mean increase in the QT interval exceeding 20 msec at the mean steady-state Cmax of a 600 mg once daily dose. QTcF interval prolongation >500 msec has been observed, as well as QTcF prolongations >60 msec from baseline. QT interval changes occurred within the initial 4 weeks of ribociclib therapy and were reversible with treatment interruption. Torsades de pointes has not been reported, although syncope occurred in a small percentage of patients. One sudden death was reported in a patient with grade 3 hypokalemia and grade 2 QT prolongation. In a clinical trial of ribociclib plus either tamoxifen or a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, an increase of >60 msec from baseline in the QTcF interval was observed at an increased incidence in the tamoxifen arm compared to the aromatase inhibitor arm (Im 2019). Ribociclib is not indicated for concomitant use with tamoxifen. Evaluate ECG prior to treatment initiation. Initiate treatment only in patients with QTcF <450 msec. Repeat ECG on day 14 of cycle 1, at the beginning of cycle 2, and as clinically indicated; if QTcF is prolonged at any time during treatment, monitor ECG more frequently. Monitor serum electrolytes (including potassium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorous) prior to treatment, at the beginning of each of the first 6 cycles, and as clinically indicated. Correct electrolyte abnormality prior to ribociclib treatment initiation. QT prolongation may require treatment interruption, dose reduction and/or discontinuation. Avoid ribociclib use in patients who have or are at significant risk for developing QTc prolongation, including patients with long QT syndrome, uncontrolled or significant cardiac disease (eg, recent myocardial infarction, heart failure, unstable angina, bradyarrhythmias), or electrolyte abnormalities. Also avoid using ribociclib with medications known to prolong the QTc interval and/or strong CYP3A inhibitors (may prolong the QTcF interval).

Disease-related concerns:

• Hepatic impairment: Reduced initial doses are recommended for moderate to severe impairment.

• Renal impairment: Reduced initial doses are recommended for severe impairment.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Monitoring Parameters

CBC (baseline, every 2 weeks for the first 2 cycles, at the beginning of each subsequent 4 cycles and as clinically necessary); liver function tests (baseline, every 2 weeks for the first 2 cycles, at the beginning of each subsequent 4 cycles and as clinically necessary; if grade 2 or higher abnormalities occur, monitor more frequently); serum electrolytes (including potassium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorous) prior to treatment, at the beginning of the first 6 cycles, and as clinically indicated. Evaluate pregnancy status prior to treatment (in females of reproductive potential). Monitor ECG (prior to treatment initiation; repeat on day 14 of cycle 1, at the beginning of cycle 2, and as clinically indicated; if QTcF is prolonged at any time during treatment, monitor ECG more frequently). Monitor for signs/symptoms of dermatologic toxicity and interstitial lung disease/pneumonitis. Monitor adherence.

Reproductive Considerations

Women of reproductive potential should have a pregnancy test prior to treatment and use effective contraception during treatment and for at least 3 weeks after the last ribociclib dose.

Pregnancy Considerations

Based on the mechanism of action and data from animal reproduction studies, ribociclib may be expected to cause fetal harm if used during pregnancy.

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat a type of breast cancer.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Nausea

• Vomiting

• Diarrhea

• Constipation

• Lack of appetite

• Feeling tired or weak

• Mouth irritation

• Mouth sores

• Abdominal pain

• Hair loss

• Headache

• Back pain

• Trouble sleeping

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Infection

• Urinary tract infection like blood in the urine, burning or painful urination, passing a lot of urine, fever, lower abdominal pain, or pelvic pain

• Liver problems like dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or yellow skin or eyes

• Electrolyte problems like mood changes, confusion, muscle pain or weakness, abnormal heartbeat, seizures, lack of appetite, or severe nausea or vomiting

• Dizziness

• Passing out

• Fast heartbeat

• Abnormal heartbeat

• Bruising

• Bleeding

• Swelling in the arms or legs

• Flu-like symptoms

• Lung problems like shortness of breath or other trouble breathing, cough that is new or worse

• Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis like red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin (with or without fever); red or irritated eyes; or sores in mouth, throat, nose, or eyes

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.