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Cyproheptadine

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Sep 26, 2020.

Pronunciation

(si proe HEP ta deen)

Index Terms

  • Cyproheptadine HCl
  • Cyproheptadine Hydrochloride
  • Periactin

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Syrup, Oral, as hydrochloride:

Generic: 2 mg/5 mL (10 mL [DSC], 473 mL)

Tablet, Oral, as hydrochloride:

Generic: 4 mg

Pharmacologic Category

  • Histamine H1 Antagonist
  • Histamine H1 Antagonist, First Generation
  • Piperidine Derivative

Pharmacology

A potent antihistamine and serotonin antagonist with anticholinergic effects; competes with histamine for H1-receptor sites on effector cells in the gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels, and respiratory tract (Paton 1985).

Absorption

Well absorbed (Graudins 1998)

Metabolism

Primarily by hepatic glucuronidation to metabolites (Hintze 1975)

Excretion

Urine (~40% primarily as metabolites); feces (2% to 20%, <6% as unchanged drug)

Time to Peak

Plasma: Metabolites: 6 to 9 hours (Paton 1985)

Half-Life Elimination

Metabolites: ~16 hours (Paton 1985)

Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment

Elimination is diminished in renal insufficiency.

Use: Labeled Indications

Allergic conditions: Perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis; vasomotor rhinitis; allergic conjunctivitis caused by inhalant allergens and foods; mild, uncomplicated allergic skin manifestations of urticaria and angioedema; amelioration of allergic reactions to blood or plasma; cold urticaria; dermatographism; adjunctive anaphylactic therapy.

Off Label Uses

Decreased appetite secondary to chronic disease

Data from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials support the use of cyproheptadine in the treatment of decreased appetite secondary to chronic disease [Homnick 2004], [Homnick 2005], [Kardinal 1990].

Serotonin syndrome

Data from a limited number of patients studied (case series) suggests that cyproheptadine may be beneficial for the treatment of serotonin syndrome [Graudins 1998]. Clinical experience also suggests the utility of cyproheptadine for the treatment of this condition [Boyer 2005], [Sun-Edelstein 2008]. Additional data may be necessary to further define the role of cyproheptadine in the treatment of this condition.

Spasticity associated with spinal cord damage

Data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial supports the use of cyproheptadine in the treatment of spasticity associated with spinal cord damage [Wainberg 1990]. Additional trials may be necessary to define the role of cyproheptadine in this condition.

Contraindications

Use in newborn or premature infants or breast-feeding mothers; hypersensitivity to cyproheptadine or any component of the formulation; monoamine oxidase inhibitor therapy; angle-closure glaucoma; stenosing peptic ulcer; symptomatic prostatic hypertrophy; bladder neck obstruction; pyloroduodenal obstruction; elderly, debilitated patients.

Dosing: Adult

Allergic conditions: Oral: Initial: 4 mg 3 times daily; maintenance: 4 to 20 mg daily in divided doses; maximum: 0.5 mg/kg/day; some patients may require up to 32 mg/day for adequate control of symptoms

Decreased appetite secondary to chronic disease (off-label use): Oral: Initial: 2 mg 4 times per day for one week, then 4 mg 4 times per day (Homnick 2004; Homnick 2005)

Serotonin syndrome (off-label use): Oral: Initial: 12 mg followed by 2 mg every 2 hours or 4 to 8 mg every 6 hours as needed for symptom control (Boyer 2005; Sun-Edelstein 2008)

Spasticity associated with spinal cord damage (off-label use): Oral: Initial: 2 to 4 mg every 8 hours; maximum: 8 mg every 8 hours (Barbeau 1982; Wainberg 1990)

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Avoid use (Beers Criteria [AGS 2019]).

Dosing: Pediatric

Allergic conditions (nonacute):

Weight-directed or BSA-directed dosing: Children ≥2 years and Adolescents: Oral: 0.25 mg/kg/day or 8 mg/m2/day in 2 to 3 divided doses.

Fixed dosing:

2 to 6 years: Oral: 2 mg every 8 to 12 hours; maximum daily dose: 12 mg/day.

7 to 14 years: Oral: 4 mg every 8 to 12 hours; maximum daily dose: 16 mg/day.

≥15 years: Initial: Oral: 4 mg every 8 hours; titrate to effect; usual range: 12 to 16 mg/day although some patients may require up to 32 mg; maximum daily dose: 0.5 mg/kg/day.

Appetite stimulation: Limited data available; dosing regimens variable (Harrison 2019):

Weight-directed dosing: Children ≥2 years and Adolescents: Oral: 0.25 mg/kg/day divided twice daily; age-dependent maximum daily dose: ≤6 years: 12 mg/day; 7 to 14 years: 16 mg/day; ≥15 years: 32 mg/day. Dosing based on an open-label trial of 66 pediatric cancer patients (median age: 11.7 years; range: 3 to 19 years) which reported 76% response rate (either weight gained or stabilized); mean weight gain: 2.6 kg (range: −0.1 to 10 kg); in a subset analysis, patients >9 years showed a greater response than younger patients as did patients with hematologic malignancies (Couluris 2008). In malnourished patients (n=77, ages 2 to 5 years), use was associated with significantly higher BMI compared to controls after 8 weeks of therapy (Najib 2014). In patients with multifactorial feeding problems (eg, cleft palate, neurodevelopmental disorders), cyproheptadine improved mealtime and feeding behaviors as well as weight for age z-scores. (Sant'Anna 2014).

Fixed dosing: Children ≥5 years and Adolescents: Oral: Initial: 2 mg every 6 hours (4 times daily) for 1 week; if tolerated, increase dose to 4 mg every 6 to 8 hours; one trial did not titrate dosing and started with target maintenance dose (4 mg three times daily) (Epifanio 2012; Homnick 2004; Homnick 2005). Dosing based on a short-term (12-week) double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (n=8 treatment group) and a long-term (1-year) open-label trial (n=12) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF); results showed significant increases in weight gain (3.4 kg vs 1.1 kg in placebo); long-term results showed a generally sustained effect (eg, no further weight loss or some additional weight gain) over study duration (Homnick 2004; Homnick 2005). A placebo-controlled trial including 25 patients with CF (age ≥5 years) utilized a 12 mg/day dose (4 mg 3 times daily); after 12 weeks of therapy, use was associated with significant increase in weight compared to placebo (1.61 kg vs 0.67 kg) (Epifanio 2012).

Cyclic vomiting syndrome; prevention: Limited data available: Children 2 to <5 years: Oral: 0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg/day in divided doses once or twice daily (Li 2018); some patients may require doses divided 3 times daily (Andersen 1997); maximum daily dose: 12 mg/day; some clinicians have used once-daily dose at bedtime to prevent daytime sedation (Li 2018).

Functional abdominal pain (dyspeptic syndrome); refractory: Limited data available: Infants ≥9 months, Children, and Adolescents ≤14 years: Oral: Reported range: 0.04 to 0.6 mg/kg/day in divided doses 2 to 3 times daily (Madani 2016; Rodriguez 2013; Sadeghian 2008); age-dependent maximum daily doses: Infants and Children 2 to 6 years: 12 mg/day; Children and Adolescents 7 to 14 years: 16 mg/day (Madani 2016; Sadeghian 2008; manufacturer's labeling). Dosing based on prospective and retrospective trials. In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial including 29 patients with functional abdominal pain (age range: 2 to 14 years; n= 15 treatment group), results showed significant improvement in pain frequency and intensity with 2 weeks of cyproheptadine (0.25 to 0.5 mg/kg/day divided twice daily) compared to placebo (Sadeghian 2008). A retrospective, open-label trial of 80 pediatric patients (median age: 9.8 years; range: 9 months to 20 years) with dyspeptic symptoms (eg, nausea, early satiety, abdominal pain, retching after fundoplication and vomiting) which failed to respond to conventional therapy received 0.04 to 0.6 mg/kg/day of cyproheptadine (median effective dose: 0.22 mg/kg/day); the observed response rate was 55%; a higher response rate (86%) was seen with patients who experienced retching post-Nissen fundoplication (Rodriguez 2013).

Migraine; prevention: Limited data available: Children ≥3 years and Adolescents: Oral: Usual range: 0.2 to 0.4 mg/kg/day divided twice daily; doses up to 1.5 mg/kg/day in divided doses 2 to 3 times daily have also been reported (Brenner 2008; Kacperski 2016; Kliegman 2020; Lewis 2006); age-dependent maximum daily doses: Children 3 to 6 years: 12 mg/day; Children ≥7 years and Adolescents: 16 mg/day (Lewis 2006; manufacturer's labeling); experience suggests younger patients more tolerant of common cyproheptadine side effects (ie, sedation, increased appetite) (Lewis 2004; Lewis 2004a).

Spasticity associated with spinal cord damage: Limited data available; efficacy results variable: Oral: Children ≥12 years and Adolescents: 4 mg at bedtime; increase by a 4 mg dose every 3 to 4 days; mean daily dose: 16 mg/day in divided doses; maximum daily dose: 36 mg/day (Gracies 1997). In the most rigorous evaluation, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of 16 hemiplegic pediatric patients (age range: 4 to 18 years), cyproheptadine (relatively low dose: 1 to 2 mg/day) had no statistical evidence of an effect on gait nor improvement in spasticity parameters (Khodadadeh 1998).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Storage

Oral syrup: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); protect from light.

Oral tablets: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F).

Drug Interactions

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Aclidinium: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Avoid combination

Alcohol (Ethyl): CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Alcohol (Ethyl). Monitor therapy

Alizapride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Amantadine: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Monitor therapy

Amezinium: Antihistamines may enhance the stimulatory effect of Amezinium. Monitor therapy

Amphetamines: May diminish the sedative effect of Antihistamines. Monitor therapy

Anticholinergic Agents: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other Anticholinergic Agents. Monitor therapy

Azelastine (Nasal): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Avoid combination

Benzylpenicilloyl Polylysine: Antihistamines may diminish the diagnostic effect of Benzylpenicilloyl Polylysine. Management: Suspend systemic H1 antagonists for benzylpenicilloyl-polylysine skin testing and delay testing until systemic antihistaminic effects have dissipated. A histamine skin test may be used to assess persistent antihistaminic effects. Consider therapy modification

Betahistine: Antihistamines may diminish the therapeutic effect of Betahistine. Monitor therapy

Blonanserin: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Blonanserin. Management: Use caution if coadministering blonanserin and CNS depressants; dose reduction of the other CNS depressant may be required. Strong CNS depressants should not be coadministered with blonanserin. Consider therapy modification

Botulinum Toxin-Containing Products: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Monitor therapy

Brexanolone: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Brexanolone. Monitor therapy

Brimonidine (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Bromopride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Bromperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Avoid combination

Buprenorphine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Buprenorphine. Management: Consider reduced doses of other CNS depressants, and avoiding such drugs in patients at high risk of buprenorphine overuse/self-injection. Initiate buprenorphine at lower doses in patients already receiving CNS depressants. Consider therapy modification

Cannabidiol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Chloral Betaine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Monitor therapy

Chlormethiazole: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Monitor closely for evidence of excessive CNS depression. The chlormethiazole labeling states that an appropriately reduced dose should be used if such a combination must be used. Consider therapy modification

Chlorphenesin Carbamate: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Cimetropium: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Cimetropium. Avoid combination

CloZAPine: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the constipating effect of CloZAPine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination whenever possible. If combined, monitor closely for signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal hypomotility and consider prophylactic laxative treatment. Consider therapy modification

CNS Depressants: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of other CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Dimethindene (Topical): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Doxylamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: The manufacturer of Diclegis (doxylamine/pyridoxine), intended for use in pregnancy, specifically states that use with other CNS depressants is not recommended. Monitor therapy

Dronabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Droperidol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Consider dose reductions of droperidol or of other CNS agents (eg, opioids, barbiturates) with concomitant use. Consider therapy modification

Eluxadoline: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the constipating effect of Eluxadoline. Avoid combination

Esketamine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Fenfluramine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of Cyproheptadine. Cyproheptadine may diminish the therapeutic effect of Fenfluramine. Monitor therapy

Flunitrazepam: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Flunitrazepam. Management: Reduce the dose of CNS depressants when combined with flunitrazepam and monitor patients for evidence of CNS depression (eg, sedation, respiratory depression). Use non-CNS depressant alternatives when available. Consider therapy modification

Gastrointestinal Agents (Prokinetic): Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Gastrointestinal Agents (Prokinetic). Monitor therapy

Glucagon: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Glucagon. Specifically, the risk of gastrointestinal adverse effects may be increased. Monitor therapy

Glycopyrrolate (Oral Inhalation): Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Glycopyrrolate (Oral Inhalation). Avoid combination

Glycopyrronium (Topical): May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Avoid combination

Hyaluronidase: Antihistamines may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hyaluronidase. Consider therapy modification

HydrOXYzine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Ipratropium (Oral Inhalation): May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Avoid combination

Itopride: Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Itopride. Monitor therapy

Kava Kava: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Lemborexant: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Dosage adjustments of lemborexant and of concomitant CNS depressants may be necessary when administered together because of potentially additive CNS depressant effects. Close monitoring for CNS depressant effects is necessary. Consider therapy modification

Levosulpiride: Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Levosulpiride. Avoid combination

Lisuride: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Lofexidine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Magnesium Sulfate: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Methotrimeprazine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Methotrimeprazine. Methotrimeprazine may enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Reduce the usual dose of CNS depressants by 50% if starting methotrimeprazine until the dose of methotrimeprazine is stable. Monitor patient closely for evidence of CNS depression. Consider therapy modification

Metoclopramide: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

MetyroSINE: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of MetyroSINE. Monitor therapy

Mianserin: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Monitor therapy

Minocycline (Systemic): May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Mirabegron: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Mirabegron. Monitor therapy

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Cyproheptadine. Cyproheptadine may diminish the serotonergic effect of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors. Avoid combination

Nabilone: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Nitroglycerin: Anticholinergic Agents may decrease the absorption of Nitroglycerin. Specifically, anticholinergic agents may decrease the dissolution of sublingual nitroglycerin tablets, possibly impairing or slowing nitroglycerin absorption. Monitor therapy

Opioid Agonists: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Opioid Agonists. Management: Avoid concomitant use of opioid agonists and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

Orphenadrine: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Orphenadrine. Avoid combination

Oxatomide: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Avoid combination

Oxomemazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Avoid combination

Oxybate Salt Products: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Oxybate Salt Products. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, dose reduction or discontinuation of one or more CNS depressants (including the oxybate salt product) should be considered. Interrupt oxybate salt treatment during short-term opioid use Consider therapy modification

OxyCODONE: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of OxyCODONE. Management: Avoid concomitant use of oxycodone and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants when possible. These agents should only be combined if alternative treatment options are inadequate. If combined, limit the dosages and duration of each drug. Consider therapy modification

Paraldehyde: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Paraldehyde. Avoid combination

Perampanel: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Management: Patients taking perampanel with any other drug that has CNS depressant activities should avoid complex and high-risk activities, particularly those such as driving that require alertness and coordination, until they have experience using the combination. Consider therapy modification

Piribedil: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Piribedil. Monitor therapy

Pitolisant: Antihistamines may diminish the therapeutic effect of Pitolisant. Avoid combination

Potassium Chloride: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the ulcerogenic effect of Potassium Chloride. Management: Patients on drugs with substantial anticholinergic effects should avoid using any solid oral dosage form of potassium chloride. Avoid combination

Potassium Citrate: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the ulcerogenic effect of Potassium Citrate. Avoid combination

Pramipexole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Pramipexole. Monitor therapy

Pramlintide: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. These effects are specific to the GI tract. Avoid combination

Ramosetron: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the constipating effect of Ramosetron. Monitor therapy

Revefenacin: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Revefenacin. Avoid combination

ROPINIRole: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of ROPINIRole. Monitor therapy

Rotigotine: CNS Depressants may enhance the sedative effect of Rotigotine. Monitor therapy

Rufinamide: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of CNS Depressants. Specifically, sleepiness and dizziness may be enhanced. Monitor therapy

Secretin: Anticholinergic Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Secretin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of anticholinergic agents and secretin. Discontinue anticholinergic agents at least 5 half-lives prior to administration of secretin. Consider therapy modification

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: Cyproheptadine may diminish the therapeutic effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Monitor therapy

Suvorexant: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Suvorexant. Management: Dose reduction of suvorexant and/or any other CNS depressant may be necessary. Use of suvorexant with alcohol is not recommended, and the use of suvorexant with any other drug to treat insomnia is not recommended. Consider therapy modification

Tetrahydrocannabinol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Thalidomide: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Thalidomide. Avoid combination

Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: Anticholinergic Agents may increase the serum concentration of Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics. Monitor therapy

Tiotropium: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the anticholinergic effect of Tiotropium. Avoid combination

Topiramate: Anticholinergic Agents may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Topiramate. Monitor therapy

Trimeprazine: May enhance the CNS depressant effect of CNS Depressants. Monitor therapy

Umeclidinium: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Avoid combination

Zolpidem: CNS Depressants may enhance the CNS depressant effect of Zolpidem. Management: Reduce the Intermezzo brand sublingual zolpidem adult dose to 1.75 mg for men who are also receiving other CNS depressants. No such dose change is recommended for women. Avoid use with other CNS depressants at bedtime; avoid use with alcohol. Consider therapy modification

Test Interactions

Diagnostic antigen skin test results may be suppressed; false positive serum TCA screen (Wians 1993)

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse drug reactions and incidences are derived from product labeling unless otherwise specified.

Frequency not defined.

Cardiovascular: Extrasystoles, hypotension, palpitations, tachycardia

Central nervous system: Ataxia, chills, confusion, dizziness, drowsiness, euphoria, excitement, fatigue, hallucination, headache, hysteria, insomnia, irritability, nervousness, neuritis, paresthesia, restlessness, sedation, seizure, vertigo

Dermatologic: Diaphoresis, skin photosensitivity, skin rash, urticaria

Gastrointestinal: Abdominal pain, anorexia, cholestasis, constipation, diarrhea, increased appetite, nausea, vomiting, xerostomia

Genitourinary: Difficulty in micturition, urinary frequency, urinary retention

Hematologic & oncologic: Agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia

Hepatic: Hepatic failure, hepatitis, jaundice

Hypersensitivity: Anaphylactic shock, angioedema, hypersensitivity reaction

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Tremor

Ophthalmic: Blurred vision, diplopia

Otic: Labyrinthitis (acute), tinnitus

Respiratory: Nasal congestion, pharyngitis, thickening of bronchial secretions

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• CNS depression: May cause CNS depression, which may impair physical or mental abilities; patients must be cautioned about performing tasks which require mental alertness (eg, operating machinery or driving).

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiovascular disease: Use with caution in patients with cardiovascular disease (including hypertension and ischemic heart disease).

• Increased intraocular pressure: Use with caution in patients with increased intraocular pressure.

• Respiratory disease: Use with caution in patients with asthma or other chronic breathing disorders.

• Thyroid dysfunction: Use with caution in patients with thyroid dysfunction.

Special populations:

• Elderly: Antihistamines are more likely to cause dizziness, sedation and hypotension in elderly patients.

• Pediatric: Antihistamines may cause excitation in young children.

Pregnancy Risk Factor

B

Pregnancy Considerations

Per the product labeling, an increased risk of congenital abnormalities was not observed following maternal use of cyproheptadine during the first, second, or third trimesters in two studies of pregnant women; however, the possibility of harm cannot be ruled out.

Although cyproheptadine is approved for the treatment of allergic conditions, such as rhinitis, pruritus, and urticaria, other agents are preferred for use in pregnant women (BSACI [Scadding 2017]; Murase 2014; Zuberbier 2018).

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to ease allergy signs.

• It is used to treat hives.

• It may be given to you for other reasons. Talk with the doctor.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Fatigue

• Headache

• Diarrhea

• Vomiting

• Abdominal pain

• Constipation

• Dry mouth

• Dry nose

• Runny nose

• Anxiety

• Nausea

• Tremors

• Trouble sleeping

• Lack of appetite

• Increased appetite

• Weight gain

• Restlessness

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Liver problems like dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or yellow skin or eyes

• Severe dizziness

• Passing out

• Fast heartbeat

• Abnormal heartbeat

• Trouble urinating

• Change in amount of urine passed

• Severe loss of strength and energy

• Confusion

• Change in balance

• Burning or numbness feeling

• Vision changes

• Noise or ringing in the ears

• Sweating a lot

• Menstrual changes

• Sensing things that seem real but are not

• Irritability

• Mood changes

• Seizures

• Chills

• Sore throat

• Bruising

• Bleeding

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

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