(paz OH pa nib)
- Pazopanib HCl
- Pazopanib Hydrochloride
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Votrient: 200 mg
Brand Names: U.S.
- Antineoplastic Agent, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor
- Antineoplastic Agent, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Inhibitor
Tyrosine kinase (multikinase) inhibitor; limits tumor growth via inhibition of angiogenesis by inhibiting cell surface vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3), platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR-alpha and -beta), fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR-1 and -3), cytokine receptor (cKIT), interleukin-2 receptor inducible T-cell kinase, leukocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck), and transmembrane glycoprotein receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Fms)
Hepatic; primarily via CYP3A4, minor metabolism via CYP1A2 and CYP2C8
Feces (primarily); urine (<4%)
Time to Peak
Plasma: 2 to 4 hours
Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment
Cmax and AUC were 43% and 29%, respectively, of that observed in patients with moderate hepatic impairment administered a 200 mg dose compared with patients with normal hepatic function who received an 800 mg dose.
Use: Labeled Indications
Renal cell carcinoma, advanced: Treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma
Soft tissue sarcoma, advanced: Treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma (in patients who have received prior chemotherapy)
Limitations of use: The efficacy of pazopanib for the treatment of adipocytic soft tissue sarcoma or gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) has not been demonstrated.
Treatment of advanced, differentiated thyroid cancer
There are no contraindications listed in the manufacturer’s US labeling.
Canadian labeling: Hypersensitivity to pazopanib or any component of the formulation; use in pediatric patients <2 years of age (due to the antiangiogenic effects)
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), advanced: Oral: 800 mg once daily (Sternberg 2010)
Soft tissue sarcoma (STS), advanced: Oral: 800 mg once daily (Van Der Graaf 2012)
Thyroid cancer, advanced differentiated (off-label use): Oral: 800 mg once daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity (Bible 2010; Bible 2014)
Missed doses: If a dose is missed, do not take if <12 hours until the next dose.
Concomitant CYP3A4 inhibitors/inducers:
CYP3A4 inhibitors: Avoid concomitant strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (may increase pazopanib concentrations). If pazopanib must be administered concomitantly with a potent enzyme inhibitor, reduce pazopanib to 400 mg once daily with careful monitoring; further dosage reductions may be needed if adverse events occur.
CYP3A4 inducers: Avoid concomitant strong CYP3A4 inducers (may decrease pazopanib concentrations); use of pazopanib is not recommended in situations where the chronic use of a strong CYP3A4 inducer is required.
Refer to adult dosing.
Dosing: Renal Impairment
CrCl ≥30 mL/minute: No dosage adjustment necessary (renal impairment is not expected to influence pazopanib exposure).
CrCl <30 mL/minute: There are no dosage adjustments provided in the manufacturer’s labeling (has not been studied); however, renal impairment is not expected to influence pazopanib exposure.
Dosing: Hepatic Impairment
Mild (bilirubin ≤1.5 times ULN or ALT >ULN): No dosage adjustment required (Shibata 2013).
Moderate (bilirubin >1.5 to 3 times ULN): Consider alternative therapy or reduce to 200 mg once daily (maximum tolerated dose in patients with moderate hepatic impairment) (Shibata 2013).
Severe (bilirubin >3 times ULN with any ALT level): Use is not recommended.
Isolated ALT elevations 3 to 8 times ULN: Continue treatment, monitor liver function weekly until ALT returns to grade 1 or baseline.
Isolated ALT elevations >8 times ULN: Interrupt treatment until ALT returns to grade 1 or baseline. If therapy benefit is greater than the risk of hepatotoxicity, may reinitiate treatment at ≤400 mg once daily (with liver function monitored weekly for 8 weeks); permanently discontinue if ALT >3 times ULN occurs with reinitiation.
ALT >3 times ULN concurrently with bilirubin >2 times ULN: Permanently discontinue; monitor until resolution.
Gilbert syndrome with mild indirect bilirubin elevation and ALT >3 times ULN: Refer to isolated ALT elevations dosage recommendations above.
Dosing: Adjustment for Toxicity
Initial dosage reduction: Note: Prior to dose reduction, temporarily discontinue therapy if 24-hour urine protein ≥3 g or for other toxicities when clinically indicated.
RCC: Reduce to 400 mg once daily
STS: Reduce to 600 mg once daily
Further modification: RCC, STS: Adjust dose in 200 mg increments or decrements based on individual tolerance; maximum dose: 800 mg
Hypertension: Manage as appropriate with antihypertensive therapy and interrupt treatment or reduce dose as clinically warranted.
Hypertension (severe, persistent, and refractory to antihypertensives and dose reduction) or evidence of hypertensive crisis: Discontinue treatment.
Infection, serious: Consider treatment interruption or discontinuation.
Proteinuria (24-hour urine protein ≥3 g): Interrupt treatment and reduce the dose.
Proteinuria (recurrent 24-hour urine protein ≥3 g refractory to dose reduction): Discontinue treatment.
Pulmonary toxicity: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) or pneumonitis: Discontinue treatment.
Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS): Permanently discontinue.
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA): Permanently discontinue.
Wound dehiscence: Discontinue treatment.
Administer on an empty stomach, 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. Do not crush tablet (rate of absorption may be increased; may affect systemic exposure).
Hazardous agent; use appropriate precautions for handling and disposal (NIOSH 2014 [group 1]). NIOSH recommends single gloving for administration of intact tablets (NIOSH 2014).
Avoid grapefruit juice.
Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions are permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F).
Amodiaquine: CYP2C8 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Amodiaquine. Avoid combination
Antacids: May decrease the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Management: Avoid the use of antacids in combination with pazopanib whenever possible. Separate doses by several hours if antacid treatment is considered necessary. The impact of dose separation has not been investigated. Consider therapy modification
Aprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Monitor for increased aripiprazole pharmacologic effects. Aripiprazole dose adjustments may or may not be required based on concomitant therapy and/or indication. Consult full interaction monograph for specific recommendations. Monitor therapy
AtorvaSTATin: May enhance the hepatotoxic effect of PAZOPanib. AtorvaSTATin may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination
BCG (Intravesical): Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of BCG (Intravesical). Avoid combination
BCRP/ABCG2 Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination
Bisphosphonate Derivatives: Systemic Angiogenesis Inhibitors may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Bisphosphonate Derivatives. Specifically, the risk for osteonecrosis of the jaw may be increased. Monitor therapy
Bosentan: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Coccidioides immitis Skin Test: Immunosuppressants may diminish the diagnostic effect of Coccidioides immitis Skin Test. Monitor therapy
Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination
CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination
CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of pazopanib with strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 whenever possible. If it is not possible to avoid such a combination, reduce pazopanib adult dose to 400 mg. Further dose reductions may also be required. Consider therapy modification
Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification
Dasatinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Denosumab: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Immunosuppressants. Specifically, the risk for serious infections may be increased. Monitor therapy
Echinacea: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Immunosuppressants. Consider therapy modification
Fingolimod: Immunosuppressants may enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Fingolimod. Management: Avoid the concomitant use of fingolimod and other immunosuppressants when possible. If combined, monitor patients closely for additive immunosuppressant effects (eg, infections). Consider therapy modification
Fosaprepitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination
Grapefruit Juice: May increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination
H2-Antagonists: May decrease the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Management: Avoid the use of histamine H2-antagonists in combination with pazopanib. Strategies to minimize the expected interaction between these agents (eg, dose separation) have not been investigated. Avoid combination
Highest Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents: Moderate Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Highest Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents. Avoid combination
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: May enhance the hepatotoxic effect of PAZOPanib. Specifically, the risk for increased serum transaminase concentrations may be increased. Management: Simvastatin is specifically implicated in the interaction. There is a lack of data regarding risk with other statins, but caution appears warranted with any statins. Atorvastatin should be avoided due to P-gp inhibition. Exceptions: AtorvaSTATin. Monitor therapy
HYDROcodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of HYDROcodone. Monitor therapy
Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Avoid combination
Irinotecan Products: UGT1A1 Inhibitors may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Irinotecan Products. Specifically, concentrations of SN-38 may be increased. UGT1A1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Irinotecan Products. Avoid combination
Ivabradine: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Moderate Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents. Avoid combination
Lapatinib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of PAZOPanib. Lapatinib may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination
Leflunomide: Immunosuppressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Leflunomide. Specifically, the risk for hematologic toxicity such as pancytopenia, agranulocytosis, and/or thrombocytopenia may be increased. Management: Consider not using a leflunomide loading dose in patients receiving other immunosuppressants. Patients receiving both leflunomide and another immunosuppressant should be monitored for bone marrow suppression at least monthly. Consider therapy modification
Luliconazole: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
MiFEPRIStone: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Moderate Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents. Avoid combination
Moderate Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of other Moderate Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents. Management: Avoid such combinations when possible. Use should be accompanied by close monitoring for evidence of QT prolongation or other alterations of cardiac rhythm. Consider therapy modification
Natalizumab: Immunosuppressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Natalizumab. Specifically, the risk of concurrent infection may be increased. Avoid combination
Netupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Monitor therapy
Nivolumab: Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Nivolumab. Consider therapy modification
Palbociclib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inducers: May decrease the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. P-glycoprotein inducers may also further limit the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Monitor therapy
P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors: May increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination
Pimecrolimus: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Immunosuppressants. Avoid combination
Pimozide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Avoid combination
Proton Pump Inhibitors: May decrease the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination
QTc-Prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk and Risk Modifying): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Moderate Risk QTc-Prolonging Agents. Monitor therapy
Roflumilast: May enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Immunosuppressants. Consider therapy modification
Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Sipuleucel-T: Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Sipuleucel-T. Monitor therapy
St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification
Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Consider therapy modification
Tacrolimus (Topical): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Immunosuppressants. Avoid combination
Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates. Monitor therapy
Tofacitinib: Immunosuppressants may enhance the immunosuppressive effect of Tofacitinib. Management: Concurrent use with antirheumatic doses of methotrexate or nonbiologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is permitted, and this warning seems particularly focused on more potent immunosuppressants. Avoid combination
Trastuzumab: May enhance the neutropenic effect of Immunosuppressants. Monitor therapy
Vaccines (Inactivated): Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Inactivated). Management: Vaccine efficacy may be reduced. Complete all age-appropriate vaccinations at least 2 weeks prior to starting an immunosuppressant. If vaccinated during immunosuppressant therapy, revaccinate at least 3 months after immunosuppressant discontinuation. Consider therapy modification
Vaccines (Live): Immunosuppressants may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vaccines (Live). Immunosuppressants may diminish the therapeutic effect of Vaccines (Live). Management: Avoid use of live organism vaccines with immunosuppressants; live-attenuated vaccines should not be given for at least 3 months after immunosuppressants. Avoid combination
Vinflunine: PAZOPanib may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vinflunine. Monitor therapy
Frequency not always defined.
Cardiovascular: Hypertension (40% to 42%; grade 3: 4% to 7%, early in treatment), bradycardia (2% to 19%), peripheral edema (STS: 14%), cardiac insufficiency (11% to 13%), chest pain (5% to 10%; STS, grade 3: 2%), left ventricular systolic dysfunction (STS: 8%), venous thrombosis (1% to 5%), ischemia (2%), myocardial infarction (2%), prolonged Q-T interval on ECG (2%), facial edema (1%), transient ischemic attacks (1%), decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, hypertensive crisis
Central nervous system: Fatigue (19%, grade 3: 2%; STS: 65%, grades 3/4: 1% to 13%), tumor pain (STS: 29%, grade 3: 8%), headache (10%; STS: 23%, grade 3: 1%), dizziness (11%), insomnia (STS: 9%), voice disorder (4% to 8%), chills (STS: 5%), reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome
Dermatologic: Hair discoloration (38% to 39%, grade 3: <1%), exfoliative dermatitis (STS: 18%, grade 3: <1%), skin rash (8%), alopecia (8% to 12%), dermatological disease (STS: 11%, grade 3: 2%), hypopigmentation (STS, skin: 11%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (6%), skin depigmentation (3%), xeroderma (STS: 6%), nail disease (STS: 5%)
Endocrine & metabolic: Weight loss (9%, STS: 48%, grade 3: 4%), increased serum glucose (41% to 45%, grade 3: <1%), increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), decreased serum albumin (STS: 34%, grade 3: 1%), decreased serum phosphate (34%, grade 3: 4%), decreased serum sodium (31%, grade 3: 1% to 4%), decreased serum magnesium (26%, grades 3/4: ≤1%), decreased serum glucose (17%, grade 4: <1%), increased serum potassium (STS: 16%, grade 3: 1%), hypothyroidism (4% to 8%)
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (52% to 59%; grades 3/4: ≤5%), nausea (26%, grade 3: <1%; STS: 56%, grade 3: 3%), decreased appetite (STS: 40%, grade 3: 6%), anorexia (22%, grade 3: 2%), vomiting (21%, grades 3/4: ≤2%; STS: 33%, grade 3: 3%), dysgeusia (8%, STS: 28%), increased serum lipase (27%, grades 3/4: 4%), gastrointestinal pain (STS: 23%, grade 3: 3%), abdominal pain (11%, grade 3: 2%), mucositis (STS: 12%, grade 3: 2%), stomatitis (STS: 11%, grade 3: <1%), dyspepsia (5% to 7%), anal hemorrhage (2%), gastrointestinal perforation (1%)
Genitourinary: Proteinuria (1% to 9%), hematuria (4%)
Hematologic & oncologic: Leukopenia (37% to 44%; STS, grade 3: 1%), lymphocytopenia (31%; grades 3/4: ≤4%; STS: 43%, grade 3: 10%), thrombocytopenia (32% to 36%; grades 3/4: ≤3%; grade 4: ≤1%), neutropenia (33% to 34%; grades 3/4: ≤4%), hemorrhage (13% to 22%, including pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary, grade 4: 1%, including intracranial, subarachnoid, and peritoneal), oral hemorrhage (3%), rectal hemorrhage (1%), hemolytic-uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Hepatic: Increased serum AST (51% to 53%; grades 3/4: ≤7%), increased serum ALT (4% to 53%; grades 3/4: 2% to 10%), increased serum bilirubin (29% to 36%; grades 3/4: ≤3%), increased serum alkaline phosphatase (STS: 32%, grade 3: 3%), hepatotoxicity, severe hepatotoxicity
Infection: Serious infection
Neuromuscular & skeletal: Musculoskeletal pain (STS: 23%, grade 3: 2%), myalgia (STS: 23%, grade 3: 2%), weakness (14%, grade 3: 3%), arthralgia, muscle spasm
Ophthalmic: Blurred vision (STS: 5%)
Respiratory: Dyspnea (STS: 20%, grades 3/4: ≤5%), cough (STS: 17%), epistaxis (2% to 8%), pneumothorax (≤3%), hemoptysis (2%)
Miscellaneous: Tumor pain (29%), fistula (1%)
<1% (Limited to important or life-threatening): Cardiac disease, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebrovascular accident, congestive heart failure, interstitial pneumonitis, nephrotic syndrome, pancreatitis, retinal detachment, torsade de pointes
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Gastrointestinal perforation/fistula: Perforation and fistula (including fatal events) have been reported; monitor for symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation and fistula.
• Hand-foot skin reaction: Hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) observed with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is distinct from hand-foot syndrome (palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia) associated with traditional chemotherapy agents. HFSR due to TKIs is localized with defined hyperkeratotic lesions; symptoms include burning, dysesthesia, paresthesia, or tingling of the palms/soles, and generally occur within the first 2 to 4 weeks of treatment. Pressure and flexor areas may develop blisters (callus-like), dry/cracked skin, edema, erythema, desquamation, or hyperkeratosis. The incidence of hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) is lower with pazopanib (compared to other tyrosine kinase inhibitors). Examine skin at baseline (remove calluses with pedicure prior to treatment) and with each visit; apply an emollient based moisturizer twice daily during treatment. If HSFR develops, consider changing moisturizer to a urea-based product; topical steroids may be utilized for the anti-inflammatory effect; avoid excessive friction or pressure to affected areas and avoid restrictive footwear. Temporary dose reduction or treatment interruption may be necessary (Appleby 2011).
• Heart failure: May cause new-onset or worsening of existing heart failure; baseline and periodic LVEF monitoring is recommended in patients at increased risk of heart failure (eg, prior anthracycline treatment). Concurrent hypertension may increase the risk for cardiac dysfunction. Monitor for signs/symptoms of heart failure.
• Hemorrhage: Hemorrhagic events (including fatal events) have been reported. In clinical studies, the most common events in renal cell carcinoma patients were hematuria, epistaxis, hemoptysis, and rectal hemorrhage. Epistaxis, mouth hemorrhage, and anal hemorrhage were most common in soft tissue sarcoma patients. Use is not recommended in patients with a history of hemoptysis, cerebral hemorrhage or clinically significant gastrointestinal hemorrhage within 6 months; these populations were excluded from clinical trials.
• Hepatotoxicity: [US Boxed Warning]: Severe and fatal hepatotoxicity (transaminase and bilirubin elevations) has been observed in studies. Monitor hepatic function and interrupt treatment, reduce dose, or discontinue as recommended. Liver function tests should be monitored at baseline; at weeks 3, 5, 7, and 9; at months 3 and 4; and as clinically necessary, then periodically (after month 4). Transaminase elevations usually occur early in the treatment course. Use is not recommended in patients with preexisting severe hepatic impairment (bilirubin >3 times ULN with any ALT level); dosage reduction is recommended for preexisting moderate hepatic impairment (bilirubin >1.5 to 3 times ULN). Mild indirect (unconjugated) hyperbilirubinemia may occur in patients with Gilbert syndrome; for patients with known Gilbert syndrome (only a mild indirect bilirubin elevation) and ALT >3 times ULN, follow the dosage modification recommendations for isolated ALT elevations. Patients >65 years are at a higher risk for hepatotoxicity.
• Hypertension: May cause and/or worsen hypertension; hypertensive crisis has been observed. Blood pressure should be controlled prior to treatment initiation. Monitor frequently for hypertension; antihypertensive therapy should be used if needed. Hypertension usually occurs early in the treatment course. Dosage reduction may be necessary for hypertension that is persistent despite management with antihypertensive therapy; discontinue for hypertensive crisis, or for severe and persistent hypertension which is refractory to dose reduction and antihypertensive therapy.
• Infections: Serious, including fatal, infections have been reported; monitor for signs and symptoms of infection. Temporarily or permanently discontinue therapy for serious infections as clinically indicated.
• Ocular toxicity: Cases of retinal detachment or tear have been reported.
• Proteinuria: Has been reported with use. Obtain baseline and periodic urinalysis and 24-hour urine protein when clinically indicated. Dosage reduction may be necessary for significant proteinuria (≥3 g/24 hours); discontinue for recurrent proteinuria.
• Pulmonary toxicity: Interstitial lung disease (ILD)/pneumonitis has been reported with pazopanib; may be fatal. Monitor for pulmonary symptoms which could indicate ILD/pneumonitis; discontinue if ILD or pneumonitis develop.
• QTc prolongation: QTc prolongation, including torsade de pointes, has been observed; use caution in patients with a history of QTc prolongation, with medications known to prolong the QT interval, or with preexisting cardiac disease. Obtain baseline and periodic ECGs; correct electrolyte (potassium, calcium, and magnesium) abnormalities prior to and during treatment.
• Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS): Has been reported (rarely); may be fatal. Monitor for neurological changes or symptoms (blindness, confusion, headache, lethargy, seizure, visual or neurologic disturbances). Hypertension (mild to severe) may also be present. Permanently discontinue pazopanib in patients who develop RPLS.
• Thromboembolic events: Venous and arterial thromboembolism have been reported. DVT, pulmonary embolism, angina, transient ischemic attack, MI, and ischemic stroke were observed more frequently in the pazopanib group (versus placebo) in clinical trials. Fatalities were observed. Monitor for signs/symptoms of venous thrombotic events and pulmonary embolism. Use with caution in patients with a history of or an increased risk for these events. Use in patients with recent arteriothrombotic event (within 6 months) has not been studied and is not recommended.
• Thrombotic microangiopathy: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), has been observed in clinical studies. TMA has occurred with pazopanib monotherapy or when used in combination with bevacizumab or topotecan (off-label use); it typically occurs within 90 days of treatment initiation. Monitor for signs/symptoms and permanently discontinue in patients who develop TMA.
• Thyroid disorders: Hypothyroidism has been reported with use; monitor thyroid function tests.
• Wound healing complications: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitors are associated with impaired wound healing. Discontinue treatment at least 7 days prior to scheduled surgery; treatment reinitiation should be guided by clinical judgment. Discontinue if wound dehiscence occurs.
• Renal impairment: Patients with mild-to-moderate renal impairment (CrCl ≥30 mL/minute) were included in trials. There are no pharmacokinetic data in patients with severe renal impairment undergoing dialysis (peritoneal and hemodialysis); however, renal impairment is not expected to significantly influence pazopanib pharmacokinetics or exposure.
Concurrent drug therapy issues:
• Chemotherapy: Increased toxicity and mortality has been observed in trials evaluating concurrent use of pazopanib with other chemotherapeutic agents (pemetrexed, lapatinib). Pazopanib is not approved for use in combination with other chemotherapy.
• Drug-drug/drug-food interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.
• East Asians: In an analysis of pooled clinical trials, grade 3 and 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (hand-foot syndrome) were more frequently observed in patients of East Asian descent than in non-East Asian patients.
• Elderly: Patients >65 years of age may be at greater risk for transaminase elevations (ALT >3 time ULN). Patients ≥65 years of age experienced increased incidences of grade 3 or 4 fatigue, hypertension, decreased appetite, and transaminase elevations and are at increased risk for hepatotoxicity.
• Pediatric: Pazopanib is not approved for use in pediatric patients. Based on the mechanism of action, organ growth and maturation may be affected during early postnatal development. May potentially cause serious adverse effects on organ development, particularly in children <2 years of age.
• Pharmacogenomic variation: A pooled analysis of TA repeat polymorphism of UGT1A1 showed a statistically significant increase of hyperbilirubinemia in patients with the (TA)7/TA7 genotype (UGT1A1*28/*28), relative to the (TA)6/(TA)6 and (TA6/(TA)7 genotypes. In a large pooled analysis, grade 2 and 3 ALT elevations (ALT > 3 to <20 x ULN) were observed more frequently in patients carrying the HLA-B*57:01 allele versus non-carriers. Monitor liver function in all patients receiving pazopanib.
• Hazardous agent: Use appropriate precautions for handling and disposal (NIOSH 2014 [group 1]).
Monitor liver function tests at baseline; at weeks 3, 5, 7, and 9; at months 3 and 4; and as clinically necessary, then periodically after month 4 (monitor more frequently if clinically indicated); serum electrolytes (eg, calcium, magnesium, potassium); urinalysis (for proteinuria; baseline and periodic), 24-hour urine protein (if clinically indicated); thyroid function (TSH and T4 at baseline and TSH every 6 to 8 weeks during treatment [Appleby 2011]); blood pressure; ECG (baseline and periodic); LVEF (if at risk for cardiac dysfunction; baseline and periodic); signs/symptoms of gastrointestinal perforation or fistula, venous/arterial thrombotic events, pulmonary embolism, interstitial lung disease (ILD)/pneumonitis, infection, heart failure, or neurological changes.
Pregnancy Risk Factor
Adverse effects were observed in animal reproduction studies. Based on its mechanism of action, pazopanib would be expected to cause fetal harm if administered to a pregnant woman. Women of reproductive potential should avoid becoming pregnant during treatment and use effective contraception during therapy and for at least 2 weeks after the last pazopanib dose.
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience loss of strength and energy, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, lack of appetite, change in taste, mouth sores, hair discoloration, hair loss, muscle pain, weight loss, insomnia, or nail changes. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of infection, signs of liver problems (dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice), signs of bleeding (vomiting blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; coughing up blood; hematuria; black, red, or tarry stools; bleeding from the gums; abnormal vaginal bleeding; bruises without a reason or that get bigger; or any severe or persistent bleeding), signs of a low thyroid level (constipation; difficulty handling heat or cold; memory problems; mood changes; or burning, numbness, or tingling feeling), severe headache, signs of DVT (edema, warmth, numbness, change in color, or pain in the extremities), signs of severe cerebrovascular disease (change in strength on one side is greater than the other, difficulty speaking or thinking, change in balance, or vision changes), signs of a severe pulmonary disorder (lung or breathing problems like difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, or a cough that is new or worse), signs of heart problems (cough or shortness of breath that is new or worse, swelling of the ankles or legs, abnormal heartbeat, weight gain of more than five pounds in 24 hours, dizziness, or passing out), signs of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (confusion, not alert, vision changes, seizures, or severe headache), signs of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (bruising or bleeding; loss of strength and energy; dark urine or jaundice; pale skin; change in amount of urine passed; vision changes; change in strength on one side is greater than the other; difficulty speaking or thinking, or change in balance; or fever), angina, tachycardia, abnormal heartbeat, passing out, severe headache, dizziness, vision changes, urinary retention, change in amount of urine passed, redness or irritation of palms or soles of feet, or abdominal edema (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.
More about pazopanib
- Other brands: Votrient