Skip to Content

Ketorolac (Systemic)

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Aug 15, 2019.

Pronunciation

(KEE toe role ak)

Index Terms

  • Ketorolac Tromethamine
  • Toradol

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Kit, Injection, as tromethamine:

ReadySharp Ketorolac: 15 mg/mL [contains alcohol, usp]

Solution, Injection, as tromethamine:

Generic: 15 mg/mL (1 mL); 30 mg/mL (1 mL)

Solution, Injection, as tromethamine [preservative free]:

Generic: 15 mg/mL (1 mL); 30 mg/mL (1 mL)

Solution, Intramuscular, as tromethamine:

Generic: 60 mg/2 mL (2 mL)

Solution, Intramuscular, as tromethamine [preservative free]:

Generic: 60 mg/2 mL (2 mL)

Tablet, Oral, as tromethamine:

Generic: 10 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • ReadySharp Ketorolac

Pharmacologic Category

  • Analgesic, Nonopioid
  • Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID), Oral
  • Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID), Parenteral

Pharmacology

Reversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 and 2 (COX-1 and 2) enzymes, which results in decreased formation of prostaglandin precursors; has antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties

Other proposed mechanisms not fully elucidated (and possibly contributing to the anti-inflammatory effect to varying degrees), include inhibiting chemotaxis, altering lymphocyte activity, inhibiting neutrophil aggregation/activation, and decreasing proinflammatory cytokine levels.

Absorption

Oral: Well absorbed (100%); IM: Rapid and complete

Distribution

Poor penetration into CSF; Vd beta:

Children 4 to 8 years: 0.19 to 0.44 L/kg (mean: 0.26 L/kg)

Adults: 0.11 to 0.33 L/kg (mean: 0.18 L/kg)

Metabolism

Hepatic; undergoes hydroxylation and glucuronide conjugation; in children 4 to 8 years, Vdss and plasma clearance were twice as high as adults

Excretion

Urine (92%, ~60% as unchanged drug); feces ~6%

Onset of Action

Analgesic: Oral: 30 to 60 minutes; IM, IV: ~30 minutes; Peak effect: Analgesic: Oral: 2 to 3 hours; IM, IV: ≤2 to 3 hours

Time to Peak

Serum: Oral: ~45 minutes; IM: 30 to 60 minutes; IV: 1 to 3 minutes

Duration of Action

Analgesic: 4 to 6 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Infants 6 to 18 months of age (n=25): S-enantiomer: 0.83 ± 0.7 hours; R-enantiomer: 4 ± 0.8 hours (Lynn 2007)

Children:

1 to 16 years (n=36): Mean: 3 ± 1.1 hours (Dsida 2002)

3 to 18 years (n=24): Mean: 3.8 ± 2.6 hours

4 to 8 years (n=10): Mean: ~6 hours; Range: 3.5 to 10 hours

Adults:

Mean: ~5 hours; Range: 2 to 9 hours [S-enantiomer ~2.5 hours (biologically active); R-enantiomer ~5 hours]

With renal impairment: Scr 1.9 to 5 mg/dL: Mean: ~11 hours; Range: 4 to 19 hours

Renal dialysis patients: Mean: ~14 hours; Range: 8 to 40 hours

Protein Binding

99%

Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment

Clearance is reduced and half-life is increased in renal impairment. AUC is increased by ~100% and volume of distribution increases.

Special Populations: Elderly

Half-life is longer in elderly patients.

Use: Labeled Indications

Pain management (acute; moderately severe): Short-term (≤5 days) management of moderate to severe acute pain requiring analgesia at the opioid level

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to ketorolac, aspirin, other NSAIDs, or any component of the formulation; active or history of peptic ulcer disease; recent or history of GI bleeding or perforation; history of asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs; advanced renal disease or patients at risk for renal failure due to volume depletion; prophylactic analgesic before any major surgery; suspected or confirmed cerebrovascular bleeding, hemorrhagic diathesis, incomplete hemostasis, or high risk of bleeding; concurrent use with aspirin, other NSAIDs, probenecid, or pentoxifylline; epidural or intrathecal administration (injection only); use in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery; labor and delivery.

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Intraoperative use; coagulation disorders; active GI bleeding; postoperative patients with high-bleeding risk; severe uncontrolled heart failure; inflammatory bowel disease; severe hepatic impairment or active hepatic disease; moderate to severe renal impairment (serum creatinine >442 micromol/L and/or creatinine clearance <30 mL/minute) or deteriorating renal disease; known hyperkalemia; third trimester of pregnancy; breast-feeding; use in children and adolescents <18 years of age

Dosing: Adult

Pain management (acute; moderately severe) in patients ≥50 kg: Note: The maximum combined duration of treatment (for parenteral and oral) is 5 days; do not increase dose or frequency; supplement with low-dose opioids if needed for breakthrough pain. Oral formulation should not be given as an initial dose.

IM: 60 mg as a single dose or 30 mg every 6 hours; alternatively, an initial dose of 10 to 30 mg (as single dose) and then every 4 to 6 hours as needed has been recommended (Toradol IM Canadian product labeling 2015). Maximum: 120 mg/day

IV: 30 mg as a single dose or 30 mg every 6 hours (maximum: 120 mg/day)

Note: A randomized, double-blind trial (n=240) demonstrated that a lower dose of ketorolac 10 mg IV produced similar analgesic effects as 15 mg and 30 mg IV doses in patients with acute pain in the ED (Motov 2017); consideration for lower doses may be appropriate.

Oral: 20 mg, followed by 10 mg every 4 to 6 hours as needed; maximum: 40 mg/day; oral dosing is intended to be a continuation of IM or IV therapy only

Patient population-specific dosing:

Critically ill patients (off-label dose): IM, IV: 30 mg once, followed by 15 to 30 mg every 6 hours for up to 5 days (maximum: 120 mg/day) (SCCM [Barr 2013]; Tietze 2019).

Perioperative patients (off-label dose): IV: Note: Multimodal perioperative pain management strategies should be employed. Maximum daily dose should not exceed 120 mg/day. Perioperative dosing strategies described in the literature have included bolus dose of 10 to 30 mg, followed by a continuous infusion of 2 to 5 mg/hour for 24 hours (Etches 1995; Howard 2018; Ready 1994). One study administered 3.6 mg/hour for 48 hours (Schwinghammer 2017).

Dosage adjustment for low body weight (<50 kg): Note:May have an increased incidence of GI bleeding, ulceration, and perforation. The maximum combined duration of treatment (for parenteral and oral) is 5 days. Oral formulation should not be given as an initial dose.

IM: 30 mg as a single dose or 15 mg every 6 hours (maximum: 60 mg/day)

IV: 15 mg as a single dose or 15 mg every 6 hours (maximum: 60 mg/day)

Oral: 10 mg, followed by 10 mg every 4 to 6 hours as needed (maximum: 40 mg/day). Oral dosing is intended to be a continuation of IM or IV therapy only.

Dosing: Geriatric

Avoid use (Beers Criteria [AGS 2019]).

Dosing: Pediatric

Note: To reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular and GI effects, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest period of time.

Pain management (acute; moderately severe):

Infants and Children <2 years: Limited data available: Multiple-dose treatment: IV: 0.5 mg/kg/dose every 6 to 8 hours, not to exceed 48 to 72 hours of treatment; has been used postoperatively primarily following cardiac and abdominal surgery (Burd 2002; Dawkins 2009; Gupta 2004; Moffett 2006)

Children ≥2 years and Adolescents ≤16 years: Limited data available:

IM, IV: 0.5 mg/kg/dose every 6 hours; maximum dose: 30 mg/dose, usual reported duration: 48 to 72 hours; not to exceed 5 days of treatment (APS 2016; Buck 1994; Dsida 2002; Gupta 2004; Gupta 2005)

Oral: 1 mg/kg as a single dose; maximum dose: 10 mg/dose has been reported in children preoperatively (eg, bilateral myringotomy) (Forrest 1997; Watcha 1992)

Adolescents ≥17 years: Note: The maximum combined duration of treatment (for parenteral and oral) is 5 days; do not increase dose or frequency; supplement with low-dose opioids if needed for breakthrough pain.

<50 kg:

IM: 30 mg as a single dose or 15 mg every 6 hours; maximum daily dose: 60 mg/day

IV: 15 mg as a single dose or 15 mg every 6 hours; maximum daily dose: 60 mg/day

Oral: Initial: 10 mg, then 10 mg every 4 to 6 hours; maximum daily dose: 40 mg/day

≥50 kg:

IM: 60 mg as a single dose or 30 mg every 6 hours; maximum daily dose: 120 mg/day

IV: 30 mg as a single dose or 30 mg every 6 hours; maximum daily dose: 120 mg/day

Oral: Initial: 20 mg, then 10 mg every 4 to 6 hours; maximum daily dose: 40 mg/day

Administration

Oral: May administer with food to reduce GI upset.

IM: Administer slowly and deeply into the muscle.

IV: Administer IV bolus over a minimum of 15 seconds. Use of a continuous infusion (off-label) has been described in the perioperative setting (Etches 1995; Howard 2018; Ready 1994; Schwinghammer 2017).

Dietary Considerations

Administer tablet with food or milk to decrease gastrointestinal distress.

Storage

Injection: Store at 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect from light. Injection is clear and has a slight yellow color. Precipitation may occur at relatively low pH values.

Tablet: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). Protect from light and excessive humidity.

Drug Interactions

5-Aminosalicylic Acid Derivatives: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Acemetacin: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Agents with Antiplatelet Properties (e.g., P2Y12 inhibitors, NSAIDs, SSRIs, etc.): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of other Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Alcohol (Ethyl): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the risk of GI bleeding may be increased with this combination. Monitor therapy

Aliskiren: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Aliskiren. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Aliskiren. Management: Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving aliskiren and any nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent. Patients at elevated risk of renal dysfunction include those who are elderly, are volume depleted, or have pre-existing renal dysfunction. Monitor therapy

Aminoglycosides: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may decrease the excretion of Aminoglycosides. Data only in premature infants. Monitor therapy

Aminolevulinic Acid (Systemic): Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Aminolevulinic Acid (Systemic). Avoid combination

Aminolevulinic Acid (Topical): Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Aminolevulinic Acid (Topical). Monitor therapy

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the combination may result in a significant decrease in renal function. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers. The combination of these two agents may also significantly decrease glomerular filtration and renal function. Monitor therapy

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the combination may result in a significant decrease in renal function. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. Exceptions: Bemiparin; Enoxaparin; Heparin. Monitor therapy

Anticoagulants: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. Exceptions: Bemiparin; Enoxaparin; Heparin. Monitor therapy

Apixaban: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Apixaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Management: A comprehensive risk to benefit assessment should be done for all patients before any concurrent use of apixaban and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). If combined, monitor patients extra closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Aspirin: Ketorolac (Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aspirin. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Ketorolac (Systemic) may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Aspirin. Avoid combination

Bemiparin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Bemiparin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of bemiparin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) due to the increased risk of bleeding. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Bemiparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Bemiparin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of bemiparin with antiplatelet agents. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Beta-Blockers: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Exceptions: Levobunolol; Metipranolol. Monitor therapy

Bile Acid Sequestrants: May decrease the absorption of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Consider therapy modification

Bisphosphonate Derivatives: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Bisphosphonate Derivatives. Both an increased risk of gastrointestinal ulceration and an increased risk of nephrotoxicity are of concern. Monitor therapy

Cephalothin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cephalothin. Specifically, the risk for bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Collagenase (Systemic): Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Collagenase (Systemic). Specifically, the risk of injection site bruising and/or bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Corticosteroids (Systemic): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Monitor therapy

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). CycloSPORINE (Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Management: Consider alternatives to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). Monitor for evidence of nephrotoxicity, as well as increased serum cyclosporine concentrations and systemic effects (eg, hypertension) during concomitant therapy with NSAIDs. Consider therapy modification

Dabigatran Etexilate: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dabigatran Etexilate. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Management: A comprehensive risk to benefit assessment should be done for all patients before any concurrent use of dabigatran and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). If combined, monitor patients extra closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Dasatinib: May enhance the anticoagulant effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

Deferasirox: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deferasirox. Specifically, the risk for GI ulceration/irritation or GI bleeding may be increased. Monitor therapy

Deoxycholic Acid: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Deoxycholic Acid. Specifically, the risk for bleeding or bruising in the treatment area may be increased. Monitor therapy

Desmopressin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Desmopressin. Monitor therapy

Dexibuprofen: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Dexibuprofen. Avoid combination

Dexketoprofen: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Digoxin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of Digoxin. Monitor therapy

Drospirenone: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Drospirenone. Monitor therapy

Edoxaban: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Edoxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Management: A comprehensive risk to benefit assessment should be done for all patients before any concurrent use of edoxaban and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). If combined, monitor patients extra closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Enoxaparin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Enoxaparin. Management: Discontinue nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) prior to initiating enoxaparin whenever possible. If concomitant administration is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Enoxaparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Enoxaparin. Management: Discontinue antiplatelet agents prior to initiating enoxaparin whenever possible. If concomitant administration is unavoidable, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Eplerenone: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Eplerenone. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Eplerenone. Monitor therapy

Fat Emulsion (Fish Oil Based): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Felbinac: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Monitor therapy

Floctafenine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Glucosamine: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Haloperidol: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Haloperidol. Specifically including drowsiness and confusion. Monitor therapy

Heparin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Heparin. Management: Decrease the dose of heparin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) if coadministration is required. Consider therapy modification

Heparin: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Heparin. Management: Decrease the dose of heparin or agents with antiplatelet properties if coadministration is required. Consider therapy modification

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Bleeding may occur. Management: Avoid combination when possible. If used, monitor more closely for evidence of bleeding. Discontinue herbal products with anticoagulant or antiplatelet actions 2 weeks prior to surgical, dental, or invasive procedures. Consider therapy modification

Herbs (Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Properties) (eg, Alfalfa, Anise, Bilberry): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Bleeding may occur. Management: Concomitant treatment with these agents should generally be avoided. If used concomitantly, increased diligence in monitoring for adverse effects (eg, bleeding, bruising, altered mental status due to CNS bleeds) must be employed. Consider therapy modification

HydrALAZINE: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of HydrALAZINE. Monitor therapy

Ibritumomab Tiuxetan: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ibritumomab Tiuxetan. Both agents may contribute to impaired platelet function and an increased risk of bleeding. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Inotersen: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Ketorolac (Nasal): May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Limaprost: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Lithium: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of Lithium. Consider therapy modification

Loop Diuretics: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the diuretic effect of Loop Diuretics. Loop Diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Management: Monitor for evidence of kidney injury or decreased therapeutic effects of loop diuretics with concurrent use of an NSAID. Consider avoiding concurrent use in CHF or cirrhosis. Concomitant use of bumetanide with indomethacin is not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Macimorelin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the diagnostic effect of Macimorelin. Avoid combination

Methotrexate: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of Methotrexate. Management: Alternative anti-inflammatory therapy should be considered whenever possible, especially if the patient is receiving higher, antineoplastic doses of methotrexate. Consider therapy modification

Mifamurtide: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Mifamurtide. Avoid combination

Morniflumate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Multivitamins/Fluoride (with ADE): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with ADEK, Folate, Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Multivitamins/Minerals (with AE, No Iron): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Naftazone: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Monitor therapy

Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing): Ketorolac (Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Neuromuscular-Blocking Agents (Nondepolarizing). Specifically, episodes of apnea have been reported in patients using this combination. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Ketorolac (Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Obinutuzumab: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Obinutuzumab. Specifically, the risk of serious bleeding-related events may be increased. Monitor therapy

Omacetaxine: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Omacetaxine. Specifically, the risk for bleeding-related events may be increased. Management: Avoid concurrent use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with omacetaxine in patients with a platelet count of less than 50,000/uL. Avoid combination

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Pelubiprofen: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased by concurrent use of these agents. Monitor therapy

Pentoxifylline: Ketorolac (Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Pentoxifylline. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased with this combination. Avoid combination

Phenylbutazone: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Porfimer: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Porfimer. Monitor therapy

Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the antihypertensive effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics. Monitor therapy

PRALAtrexate: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of PRALAtrexate. More specifically, NSAIDS may decrease the renal excretion of pralatrexate. Management: Closely monitor for increased pralatrexate serum levels and/or toxicity if used concomitantly with an NSAID. Monitor for decreased pralatrexate serum levels with NSAID discontinuation. Monitor therapy

Probenecid: May increase the serum concentration of Ketorolac (Systemic). Avoid combination

Prostacyclin Analogues: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Prostaglandins (Ophthalmic): Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Prostaglandins (Ophthalmic). Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may also enhance the therapeutic effects of Prostaglandins (Ophthalmic). Monitor therapy

Quinolones: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the neuroexcitatory and/or seizure-potentiating effect of Quinolones. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of Quinolones. Monitor therapy

Rivaroxaban: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Rivaroxaban. Specifically, the risk of bleeding may be increased. Management: A comprehensive risk to benefit assessment should be done for all patients before any concurrent use of rivaroxaban and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). If combined, monitor patients extra closely for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Consider therapy modification

Salicylates: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. An increased risk of bleeding may be associated with use of this combination. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may diminish the cardioprotective effect of Salicylates. Salicylates may decrease the serum concentration of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Exceptions: Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate. Consider therapy modification

Salicylates: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Salicylates. Increased risk of bleeding may result. Monitor therapy

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Management: Consider alternatives to NSAIDs. Monitor for evidence of bleeding and diminished antidepressant effects. It is unclear whether COX-2-selective NSAIDs reduce risk. Consider therapy modification

Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Monitor therapy

Sincalide: Drugs that Affect Gallbladder Function may diminish the therapeutic effect of Sincalide. Management: Consider discontinuing drugs that may affect gallbladder motility prior to the use of sincalide to stimulate gallbladder contraction. Consider therapy modification

Sodium Phosphates: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Specifically, the risk of acute phosphate nephropathy may be enhanced. Management: Consider avoiding this combination by temporarily suspending treatment with NSAIDs, or seeking alternatives to oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. If the combination cannot be avoided, maintain adequate hydration and monitor renal function closely. Consider therapy modification

Tacrolimus (Systemic): Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Talniflumate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Tenofovir Products: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Tenofovir Products. Management: Seek alternatives to these combinations whenever possible. Avoid use of tenofovir with multiple NSAIDs or any NSAID given at a high dose. Consider therapy modification

Tenoxicam: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May enhance the nephrotoxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Thrombolytic Agents: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Thrombolytic Agents. Monitor therapy

Tipranavir: May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Tolperisone: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Tolperisone. Specifically, the risk of hypersensitivity reactions may be increased. Tolperisone may enhance the therapeutic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Monitor therapy

Tricyclic Antidepressants (Tertiary Amine): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective). Monitor therapy

Urokinase: Agents with Antiplatelet Properties may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Urokinase. Avoid combination

Vancomycin: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents may increase the serum concentration of Vancomycin. Monitor therapy

Verteporfin: Photosensitizing Agents may enhance the photosensitizing effect of Verteporfin. Monitor therapy

Vitamin E (Systemic): May enhance the antiplatelet effect of Agents with Antiplatelet Properties. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Nonselective) may enhance the anticoagulant effect of Vitamin K Antagonists. Consider therapy modification

Zaltoprofen: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Avoid combination

Test Interactions

May lead to false-positive aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) (Funder 2016)

Adverse Reactions

Frequencies noted for parenteral administration:

>10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (17%)

Gastrointestinal: Gastrointestinal pain (13%), dyspepsia (12%), nausea (12%)

>1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Edema (4%), hypertension

Central nervous system: Dizziness (7%), drowsiness (6%)

Dermatologic: Diaphoresis, pruritus, skin rash

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (7%), constipation, flatulence, gastrointestinal fullness, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal perforation, gastrointestinal ulcer, heartburn, stomatitis, vomiting

Hematologic & oncologic: Anemia, prolonged bleeding time, purpura

Hepatic: Increased liver enzymes

Local: Pain at injection site (2%)

Otic: Tinnitus

Renal: Renal function abnormality

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Abnormality in thinking, acute pancreatitis, acute renal failure, agranulocytosis, alopecia, anaphylactoid reaction, anaphylaxis, angioedema, anxiety, aplastic anemia, aseptic meningitis, asthma, azotemia, blurred vision, bradycardia, bronchospasm, bruise, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac failure, chest pain, cholestatic jaundice, coma, confusion, conjunctivitis, cough, cystitis, depression, dyspnea, dysuria, eosinophilia, epistaxis, eructation, erythema multiforme, esophagitis, euphoria, exacerbation of urinary frequency, exfoliative dermatitis, extrapyramidal reaction, fever, flank pain, flushing, gastritis, glossitis, hallucination, hearing loss, hematemesis, hematuria, hemolytic anemia, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, hepatic failure, hepatitis, hepatotoxicity (idiosyncratic) (Chalasani, 2014), hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyperkinesis, hypersensitivity reaction, hyponatremia, hypotension, increased susceptibility to infection, increased thirst, infertility, inflammatory bowel disease, insomnia, interstitial nephritis, jaundice, lack of concentration, laryngeal edema, leukopenia, lymphadenopathy, maculopapular rash, melena, myocardial infarction, nephritis, nervousness, oliguria, pallor, palpitations, pancytopenia, paresthesia, pneumonia, polyuria, proteinuria, psychosis, pulmonary edema, rectal hemorrhage, renal failure, respiratory depression, rhinitis, seizure, sepsis, skin photosensitivity, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, stomatitis (ulcerative), stupor, syncope, tachycardia, thrombocytopenia, tongue edema, toxic epidermal necrolysis, tremor, urinary retention, urticaria, vasculitis, vertigo, weakness, weight gain, wound hemorrhage (postoperative), xerostomia

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Appropriate use:

Ketorolac is indicated for the short-term (up to 5 days in adults) management of moderately severe acute pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level. Oral ketorolac is only indicated as continuation treatment following intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) dosing of ketorolac, if necessary. The total combined duration of use of ketorolac tablets and injection should not exceed 5 days.

Ketorolac is not indicated for use in pediatric patients and is not indicated for minor or chronic painful conditions. Increasing the dose of ketorolac beyond labeled recommendations will not provide better efficacy but will increase the risk of developing serious adverse events.

Serious cardiovascular thrombotic events:

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in treatment and may increase with duration of use.

Ketorolac is contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.

Serious gastrointestinal bleeding, ulceration, and perforation:

NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) events, including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Therefore, ketorolac is contraindicated in patients with active peptic ulcer disease, recent GI bleeding or perforation, and a history of peptic ulcer disease or GI bleeding. Elderly patients and patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding are at greater risk for serious GI events.

Intrathecal or epidural administration:

Ketorolac is contraindicated for intrathecal or epidural administration due to its alcohol content.

Hypersensitivity:

Hypersensitivity reactions, ranging from bronchospasm to anaphylactic shock, have occurred and appropriate counteractive measures must be available when administering the first dose of ketorolac injection. Ketorolac is contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to ketorolac or allergic manifestations to aspirin or other NSAIDs.

Renal risk:

Ketorolac is contraindicated in patients with advanced renal impairment and in patients at risk for renal failure due to volume depletion.

Risk of bleeding:

Ketorolac inhibits platelet function and is, therefore, contraindicated in patients with suspected or confirmed cerebrovascular bleeding, hemorrhagic diathesis, incomplete hemostasis, and those at high risk of bleeding.

Ketorolac is contraindicated as a prophylactic analgesic before any major surgery.

Labor and delivery:

Ketorolac is contraindicated in labor and delivery because it may adversely affect fetal circulation and inhibit uterine contractions.

Concomitant use with NSAIDs:

Ketorolac is contraindicated in patients currently receiving aspirin or NSAIDs because of the cumulative risks of inducing serious NSAID-related adverse events.

Special populations:

Adjust dosage for patients 65 years and older, weighing less than 50 kg (110 lbs), and with moderately elevated serum creatinine. Doses of ketorolac injection are not to exceed 60 mg (total dose per day) in these patients.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Bleeding and hematologic effects: [US Boxed Warning]: Inhibits platelet function; contraindicated in patients with cerebrovascular bleeding (suspected or confirmed), hemorrhagic diathesis, incomplete hemostasis and patients at high risk for bleeding. Platelet adhesion and aggregation may be decreased; may prolong bleeding time; patients with coagulation disorders or who are receiving anticoagulants should be monitored closely. Anemia may occur; patients on long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy should be monitored for anemia. Rarely, NSAID use has been associated with potentially severe blood dyscrasias (eg, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia).

• Cardiovascular events:[US Boxed Warning]: NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious (and potentially fatal) adverse cardiovascular thrombotic events, including MI and stroke. Risk may occur early during treatment and may increase with duration of use. Relative risk appears to be similar in those with and without known cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however, absolute incidence of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events (which may occur early during treatment) was higher in patients with known cardiovascular disease or risk factors and in those receiving higher doses. New onset hypertension or exacerbation of hypertension may occur (NSAIDs may also impair response to ACE inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, or loop diuretics); may contribute to cardiovascular events; monitor blood pressure; use with caution in patients with hypertension. May cause sodium and fluid retention, use with caution in patients with edema. Avoid use in heart failure (ACCF/AHA [Yancy 2013]). Avoid use in patients with a recent MI unless benefits outweigh risk of cardiovascular thrombotic events. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time, consistent with individual patient goals, to reduce risk of cardiovascular events; alternate therapies should be considered for patients at high risk.

• CNS effects: May cause drowsiness, dizziness, blurred vision, and other neurologic effects which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks which require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery or driving).

• GI events: [US Boxed Warning]: NSAIDs cause increased risk of serious GI inflammation, ulceration, bleeding, and perforation (may be fatal); elderly patients and patients with history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding are at greater risk of serious GI events. These events may occur at any time during therapy and without warning. Avoid use in patients with active GI bleeding. In patients with a history of acute lower GI bleeding, avoid use of non-aspirin NSAIDs, especially if due to angioectasia or diverticulosis (Strate 2016). Use caution with a history of GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, concurrent therapy known to increase the risk of GI bleeding (eg, aspirin, anticoagulants and/or corticosteroids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), advanced hepatic disease, coagulopathy, smoking, use of alcohol, or in the elderly or debilitated patients. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time, consistent with individual patient goals, to reduce risk of GI adverse events; alternate therapies should be considered for patients at high risk. When used concomitantly with aspirin, a substantial increase in the risk of GI complications (eg, ulcer) occurs; concomitant gastroprotective therapy (eg, proton pump inhibitors) is recommended (Bhatt 2008).

• Hepatic effects: Transaminase elevations have been reported with use; closely monitor patients with any abnormal LFT. Rare (sometimes fatal) severe hepatic reactions (eg, jaundice, fulminant hepatitis, hepatic necrosis, hepatic failure) have occurred with NSAID use; discontinue immediately if signs or symptoms of hepatic disease develop or if systemic manifestations occur.

• Hyperkalemia: NSAID use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, particularly in the elderly, diabetics, renal disease, and with concomitant use of other agents capable of inducing hyperkalemia (eg, ACE-inhibitors). Monitor potassium closely.

• Hypersensitivity reactions: [US Boxed Warning]: Ketorolac injection is contraindicated in patients with prior hypersensitivity reaction to aspirin or NSAIDs. Even in patients without prior exposure, hypersensitivity including bronchospasm and anaphylactic shock, may occur; patients with "aspirin triad" (bronchial asthma, aspirin intolerance, rhinitis) may be at increased risk. Contraindicated in patients who experience bronchospasm, asthma, rhinitis, or urticaria with NSAID or aspirin therapy.

• Renal effects: NSAID use may compromise existing renal function; dose-dependent decreases in prostaglandin synthesis may result from NSAID use, reducing renal blood flow, which may cause renal decompensation (usually reversible). Patients with impaired renal function, dehydration, hypovolemia, heart failure, hepatic impairment, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and the elderly are at greater risk of renal toxicity. Rehydrate patient before starting therapy; monitor renal function closely. Acute renal failure, interstitial nephritis, and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with ketorolac use; papillary necrosis and renal injury have been reported with long-term use of NSAIDs.

• Skin reactions: NSAIDs may cause potentially fatal serious skin adverse events including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN); may occur without warning; discontinue use at first sign of skin rash (or any other hypersensitivity).

Disease-related concerns:

• Aseptic meningitis: May increase the risk of aseptic meningitis, especially in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disorders.

• Asthma: Contraindicated in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma; severe and potentially fatal bronchospasm may occur. Use caution in patients with other forms of asthma.

• Bariatric surgery: Gastric ulceration: Avoid chronic use of oral nonselective NSAIDs after bariatric surgery; development of anastomotic ulcerations/perforations may occur (Bhangu 2014; Mechanick 2013). Short-term use of celecoxib or IV ketorolac are recommended as part of a multimodal pain management strategy for postoperative pain (Chou 2016; Horsley 2019; Thorell 2016).

• Coronary artery bypass graft surgery/major surgery: [US Boxed Warning]: Use is contraindicated as prophylactic analgesic before any major surgery and is contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Risk of MI and stroke may be increased with use following CABG surgery. Wound bleeding and postoperative hematomas have been associated with ketorolac use in the perioperative setting.

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment or a history of hepatic disease; patients with advanced hepatic disease are at an increased risk of GI bleeding with NSAIDs.

• Renal impairment: [US Boxed Warning]: Ketorolac is contraindicated in patients with advanced renal impairment and in patients at risk for renal failure due to volume depletion. Use with caution in patients with renal impairment or history of kidney disease. Dosage adjustment is required in patients with moderate elevation in serum creatinine.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Aspirin/other NSAIDs: [US Boxed Warning]: Concurrent use of ketorolac with aspirin or other NSAIDs is contraindicated due to the increased risk of adverse reactions.

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Elderly: [US Boxed Warning]: Dosage adjustment is required for patients ≥65 years of age. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious GI, cardiovascular, and/or renal adverse events; use with caution.

• Labor and delivery: [US Boxed Warning]: Ketorolac is contraindicated during labor and delivery (may inhibit uterine contractions and adversely affect fetal circulation).

• Low body weight: [US Boxed Warning]: Dosage adjustment is required for patients weighing <50 kg (<110 pounds).

• Pediatric: [US Boxed Warning]: Ketorolac is not indicated for use in pediatric patients.

Dosage form specific issues:

• Oral: [US Boxed Warning]: Oral therapy is only indicated for use as continuation treatment, following parenteral ketorolac and is not indicated for minor or chronic painful conditions.

• Oral/injection: [US Boxed Warning]: Systemic ketorolac is indicated for short term (≤5 days) use in adults for treatment of moderately severe acute pain requiring opioid-level analgesia. The combined therapy duration (oral and parenteral) should not exceed 5 days due to the increased risk of serious adverse events.

• Injection: [US Boxed Warning]: Ketorolac injection is contraindicated for epidural or intrathecal administration (formulation contains alcohol).

Other warnings/precautions:

• Surgical/dental procedures: Withhold for at least 4 to 6 half-lives prior to surgical or dental procedures.

Monitoring Parameters

Monitor response (pain, range of motion, grip strength, mobility, ADL function), inflammation; observe for weight gain, edema; monitor renal function (serum creatinine, BUN, urine output); CBC and platelets, liver function tests; chemistry profile; blood pressure; observe for bleeding, bruising; evaluate gastrointestinal effects (abdominal pain, bleeding, dyspepsia); mental confusion, disorientation

Pregnancy Risk Factor

C

Pregnancy Considerations

[US Boxed Warning]: Ketorolac is contraindicated during labor and delivery (may inhibit uterine contractions and adversely affect fetal circulation).

Ketorolac crosses the placenta (Walker 1988). Birth defects have been observed following in utero NSAID exposure in some studies; however, data is conflicting (Bloor 2013). Nonteratogenic effects, including prenatal constriction of the ductus arteriosus, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, oligohydramnios, necrotizing enterocolitis, renal dysfunction or failure, and intracranial hemorrhage have been observed in the fetus/neonate following in utero NSAID exposure. In addition, nonclosure of the ductus arteriosus postnatally may occur and be resistant to medical management (Bermas 2014; Bloor 2013). Because they may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus, the use of NSAIDs late in pregnancy should be avoided.

Due to pregnancy-induced physiologic changes, some pharmacokinetic properties of ketorolac may be altered (Välitalo 2017).

NSAIDs may be used as part of multimodal pain management following cesarean delivery. Use of a specific agent should consider potential breastfeeding status (ACOG 209 2019; Carvalho 2017; Sutton 2017).

The chronic use of NSAIDs in women of reproductive age may be associated with infertility that is reversible upon discontinuation of the medication. Consider discontinuing use in women having difficulty conceiving or those undergoing investigation of fertility. The use of NSAIDs close to conception may be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage (Bermas 2014; Bloor 2013).

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to ease pain.

Frequently reported side effects of this drug

• Nausea

• Abdominal pain

• Heartburn

Other side effects of this drug: Talk with your doctor right away if you have any of these signs of:

• Abdominal ulcers like severe abdominal or back pain; black, tarry, or bloody stools; vomiting blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; or weight gain or abnormal swelling

• Bleeding like vomiting blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds; coughing up blood; hematuria; black, red, or tarry stools; bleeding from the gums; abnormal vaginal bleeding; bruises without a reason or that get bigger; or any severe or persistent bleeding

• Liver problems like dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice

• Severe cerebrovascular disease like change in strength on one side is greater than the other, difficulty speaking or thinking, change in balance, or vision changes

• Kidney problems like urinary retention, hematuria, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain

• Chest pain

• Shortness of breath

• Excessive weight gain

• Swelling of arms or legs

• Severe headache

• Loss of strength and energy

• Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis like red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin (with or without fever); red or irritated eyes; or sores in your mouth, throat, nose, or eyes.

• Signs of a significant reaction like wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this medicine. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. You must talk with the healthcare provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Related questions

Hide