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Clarithromycin

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jan 12, 2019.

Pronunciation

(kla RITH roe mye sin)

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Suspension Reconstituted, Oral:

Biaxin: 250 mg/5 mL (50 mL [DSC])

Biaxin: 250 mg/5 mL (100 mL [DSC]) [fruit punch flavor]

Generic: 125 mg/5 mL (50 mL, 100 mL); 250 mg/5 mL (50 mL, 100 mL)

Tablet, Oral:

Biaxin: 250 mg [DSC] [contains brilliant blue fcf (fd&c blue #1), fd&c yellow #10 (quinoline yellow)]

Biaxin: 500 mg [DSC] [contains fd&c yellow #10 (quinoline yellow)]

Generic: 250 mg, 500 mg

Tablet Extended Release 24 Hour, Oral:

Generic: 500 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Biaxin [DSC]

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antibiotic, Macrolide

Pharmacology

Exerts its antibacterial action by binding to 50S ribosomal subunit resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis. The 14-OH metabolite of clarithromycin is twice as active as the parent compound against certain organisms.

Absorption

Immediate release: Rapid; food delays rate, but not extent of absorption

Extended-release: Fasting is associated with ~30% lower AUC relative to administration with food

Distribution

Widely distributes into most body tissues; manufacturer reports no data in regards to CNS penetration

Metabolism

Partially hepatic via CYP3A4; converted to 14-OH clarithromycin (active metabolite); undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism

Excretion

Primarily urine (20% to 40% as unchanged drug; additional 10% to 15% as metabolite); feces (29% to 40% mostly as metabolites) (Ferrero, 1990)

Clearance: Approximates normal GFR

Time to Peak

Immediate release: 2-3 hours; Extended release: 5-8 hours

Half-Life Elimination

Immediate release: Clarithromycin: 3-7 hours; 14-OH-clarithromycin: 5-9 hours

Protein Binding

42% to 70% (Peters, 1992)

Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin were altered in subjects with impaired renal function.

Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment

The 14-OH clarithromycin concentrations were lower in subjects with hepatic impairment but may be partially offset by an increase in renal clearance of clarithromycin.

Use: Labeled Indications

Bronchitis, acute bacterial exacerbation: Treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis in adults due to susceptible Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, or Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Helicobacter pylori eradication: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer recurrence as a component of combination therapy (triple therapy) in adults with H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease (active or 5-year history of duodenal ulcer).

Limitations of use: Regimens that contain clarithromycin as the single antibacterial agent are more likely to be associated with the development of clarithromycin resistance. Clarithromycin-containing regimens should not be used in patients with known or suspected clarithromycin-resistant isolates (efficacy is reduced).

Mycobacterial infection, disseminated: Prophylaxis and treatment of disseminated mycobacterial infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in patients with advanced HIV infection.

Otitis media: Treatment of acute otitis media in pediatric patients due to susceptible H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, or S. pneumoniae.

Pharyngitis/tonsillitis: Treatment of pharyngitis/tonsillitis due to susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes (alternative agent).

Pneumonia, community-acquired: Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia due to susceptible Mycoplasma pneumoniae, S. pneumoniae, or Chlamydophila pneumoniae (adult and pediatric patients) and H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, or M. catarrhalis (adults).

Skin/skin structure infections: Treatment of uncomplicated skin/skin structure infection due to susceptible Staphylococcus aureus or S. pyogenes.

Off Label Uses

Bartonella spp. infection

Based on the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents, clarithromycin given for the treatment of or as long-term suppressive therapy of bartonellosis infection is an effective and recommended alternative agent in the management of this condition.

Clinical experience also suggests the utility of clarithromycin for the treatment of cat scratch disease [Spach 2019].

Infective endocarditis (prophylaxis)

Based on the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis, clarithromycin is an effective and recommended alternative antibiotic for prophylaxis of infective endocarditis in patients with certain cardiac conditions who are allergic to penicillins or ampicillin and undergoing dental or respiratory tract procedures.

Lyme disease

Based on the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for the clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and babesiosis, clarithromycin given as an alternative therapy for Lyme disease is effective and recommended in the management of this condition.

Pertussis

Based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for treatment and postexposure prophylaxis of pertussis, clarithromycin given for pertussis is effective and recommended in the management of this condition.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to clarithromycin, erythromycin, any of the macrolide antibiotics, or any component of the formulation; history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with prior use of clarithromycin; concomitant use with cisapride, pimozide, ergot alkaloids (eg, ergotamine, dihydroergotamine), or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors extensively metabolized by CYP3A4 (eg, lovastatin, simvastatin); concomitant use with colchicine in patients with renal or hepatic impairment

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Severe hepatic failure in combination with renal impairment; history of QT prolongation (congenital or documented acquired QT prolongation or ventricular cardiac arrhythmia, including torsades de pointes; hypokalemia; concomitant use with saquinavir, midazolam (oral), colchicine (regardless of hepatic/renal impairment), ticagrelor; concomitant use with astemizole, domperidone, terfenadine, or ranolazine (not available in Canada)

Dosing: Adult

Usual dosage range: Oral: 250 to 500 mg every 12 hours or 1000 mg (two 500 mg extended-release tablets) once daily for 7 to 14 days.

Bronchitis, acute bacterial exacerbation: Oral:

M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae: 250 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days or 1,000 mg (two 500 mg extended-release tablets) once daily for 7 days.

H. influenzae: 500 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days or 1,000 mg (two 500 mg extended-release tablets) once daily for 7 days.

H. parainfluenzae: 500 mg every 12 hours for 7 days or 1,000 mg (two 500 mg extended-release tablets) once daily for 7 days.

Bartonella spp. infection (off-label use): Oral:

Bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatitis, bacteremia, or osteomyelitis in HIV-infected patients:

Treatment (alternative agent): 500 mg twice daily for at least 3 months (HHS [OI adult] 2019).

Long-term suppressive therapy: 500 mg twice daily; may discontinue if completed 3 to 4 months therapy and CD4 >200 cells/mm3 for at least 6 months. Note: Some clinicians would discontinue only if Bartonella titers have also decreased four-fold (HHS [OI adult] 2019).

Cat scratch disease (alternative agent): 500 mg twice daily for 7 to 10 days (Spach 2019).

H. pylori eradication: Oral:

American College of Gastroenterology guidelines (Chey 2007; Chey 2017):

Clarithromycin triple therapy: 500 mg twice daily, in combination with a standard-dose or double-dose proton pump inhibitor, and either amoxicillin 1 g twice daily or metronidazole 500 mg three times daily; continue regimen for 14 days. Note: Avoid use of clarithromycin triple therapy in patients with risk factors for macrolide resistance (eg, prior macrolide exposure, local clarithromycin resistance rates ≥15%, which is assumed in the United States) (ACG [Chey 2017]; Fallone 2016).

Concomitant regimen: 500 mg twice daily in combination with amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and a standard-dose proton pump inhibitor twice daily, and either metronidazole or tinidazole 500 mg twice daily; continue treatment for 10 to 14 days.

Sequential regimen: Amoxicillin 1 g twice daily plus a standard-dose proton pump inhibitor twice daily for 5 to 7 days; then follow with clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily, and a standard-dose proton pump inhibitor twice daily, and either metronidazole or tinidazole 500 mg twice daily for 5 to 7 days.

Hybrid regimen: Amoxicillin 1 g twice daily plus a standard-dose proton pump inhibitor twice daily for 7 days; then follow with amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily, a standard-dose PPI twice daily, and either metronidazole or tinidazole 500 mg twice daily for 7 days.

Lyme disease (off-label use): Oral: 500 mg twice daily for 14 to 21 days (not recommended for pregnant women) (IDSA [Wormser 2006]).

Mycobacterial (nontuberculous) infection:

Mycobacterium avium complex disease (MAC) in HIV-infected patients:

Treatment: Oral: 500 mg twice daily as part of an appropriate combination regimen (HHS [OI adult] 2019).

Primary prophylaxis (patients with CD4 count <50 cells/mm3who are not initiated on fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy [ART]): Oral: 500 mg twice daily; may discontinue prophylaxis when patient is initiated on effective ART (HHS [OI adult] 2019; IAS-USA [Saag 2018]).

Secondary prophylaxis: Oral: 500 mg twice daily as part of an appropriate combination regimen; may discontinue when patient has completed ≥12 months of therapy, has no signs/symptoms of MAC disease, and has sustained (>6 months) CD4 count >100 cells/mm3 in response to ART (HHS [OI adult] 2019).

Pertussis (off-label use): Oral: 500 mg twice daily for 7 days (CDC 2005).

Pneumonia, community-acquired: Oral:

Manufacturer's labeling:

C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, and S. pneumoniae: 250 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days or 1,000 mg (two 500 mg extended-release tablets) once daily for 7 days.

H. influenzae: 250 mg every 12 hours for 7 days or 1,000 mg (two 500 mg extended-release tablets) once daily for 7 days.

H. parainfluenzae and M. catarrhalis: 1000 mg (two 500 mg extended-release tablets) once daily for 7 days.

Alternate dosing:

Outpatient empiric therapy: 500 mg twice daily for 5 days, in combination with a beta-lactam (Lim 2009; Mandell 2007).

Prophylaxis against infective endocarditis (off-label use): Oral: 500 mg 30 to 60 minutes prior to procedure. Note: American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines now recommend prophylaxis only in patients undergoing invasive procedures and in whom underlying cardiac conditions may predispose to a higher risk of adverse outcomes should infection occur. As of April 2007, routine prophylaxis for GI/GU procedures is no longer recommended by the AHA (Wilson 2007).

Skin and skin structure infection, uncomplicated: Oral: 250 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days.

Streptococcal pharyngitis (group A) (alternative agent for severely penicillin-allergic patients): Oral: 250 mg every 12 hours for 10 days (IDSA [Shulman 2012]).

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Atazanavir: Decrease clarithromycin dose by 50%.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Dosing: Pediatric

Note: All pediatric dosing recommendations based on immediate release product formulations (tablet and oral suspension):

General dosing, susceptible infection, mild to moderate infection: Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Oral: 15 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours; maximum single dose: 500 mg (Red Book [AAP 2012])

Bartonellosis, treatment and secondary prophylaxis in HIV-exposed/-positive patients (excluding CNS infections and endocarditis): Limited data available: Oral:

Infants and Children: 15 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours for at least 3 months; maximum single dose: 500 mg (CDC 2009)

Adolescents: 500 mg twice daily administered for at least 3 months (DHHS [adult] 2013)

Endocarditis, prophylaxis: Note: AHA guidelines (Baltimore 2015) limit the use of prophylactic antibiotics to patients at the highest risk for infective endocarditis (IE) or adverse outcomes (eg, prosthetic heart valves, patients with previous IE, unrepaired cyanotic congenital heart disease, repaired congenital heart disease with prosthetic material or device during first 6 months after procedure, repaired congenital heart disease with residual defects at the site or adjacent to site of prosthetic patch or device, heart transplant recipients with cardiac valvulopathy):

Dental procedures in patients allergic to penicillins: Limited data available: Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Oral: 15 mg/kg; maximum single dose: 500 mg; administer 30 to 60 minutes before procedure (AHA [Wilson 2007]).

Group A streptococcal infection; rheumatic fever, primary prevention and treatment of streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis: Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Oral: 15 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours for 10 days; maximum single dose: 250 mg (Gerber 2009; IDSA [Shulman 2012])

Helicobacter pylori eradication: Children and Adolescents: Oral: 20 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days. Note: Duration dependent on regimen used; maximum single dose: 500 mg. Administer as part of triple or quadruple combination regimens with amoxicillin and proton pump inhibitor with or without metronidazole (Koletzko 2011)

Lyme disease: Limited data available: Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Oral: 7.5 mg/kg twice daily for 14 to 21 days; maximum single dose: 500 mg (IDSA [Wormser 2006])

Mycobacterium avium complex infection (MAC) (HIV-exposed/-positive):

Infants and Children (DHHS [pediatric] 2013):

Prophylaxis:

Primary prophylaxis: Oral: 15 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours; maximum single dose: 500 mg; to prevent first episode begin therapy at the following CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts (see below):

Infants <12 months: <750 cells/mm3

Children 1 to <2 years: <500 cells/mm3

Children 2 to 5 years: <75 cells/mm3

Children ≥6 years: <50 cells/mm3

Secondary prophylaxis: Oral: 15 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours; maximum single dose: 500 mg; use in combination with ethambutol with or without rifabutin

Treatment: Oral: 15 to 30 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours; maximum single dose: 500 mg; use in combination with ethambutol and if severe infection, rifabutin; follow with chronic suppressive therapy

Adolescents (DHHS [adult] 2013):

Prophylaxis:

Primary prophylaxis: Oral: 500 mg twice daily

Secondary prophylaxis: Oral: 500 mg twice daily plus ethambutol; consider additional agents (eg, rifabutin, aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolone) for CD4 <50 cells/mm3, high mycobacterial load, or ineffective antiretroviral therapy.

Treatment: Oral: 500 mg twice daily in combination with ethambutol: Consider additional agents (eg, rifabutin, aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolone) for CD4 <50 cells/mm3, high mycobacterial load, or ineffective antiretroviral therapy.

Otitis media, acute (AOM): Infants ≥6 months and Children: Oral: 15 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours for 10 days; maximum single dose: 500 mg; Note: Due to increased S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae resistance, clarithromycin is not routinely recommended as a treatment option (AAP [Lieberthal 2013])

Peritonitis (peritoneal dialysis), prophylaxis for patients requiring invasive dental procedures: Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Oral: 15 mg/kg 30 to 60 minutes before dental procedure; maximum single dose: 500 mg (Warady [ISPD 2012])

Pertussis: Infants, Children, and Adolescents: Oral: 15 mg/kg/day divided every 12 hours for 7 days; maximum single dose: 500 mg (CDC [Tiwari 2005])

Pneumonia, community-acquired (CAP); presumed atypical pneumonia (M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis); mild infection or step-down therapy: Infants >3 months, Children, and Adolescents: Oral: 15 mg/kg/day every 12 hours for 10 days; shorter courses may be appropriate for mild disease; maximum single dose: 500 mg; Note: A beta-lactam antibiotic should be added if typical bacterial pneumonia cannot be ruled out (Bradley 2011).

Reconstitution

Granules for suspension: Refer to manufacturer's product labeling for reconstitution instructions. Shake well.

Administration

Immediate release tablets and granules for suspension: Administer with or without meals. Administer every 12 hours rather than twice daily to avoid peak and trough variation. Shake suspension well before each use.

Extended release tablets: Administer with food. Do not break, crush, or chew.

Storage

Extended release tablets: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions are permitted between 15°C and 30°C (59°F and 86°F).

Immediate release tablets:

250 mg: Store at 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F). Protect from light.

500 mg: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F).

Granules for suspension: Store at 25°C (77°F) prior to and following reconstitution. Do not refrigerate. Use within 14 days of reconstitution.

Drug Interactions

Abemaciclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Abemaciclib. Management: In patients taking abemaciclib at a dose of 200 mg or 150 mg twice daily, reduce the dose to 100 mg twice daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. In patients taking abemaciclib 100 mg twice daily, decrease the dose to 50 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Acalabrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Acalabrutinib. Avoid combination

Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine. Specifically, strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase concentrations of the cytotoxic DM1 component. Avoid combination

Afatinib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Afatinib. Management: Per US labeling: reduce afatinib by 10mg if not tolerated. Per Canadian labeling: avoid combination if possible; if used, administer the P-gp inhibitor simultaneously with or after the dose of afatinib. Consider therapy modification

Alfuzosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alfuzosin. Avoid combination

Alitretinoin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alitretinoin (Systemic). Management: Consider reducing the alitretinoin dose to 10 mg when used together with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased alitretinoin effects/toxicities if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Almotriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Almotriptan. Management: Limit initial almotriptan adult dose to 6.25 mg and maximum adult dose to 12.5 mg/24-hrs when used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Avoid concurrent use in patients with impaired hepatic or renal function. Consider therapy modification

Alosetron: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alosetron. Monitor therapy

ALPRAZolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ALPRAZolam. Management: Consider using an alternative agent that is less likely to interact. If combined, monitor for increased therapeutic/toxic effects of alprazolam if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Antihepaciviral Combination Products: May increase the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Avoid clarithromycin doses greater than 1000 mg/day when used with an antihepaciviral combination product. Further dose reductions may be needed in patients with impaired renal function. Consider an alternative antimicrobial for any non-MAC infection. Consider therapy modification

Antineoplastic Agents (Vinca Alkaloids): Macrolide Antibiotics may increase the serum concentration of Antineoplastic Agents (Vinca Alkaloids). Macrolides may also increase the distribution of Vinca Alkaloids into certain cells and/or tissues. Management: Consider an alternative to using a macrolide antibiotic when possible in order to avoid the potential for increased vinca alkaloid toxicity. Consider therapy modification

Apixaban: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Apixaban. Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Aprepitant. Avoid combination

ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: See full interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

ARIPiprazole Lauroxil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Management: Please refer to the full interaction monograph for details concerning the recommended dose adjustments. Consider therapy modification

Astemizole: QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Astemizole. QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Astemizole. Avoid combination

Asunaprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Avoid combination

Asunaprevir: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Avoid combination

AtorvaSTATin: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of AtorvaSTATin. Management: Limit atorvastatin to a maximum dose of 20 mg/day (for adults) when used with clarithromycin. If this combination is used, monitor patients more closely for evidence of atorvastatin toxicity. Consider therapy modification

Avanafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Avanafil. Avoid combination

Axitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Axitinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of axitinib with any strong CYP3A inhibitor whenever possible. If a strong CYP3A inhibitor must be used with axitinib, a 50% axitinib dose reduction is recommended. Avoid combination

Barnidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Barnidipine. Avoid combination

BCG (Intravesical): Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of BCG (Intravesical). Avoid combination

BCG Vaccine (Immunization): Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of BCG Vaccine (Immunization). Monitor therapy

Benperidol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benperidol. Monitor therapy

Benzhydrocodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Benzhydrocodone. Specifically, the concentration of hydrocodone may be increased. Monitor therapy

Betamethasone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Betamethasone (Ophthalmic). Monitor therapy

Betrixaban: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Betrixaban. Management: Decrease the betrixaban dose to an initial single dose of 80 mg followed by 40 mg once daily if combined with a P-glycoprotein inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Bictegravir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bictegravir. Monitor therapy

Bilastine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Bilastine. Management: Consider alternatives when possible; bilastine should be avoided in patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency who are receiving p-glycoprotein inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Blonanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Blonanserin. Avoid combination

Bortezomib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bortezomib. Monitor therapy

Bosentan: May increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clarithromycin. Specifically, bosentan may increase concentrations of 14-hydroxyclarithromycin. Bosentan may decrease the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Bosentan. Management: Consider alternative antimicrobial if possible. The clinical activity of clarithromycin may be altered, and increased bosentan toxicity may be expected. Consider therapy modification

Bosutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bosutinib. Avoid combination

Brentuximab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Monitor therapy

Brentuximab Vedotin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased. Monitor therapy

Brexpiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brexpiprazole. Management: Reduce brexpiprazole dose 50% with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors; reduce to 25% of usual if used with both a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and a CYP2D6 inhibitor in patients not being treated for MDD, or strong CYP3A4 inhibitor used in a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. Consider therapy modification

Brigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brigatinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of brigatinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combination cannot be avoided, reduce the brigatinib dose by approximately 50%, rounding to the nearest tablet strength (ie, from 180 mg to 90 mg, or from 90 mg to 60 mg). Consider therapy modification

Brinzolamide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brinzolamide. Monitor therapy

Bromocriptine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bromocriptine. Avoid combination

Budesonide (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Nasal). Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Systemic). Avoid combination

Budesonide (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Topical). Management: Per US prescribing information, avoid this combination. Canadian product labeling does not recommend strict avoidance. If combined, monitor for excessive glucocorticoid effects as budesonide exposure may be increased. Consider therapy modification

Buprenorphine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Buprenorphine. Monitor therapy

BusPIRone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of BusPIRone. Management: Limit the buspirone dose to 2.5 mg daily and monitor patients for increased buspirone effects/toxicities if combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Cabazitaxel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabazitaxel. Management: Concurrent use of cabazitaxel with strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 should be avoided when possible. If such a combination must be used, consider a 25% reduction in the cabazitaxel dose. Consider therapy modification

Cabergoline: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Cabergoline. Monitor therapy

Cabozantinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabozantinib. Management: Avoid use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with cabozantinib if possible. If combined, cabozantinib dose adjustments are recommended and vary based on the cabozantinib product used and the indication for use. See monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Calcifediol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Calcifediol. Monitor therapy

Calcium Channel Blockers: Macrolide Antibiotics may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Management: Consider using a noninteracting macrolide. Felodipine Canadian labeling specifically recommends avoiding its use in combination with clarithromycin. Exceptions: Clevidipine. Consider therapy modification

Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabis. More specifically, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol serum concentrations may be increased. Monitor therapy

CarBAMazepine: May increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clarithromycin. Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of CarBAMazepine. CarBAMazepine may decrease the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If combined, monitor for increased carbamazepine effects/toxicities and for reduced clarithromycin efficacy. Consider therapy modification

Cardiac Glycosides: Macrolide Antibiotics may increase the serum concentration of Cardiac Glycosides. Monitor therapy

Cariprazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cariprazine. Management: Cariprazine dose reductions of 50% are required; specific recommended management varies slightly for those stable on cariprazine versus those just starting cariprazine. See prescribing information or full interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Celiprolol: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Celiprolol. Monitor therapy

Ceritinib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Ceritinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ceritinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors that prolong the QTc interval whenever possible. If combined, decrease ceritinib dose by one-third and monitor patients for ceritinib toxicities including QTc prolongation and arrhythmias. Consider therapy modification

Cholera Vaccine: Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Cholera Vaccine. Management: Avoid cholera vaccine in patients receiving systemic antibiotics, and within 14 days following the use of oral or parenteral antibiotics. Avoid combination

Cilostazol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cilostazol. Management: Consider reducing the cilostazol dose to 50 mg twice daily in adult patients who are also receiving strong inhibitors of CYP3A4. Consider therapy modification

Cinacalcet: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cinacalcet. Monitor therapy

Cisapride: QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Cisapride. QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Cisapride. Avoid combination

Citalopram: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Citalopram. Monitor therapy

CloZAPine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of CloZAPine. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Monitor therapy

Cobicistat: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Cobicistat. Cobicistat may increase the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Consider alternative antibiotics. Reduce clarithromycin dose by 50% in patients receiving elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir with estimated creatinine clearance 50 to 60 mL/min. Closely monitor for clarithromycin toxicity. Consider therapy modification

Cobimetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cobimetinib. Avoid combination

Codeine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Codeine. Monitor therapy

Colchicine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Management: Colchicine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function who are also receiving a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. In those with normal renal and hepatic function, reduce colchicine dose as directed. See full monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Colchicine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased. Management: Colchicine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function who are also receiving a p-glycoprotein inhibitor. In those with normal renal and hepatic function, reduce colchicine dose as directed. See full monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Conivaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Conivaptan. Avoid combination

Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Copanlisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Copanlisib. Management: If concomitant use of copanlisib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors cannot be avoided, reduce the copanlisib dose to 45 mg. Monitor patients for increased copanlisib effects/toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Corticosteroids (Orally Inhaled): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Orally Inhaled). Management: Orally inhaled fluticasone propionate with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is not recommended. Exceptions: Beclomethasone (Oral Inhalation); Triamcinolone (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Corticosteroids (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Corticosteroids (Systemic). Exceptions: MethylPREDNISolone; PrednisoLONE (Systemic); PredniSONE. Monitor therapy

Crizotinib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Crizotinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of crizotinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors that prolong the QTc interval whenever possible. If combined, decrease crizotinib dose to 250 mg daily. Monitor patients for crizotinib toxicities including QTc prolongation and arrhythmias. Consider therapy modification

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of CycloSPORINE (Systemic). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clarithromycin. CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate) may decrease the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Consider alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients receiving a CYP3A inducer. Drugs that enhance the metabolism of clarithromycin into 14-hydroxyclarithromycin may alter the clinical activity of clarithromycin and impair its efficacy. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Clarithromycin. Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong). CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Consider alternative antimicrobial therapy for patients receiving a CYP3A inducer. Drugs that enhance the metabolism of clarithromycin into 14-hydroxyclarithromycin may alter the clinical activity of clarithromycin and may impair clarithromycin efficacy. Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Consider therapy modification

CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Exceptions: Alitretinoin (Systemic); AmLODIPine; Benzhydrocodone; Buprenorphine; Gefitinib; HYDROcodone; Praziquantel; Telithromycin; Vinorelbine. Consider therapy modification

Dabigatran Etexilate: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Dabigatran Etexilate. Management: Dose reductions and/or avoidance of this combination may be necessary. Specific recommendations vary by international labeling, renal function, and indication for dabigatran. Refer to full monograph or dabigatran labeling. Consider therapy modification

Dabrafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dabrafenib. Avoid combination

Daclatasvir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Daclatasvir. Management: Decrease the daclatasvir dose to 30 mg once daily if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. No dose adjustment is needed when daclatasvir is used with darunavir/cobicistat. Consider therapy modification

Dapoxetine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dapoxetine. Avoid combination

Dasatinib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Dasatinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of dasatinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors that prolong the QTc interval whenever possible. If combined, dasatinib dose reductions are required. Monitor patients for dasatinib toxicities including QTc prolongation and arrhythmias. Consider therapy modification

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Deflazacort: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Management: Administer one third of the recommended deflazacort dose when used together with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Dexamethasone (Ophthalmic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dexamethasone (Ophthalmic). Monitor therapy

Dienogest: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dienogest. Monitor therapy

Dihydroergotamine: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Dihydroergotamine. Avoid combination

DOCEtaxel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DOCEtaxel. Management: Avoid the concomitant use of docetaxel and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined use is unavoidable, consider a 50% docetaxel dose reduction and monitor for increased docetaxel toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Domperidone: QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Domperidone. QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Domperidone. Avoid combination

Doxercalciferol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Doxercalciferol. Monitor therapy

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Management: Seek alternatives to strong CYP3A4 inhibitors in patients treated with doxorubicin whenever possible. One U.S. manufacturer (Pfizer Inc.) recommends that these combinations be avoided. Consider therapy modification

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Management: Seek alternatives to P-glycoprotein inhibitors in patients treated with doxorubicin whenever possible. One U.S. manufacturer (Pfizer Inc.) recommends that these combinations be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Dronabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronabinol. Monitor therapy

Dronedarone: QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Avoid combination

Drospirenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Drospirenone. Management: Drospirenone use is contraindicated specifically when the strong CYP3A4 inhibitors atazanavir and cobicistat are administered concurrently. Caution should be used when drospirenone is coadministered with other strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Dutasteride: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dutasteride. Monitor therapy

Duvelisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Duvelisib. Management: Reduce the dose of duvelisib to 15 mg twice a day when used together with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Edoxaban: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Edoxaban. Management: See full monograph for details. Reduced doses are recommended for patients receiving edoxaban for venous thromboembolism in combination with certain P-gp inhibitors. Similar dose adjustment is not recommended for edoxaban use in atrial fibrillation. Consider therapy modification

Efavirenz: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Clarithromycin. Efavirenz may decrease the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Additionally, efavirenz may increase the active metabolite of clarithromycin Management: Consider using an alternative antibiotic in patients taking efavirenz. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor for decreased therapeutic effect of clarithromycin and for QT interval prolongation. Consider therapy modification

Elagolix: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Elagolix. Avoid combination

Eletriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eletriptan. Avoid combination

Eliglustat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eliglustat. Management: Use should be avoided under some circumstances. See full drug interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Encorafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Encorafenib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of encorafenib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors whenever possible. If concomitant administration is unavoidable, decrease the encorafenib dose. See monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Encorafenib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Encorafenib. Management: Avoid using strong CYP3A4 inhibitors together with encorafenib if possible. If the combination must be used, reduce the encorafenib dose and monitor QT interval. See monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Enzalutamide: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Concurrent use of enzalutamide with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Use of enzalutamide and any other CYP3A4 substrate should be performed with caution and close monitoring. Consider therapy modification

Eplerenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eplerenone. Avoid combination

Erdafitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erdafitinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of erdafitinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, monitor closely for erdafitinib adverse reactions and consider dose modifications accordingly. Consider therapy modification

Ergot Derivatives: Macrolide Antibiotics may increase the serum concentration of Ergot Derivatives. Cabergoline and Clarithromycin may interact, see specific monograph for full details. Exceptions: Cabergoline; Nicergoline; Pergolide. Consider therapy modification

Ergotamine: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Ergotamine. Avoid combination

Erlotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erlotinib. Management: Avoid use of this combination when possible. When the combination must be used, monitor the patient closely for the development of severe adverse reactions, and if such severe reactions occur, reduce the erlotinib dose (in 50 mg decrements). Consider therapy modification

Erythromycin (Systemic): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

Estazolam: Macrolide Antibiotics may increase the serum concentration of Estazolam. Management: Consider an alternative less likely to interact. Azithromycin is likely a lower-risk macrolide, and benzodiazepines less dependent on CYP3A metabolism (e.g., lorazepam, oxazepam) are similarly less likely to interact. Consider therapy modification

Estrogen Derivatives: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Eszopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eszopiclone. Management: Limit the eszopiclone dose to 2 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased eszopiclone effects and toxicities (eg, somnolence, drowsiness, CNS depression). Consider therapy modification

Etizolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Etizolam. Management: Consider use of lower etizolam doses when using this combination; specific recommendations concerning dose adjustment are not available. Monitor clinical response to the combination closely. Consider therapy modification

Everolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Everolimus. Avoid combination

Evogliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Evogliptin. Monitor therapy

FentaNYL: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of FentaNYL. Management: Monitor patients closely for several days following initiation of this combination, and adjust fentanyl dose as necessary. Consider therapy modification

Fesoterodine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fesoterodine. Management: Avoid fesoterodine doses greater than 4 mg daily in adult patients who are also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Avoid combination

Fluconazole: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

FLUoxetine: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Clarithromycin. Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of FLUoxetine. Monitor therapy

Fluticasone (Nasal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Nasal). Avoid combination

Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation). Management: Use of orally inhaled fluticasone propionate with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors is not recommended. Use of orally inhaled fluticasone furoate with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors should be done with caution. Monitor patients using such a combination more closely. Consider therapy modification

Fosaprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Fosaprepitant. Avoid combination

Fosnetupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Fostamatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fostamatinib. Monitor therapy

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Galantamine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Galantamine. Monitor therapy

Gefitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Gefitinib. Monitor therapy

Gilteritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Gilteritinib. Management: Consider alternatives to the use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor with gilteritinib. If the combination cannot be avoided, monitor more closely for evidence of gilteritinib toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Gilteritinib: QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Gilteritinib. QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Gilteritinib. Management: Consider alternatives to the use of gilteritinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors that prolong the QTc interval whenever possible Consider therapy modification

Glasdegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Glasdegib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination when possible. If the combination must be used, monitor closely for evidence of QT interval prolongation and other adverse reactions to glasdegib. Consider therapy modification

GlipiZIDE: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of GlipiZIDE. Monitor therapy

GlyBURIDE: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of GlyBURIDE. Monitor therapy

Grazoprevir: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Grazoprevir. Avoid combination

GuanFACINE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of GuanFACINE. Management: Reduce the guanfacine dose by 50% when initiating this combination. Consider therapy modification

Halofantrine: QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Halofantrine. QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Halofantrine. Avoid combination

HYDROcodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of HYDROcodone. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ibrutinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ibrutinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor must be used short-term (eg, anti-infectives for 7 days or less), interrupt ibrutinib therapy until the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued. Avoid combination

Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Ifosfamide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. Monitor therapy

Iloperidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Iloperidone. Specifically, concentrations of the metabolites P88 and P95 may be increased. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Iloperidone. Management: Reduce iloperidone dose by half when administered with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Imatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Imatinib. Monitor therapy

Imidafenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Imidafenacin. Monitor therapy

Irinotecan Products: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Irinotecan Products. Specifically, serum concentrations of SN-38 may be increased. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Irinotecan Products. Avoid combination

Isavuconazonium Sulfate: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Isavuconazonium Sulfate. Specifically, CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase isavuconazole serum concentrations. Management: Combined use is considered contraindicated per US labeling. Lopinavir/ritonavir (and possibly other uses of ritonavir doses less than 400 mg every 12 hours) is treated as a possible exception to this contraindication despite strongly inhibiting CYP3A4. Avoid combination

Ivabradine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivabradine. Avoid combination

Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivacaftor. Management: Ivacaftor dose reductions are required; consult full monograph content for specific age- and weight-based recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Ixabepilone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ixabepilone. Consider therapy modification

Lacosamide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lacosamide. Monitor therapy

Lactobacillus and Estriol: Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Lactobacillus and Estriol. Monitor therapy

Lapatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lapatinib. Management: If an overlap in therapy cannot be avoided, consider reducing lapatinib adult dose to 500 mg/day during, and within 1 week of completing, treatment with the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Avoid combination

Larotrectinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Larotrectinib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors with larotrectinib. If this combination cannot be avoided, reduce the larotrectinib dose by 50%. Increase to previous dose after stopping the inhibitor after a period of 3 to 5 times the inhibitor half-life. Consider therapy modification

Lercanidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lercanidipine. Avoid combination

Levobupivacaine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levobupivacaine. Monitor therapy

Levomilnacipran: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levomilnacipran. Management: Do not exceed a maximum adult levomilnacipran dose of 80 mg/day in patients also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Lomitapide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide. Avoid combination

Lopinavir: Clarithromycin may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Lopinavir. Lopinavir may diminish the therapeutic effect of Clarithromycin. Specifically, lopinavir may decrease the formation of the active 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin metabolite, which may negatively impact clarithromycin effectiveness. Lopinavir may increase the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Lopinavir. Avoid combination

Lorlatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lorlatinib. Management: Avoid use of lorlatinib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If the combination cannot be avoided, reduce the lorlatinib dose from 100 mg once daily to 75 mg once daily, or from 75 mg once daily to 50 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Lorlatinib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Avoid concurrent use of lorlatinib with any CYP3A4 substrates for which a minimal decrease in serum concentrations of the CYP3A4 substrate could lead to therapeutic failure and serious clinical consequences. Consider therapy modification

Lovastatin: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Lovastatin. Avoid combination

Lumefantrine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lumefantrine. Monitor therapy

Lurasidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Avoid combination

Macitentan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Macitentan. Avoid combination

Manidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Manidipine. Management: Consider avoiding concomitant use of manidipine and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If combined, monitor closely for increased manidipine effects and toxicities. Manidipine dose reductions may be required. Consider therapy modification

Maraviroc: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Maraviroc. Management: Reduce the adult dose of maraviroc to 150 mg twice daily when used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Do not use maraviroc with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors in patients with Clcr less than 30 mL/min. Consider therapy modification

MedroxyPROGESTERone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MedroxyPROGESTERone. Monitor therapy

MethylPREDNISolone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MethylPREDNISolone. Management: Consider methylprednisolone dose reduction in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors and monitor for increased steroid related adverse effects. Consider therapy modification

Midazolam: Macrolide Antibiotics may increase the serum concentration of Midazolam. Management: Consider an alternative less likely to interact. Azithromycin is likely a lower-risk macrolide, and benzodiazepines less dependent on CYP3A metabolism (e.g., lorazepam, oxazepam) are similarly less likely to interact. Consider therapy modification

Midostaurin: QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Midostaurin. QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Midostaurin. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

MiFEPRIStone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MiFEPRIStone. Management: Limit mifepristone adult dose, when used for treatment of hyperglycemia in Cushing's syndrome, to a maximum of 600 mg/day when combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for increased mifepristone toxicity regardless of dose or indication. Consider therapy modification

MiFEPRIStone: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Minimize doses of CYP3A4 substrates, and monitor for increased concentrations/toxicity, during and 2 weeks following treatment with mifepristone. Avoid cyclosporine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, fentanyl, pimozide, quinidine, sirolimus, and tacrolimus. Consider therapy modification

Mirodenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mirodenafil. Management: Consider using a lower dose of mirodenafil when used with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased mirodenafil effects/toxicities with the use of this combination. Consider therapy modification

Mitotane: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Doses of CYP3A4 substrates may need to be adjusted substantially when used in patients being treated with mitotane. Consider therapy modification

Mizolastine: Macrolide Antibiotics may increase the serum concentration of Mizolastine. Avoid combination

Naldemedine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Naldemedine. Monitor therapy

Naldemedine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Naldemedine. Monitor therapy

Nalfurafine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nalfurafine. Monitor therapy

Naloxegol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Naloxegol. Avoid combination

Neratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Neratinib. Avoid combination

Netupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Nilotinib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Nilotinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of nilotinib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors that prolong the QTc interval whenever possible. If combined, nilotinib dose reductions are required. Monitor patients for nilotinib toxicities including QTc prolongation and arrhythmias. Consider therapy modification

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Avoid combination

Nintedanib: Combined Inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Nintedanib. Monitor therapy

Nisoldipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nisoldipine. Avoid combination

Olaparib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Olaparib. Management: Avoid use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors in patients being treated with olaparib, if possible. If such concurrent use cannot be avoided, the dose of olaparib should be reduced to 100 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Ondansetron: QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Ondansetron. Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

Osimertinib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Ospemifene: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ospemifene. Monitor therapy

Oxybutynin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Oxybutynin. Monitor therapy

OxyCODONE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of OxyCODONE. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of OxyCODONE. Serum concentrations of the active metabolite oxymorphone may also be increased. Consider therapy modification

Palbociclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Palbociclib. Avoid combination

Panobinostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Panobinostat. Management: Reduce the panobinostat dose to 10 mg when it must be used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Parecoxib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Parecoxib. Monitor therapy

Paricalcitol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Paricalcitol. Monitor therapy

PARoxetine: Clarithromycin may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of PARoxetine. Clarithromycin may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of PARoxetine. Monitor therapy

PAZOPanib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination

Pentamidine (Systemic): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Substrates. P-glycoprotein inhibitors may also enhance the distribution of p-glycoprotein substrates to specific cells/tissues/organs where p-glycoprotein is present in large amounts (e.g., brain, T-lymphocytes, testes, etc.). Exceptions: Loperamide. Monitor therapy

Pimavanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimavanserin. Management: Decrease the pimavanserin dose to 10 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Pimecrolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease the metabolism of Pimecrolimus. Monitor therapy

Pimozide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Avoid combination

Pimozide: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Moderate Risk). Avoid combination

Piperaquine: QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Piperaquine. QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Piperaquine. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Pitavastatin: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Pitavastatin. Monitor therapy

Pitolisant: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Combined use of pitolisant with a CYP3A4 substrate that has a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided. Other CYP3A4 substrates should be monitored more closely when used with pitolisant. Consider therapy modification

Polatuzumab Vedotin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Polatuzumab Vedotin. Exposure to unconjugated MMAE, the cytotoxic small molecule component of polatuzumab vedotin, may be increased. Monitor therapy

PONATinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PONATinib. Management: Per ponatinib U.S. prescribing information, the adult starting dose of ponatinib should be reduced to 30 mg daily during treatment with any strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Pranlukast: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pranlukast. Monitor therapy

Pravastatin: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Pravastatin. Management: Limit pravastatin to a maximum of 40 mg/day (for adults) when used in combination with clarithromycin. If this combination is used, monitor patients more closely for evidence of pravastatin toxicity. Consider therapy modification

Praziquantel: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Praziquantel. Monitor therapy

PrednisoLONE (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PrednisoLONE (Systemic). Monitor therapy

PredniSONE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PredniSONE. Monitor therapy

Protease Inhibitors: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Clarithromycin. Specifically, certain protease inhibitors may decrease formation of the active 14-hydroxy-clarithromycin metabolite, which may negatively impact clarithromycin effectiveness vs. H. influenzae and other non-MAC infections. Protease Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Clarithromycin dose adjustment in renally impaired patients may be needed. Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Protease Inhibitors. Management: Saquinavir is contraindicated with clarithromycin. Avoid clarithromycin adult doses over 1000 mg/day with a protease inhibitor. Further dose reductions may be needed with impaired renal function. Consider alternative antimicrobial for a non-MAC infection. Consider therapy modification

Prucalopride: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Prucalopride. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Clarithromycin. Avoid combination

QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Antidepressants (Moderate Risk). Exceptions: Citalopram. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Antipsychotics (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Clarithromycin. Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Exceptions: Pimozide; QUEtiapine. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Class IC Antiarrhythmics (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Moderate Risk): QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Moderate Risk). Exceptions: Domperidone; Halofantrine; Midostaurin; Piperaquine; Toremifene. Avoid combination

QT-prolonging Quinolone Antibiotics (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

QUEtiapine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of QUEtiapine. Management: In quetiapine treated patients, reduce quetiapine to one-sixth of regular dose after starting strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. In those on strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, start quetiapine at lowest dose and up-titrate as needed. Exceptions discussed separately. Consider therapy modification

QUEtiapine: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of QUEtiapine. Management: Reduce the quetiapine dose to one-sixth of the regular dose when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor patients for quetiapine toxicities, including QTc prolongation and torsades de pointes. Consider therapy modification

Radotinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Radotinib. Avoid combination

Ramelteon: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ramelteon. Monitor therapy

Ranolazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Avoid combination

Reboxetine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Reboxetine. Consider therapy modification

Red Yeast Rice: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Red Yeast Rice. Specifically, concentrations of lovastatin and related compounds found in Red Yeast Rice may be increased. Avoid combination

Regorafenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Regorafenib. Avoid combination

Repaglinide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Repaglinide. Management: The addition of a CYP2C8 inhibitor to this drug combination may substantially increase the magnitude of increase in repaglinide exposure. Monitor therapy

Retapamulin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Retapamulin. Management: Avoid this combination in patients less than 2 years old. No action is required in other populations. Monitor therapy

Revefenacin: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Revefenacin. Avoid combination

Ribociclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ribociclib. Management: Avoid use of ribociclib with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible; if combined use cannot be avoided, reduce ribociclib dose to 400 mg once daily. Exceptions are discussed in separate monographs. Consider therapy modification

Ribociclib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Ribociclib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of ribociclib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors that prolong the QTc interval whenever possible. If combined, decrease the ribociclib dose to 400 mg daily. Monitor for ribociclib toxicities including QTc prolongation and arrhythmias. Consider therapy modification

RifAXIMin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of RifAXIMin. Monitor therapy

Rilpivirine: Macrolide Antibiotics may increase the serum concentration of Rilpivirine. Management: Consider the use of azithromycin or another non-macrolide alternative when appropriate to avoid this potential interaction. Consider therapy modification

Rivaroxaban: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Rivaroxaban. Management: In patients with impaired renal function, clarithromycin should not be used unless the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks. This interaction is unlikely clinically significant in patients with normal renal function. Consider therapy modification

RomiDEPsin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of RomiDEPsin. Monitor therapy

Rupatadine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rupatadine. Avoid combination

Ruxolitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ruxolitinib. Management: This combination should be avoided under some circumstances. See monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Salmeterol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Salmeterol. Avoid combination

Saquinavir: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Clarithromycin. Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Saquinavir. Avoid combination

Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

SAXagliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SAXagliptin. Management: Saxagliptin U.S. product labeling recommends limiting saxagliptin adult dose to 2.5 mg/day when used with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for increased saxagliptin levels/effects. A similar recommendation is not made in the Canadian product labeling. Consider therapy modification

Sildenafil: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Sildenafil. Consider therapy modification

Silodosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Silodosin. Avoid combination

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Avoid combination

Simvastatin: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Avoid combination

Sincalide: Drugs that Affect Gallbladder Function may diminish the therapeutic effect of Sincalide. Management: Consider discontinuing drugs that may affect gallbladder motility prior to the use of sincalide to stimulate gallbladder contraction. Consider therapy modification

Sirolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus. Management: Consider avoiding concurrent use of sirolimus with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors in order to minimize the risk for sirolimus toxicity. Concomitant use of sirolimus and voriconazole or posaconazole is contraindicated. Consider therapy modification

Sodium Picosulfate: Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Sodium Picosulfate. Management: Consider using an alternative product for bowel cleansing prior to a colonoscopy in patients who have recently used or are concurrently using an antibiotic. Consider therapy modification

Solifenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Solifenacin. Management: Limit solifenacin doses to 5 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Sonidegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Sonidegib. Avoid combination

SORAfenib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SORAfenib. Monitor therapy

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Consider an alternative for one of the interacting drugs. Some combinations may be specifically contraindicated. Consult appropriate manufacturer labeling. Consider therapy modification

Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Consider therapy modification

SUFentanil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SUFentanil. Management: If a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is initiated in a patient on sufentanil, consider a sufentanil dose reduction and monitor for increased sufentanil effects and toxicities (eg, respiratory depression). Consider therapy modification

SUNItinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SUNItinib. Management: Avoid when possible. If such a combination cannot be avoided, sunitinib dose decreases are recommended, and vary by indication. See full monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Suvorexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Suvorexant. Avoid combination

Tacrolimus (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Management: Monitor clinical tacrolimus response closely and frequently monitor tacrolimus serum concentrations with concurrent use of any strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Tacrolimus dose reductions and/or prolongation of the dosing interval will likely be required. Consider therapy modification

Tacrolimus (Topical): Macrolide Antibiotics may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Topical). Monitor therapy

Tadalafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tadalafil. Management: Recommendations regarding use of tadalafil in patients also receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may vary based on indication and/or international labeling. Consult appropriate product labeling. Consider therapy modification

Talazoparib: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Talazoparib. Management: If concurrent use cannot be avoided, reduce talazoparib dose to 0.75 mg once daily. After a period of 3 to 5 times the half-life of clarithromycin, increase the talazoparib dose to the dose used before initiation of clarithromycin. Consider therapy modification

Tamsulosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tamsulosin. Avoid combination

Tasimelteon: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tasimelteon. Monitor therapy

Temsirolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Temsirolimus. Management: Avoid concomitant use of temsirolimus and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors whenever possible. If combined, decrease temsirolimus dose to 12.5 mg per week and monitor patients for increased temsirolimus effects and toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Terfenadine: QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Terfenadine. QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Terfenadine. Avoid combination

Tetrahydrocannabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy

Tezacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tezacaftor. Management: When combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors, tezacaftor/ivacaftor (100 mg/150 mg) should be administered in the morning, twice a week, approximately 3 to 4 days apart. No evening doses of ivacaftor (150 mg) alone should be administered. Consider therapy modification

Theophylline Derivatives: Macrolide Antibiotics may decrease the metabolism of Theophylline Derivatives. Exceptions: Dyphylline. Consider therapy modification

Thiotepa: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Thiotepa. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Thiotepa. Management: Thiotepa prescribing information recommends avoiding concomitant use of thiotepa and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor for adverse effects and decreased efficacy. Consider therapy modification

Ticagrelor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ticagrelor. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ticagrelor. Avoid combination

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Tofacitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tofacitinib. Management: Tofacitinib dose reductions are recommended when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Recommended dose adjustments vary by tofacitinib formulation and therapeutic indication. See full monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Tolterodine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolterodine. Management: The maximum recommended adult dose of tolterodine is 2 mg/day when used together with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Tolvaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolvaptan. Avoid combination

Topotecan: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Topotecan. Avoid combination

Toremifene: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Toremifene. Management: Avoid concomitant use of toremifene and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors that prolong the QTc interval whenever possible. If combined, monitor patients for toremifene toxicities including QTc prolongation and TdP. Consider therapy modification

Trabectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Trabectedin. Avoid combination

TraMADol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of TraMADol. Monitor therapy

TraZODone: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Clarithromycin. Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of TraZODone. Management: Consider an alternative to this combination whenever possible. If combined, use a lower trazodone dose and monitor for increased effects of trazodone. Consider therapy modification

Triazolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Triazolam. Avoid combination

Typhoid Vaccine: Antibiotics may diminish the therapeutic effect of Typhoid Vaccine. Only the live attenuated Ty21a strain is affected. Management: Vaccination with live attenuated typhoid vaccine (Ty21a) should be avoided in patients being treated with systemic antibacterial agents. Use of this vaccine should be postponed until at least 3 days after cessation of antibacterial agents. Consider therapy modification

Udenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Udenafil. Avoid combination

Ulipristal: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ulipristal. Management: This is specific for when ulipristal is being used for signs/symptoms of uterine fibroids (Canadian indication). When ulipristal is used as an emergency contraceptive, patients receiving this combo should be monitored for ulipristal toxicity. Avoid combination

Valbenazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Valbenazine. Management: Reduce the valbenazine dose to 40 mg daily when combined with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Vardenafil: Clarithromycin may increase the serum concentration of Vardenafil. Management: Recommendations regarding the concomitant use of vardenafil with clarithromycin vary between international labelings and between commercially available vardenafil brand name products (Levitra, Staxyn). Consult appropriate product labelings. Consider therapy modification

Vemurafenib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk). QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Vemurafenib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of vemurafenib and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors that prolong the QTc interval whenever possible. If combined monitor patients for vemurafenib toxicities including QTc prolongation and TdP. Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: This combination is contraindicated during venetoclax initiation and ramp-up in patients with CLL/SLL. Reduced venetoclax doses are required during ramp-up for patients with AML, and reduced doses are required for all patients during maintenance therapy. Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: Consider a venetoclax dose reduction by at least 50% in patients requiring concomitant treatment with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Vilanterol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong). Monitor therapy

Vilazodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Management: Limit maximum adult vilazodone dose to 20 mg daily in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. The original vilazodone dose can be resumed following discontinuation of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Avoid combination

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Avoid combination

Vinflunine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vinflunine. Avoid combination

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Macrolide Antibiotics may increase the serum concentration of Vitamin K Antagonists. Monitor therapy

Vorapaxar: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vorapaxar. Avoid combination

Voriconazole: Clarithromycin may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Voriconazole. Voriconazole may increase the serum concentration of Clarithromycin. Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

Voxilaprevir: OATP1B1/1B3 (SLCO1B1/1B3) Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Voxilaprevir. Avoid combination

Zidovudine: Clarithromycin may enhance the myelosuppressive effect of Zidovudine. Clarithromycin may decrease the serum concentration of Zidovudine. Management: Monitor response to zidovudine closely when used with clarithromycin, and consider staggering zidovudine and clarithromycin doses when possible in order to minimize the potential for interaction. Consider therapy modification

Zopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zopiclone. Management: The initial starting adult dose of zopiclone should not exceed 3.75 mg if combined with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of zopiclone toxicity if these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Zuclopenthixol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zuclopenthixol. Management: Consider zuclopenthixol dosage reduction with concomitant use of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor (eg, ketoconazole) in poor CYP2D6 metabolizers or with strong CYP2D6 inhibitors (eg, paroxetine). Monitor for increased zuclopenthixol levels/toxicity. Consider therapy modification

Adverse Reactions

1% to 10%:

Central nervous system: Headache (2%), insomnia

Dermatologic: Skin rash (children 3%)

Gastrointestinal: Dysgeusia (adults 3% to 7%), vomiting (children 6%), diarrhea (3% to 6%), nausea (adults 3%), abdominal pain (2% to 3%), dyspepsia (adults 2%)

Hematologic & oncologic: Prolonged prothrombin time (adults 1%)

Hepatic: Abnormal hepatic function tests

Hypersensitivity: Anaphylactoid reaction

Infection: Candidiasis (including oral)

Renal: Increased blood urea nitrogen (4%)

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Abdominal distension, abnormal albumin-globulin ratio, acne vulgaris, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, ageusia, agranulocytosis, altered sense of smell, anaphylaxis, angioedema, anorexia, anosmia, anxiety, asthma, atrial fibrillation, behavioral changes, bullous dermatitis, cellulitis, chest pain, chills, cholestasis, cholestatic hepatitis, Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile-associated diarrhea, Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile (colitis), confusion, constipation, dark urine (abnormal urine color associated with liver injury), decreased appetite, decreased white blood cell count, dental discoloration (reversible with dental cleaning), depersonalization, depression, disorientation, dizziness, DRESS syndrome, drowsiness, dyskinesia, eosinophilia, epistaxis, eructation, esophagitis, extrasystoles, fatigue, fever, flatulence, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, glossitis, hallucination, hearing loss (reversible), hemorrhage, hepatic failure, hepatic insufficiency, hepatitis, hepatotoxicity (idiosyncratic) (Chalasani 2014), hyperhidrosis, hypersensitivity reaction, hypoglycemia, IgA vasculitis, increased gamma-glutamyl transferase, increased INR, increased lactate dehydrogenase, increased serum alkaline phosphatase, increased serum ALT, increased serum AST, increased serum bilirubin, increased serum creatinine, infection, interstitial nephritis, jaundice, leukopenia, loss of consciousness, maculopapular rash, malaise, manic behavior, muscle spasm, myalgia, myopathy, neck stiffness, nervousness, neutropenia, nightmares, palpitations, pancreatitis, parasomnias, paresthesia, prolonged QT interval on ECG, pruritus, pseudomembranous colitis, psychosis, pulmonary embolism, rectal pain, renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, seizure, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, stomatitis, thrombocytopenia, tinnitus, tongue discoloration, torsades de pointes, toxic epidermal necrolysis, tremor, urticaria, vaginal infection, ventricular arrhythmia, ventricular tachycardia, vertigo, weakness, xerostomia

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Altered cardiac conduction: Use has been associated with QT prolongation and infrequent cases of arrhythmias, including torsades de pointes (may be fatal); avoid use in patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, ventricular cardiac arrhythmia (including torsades de pointes), uncorrected hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, clinically significant bradycardia, and patients receiving Class IA (eg, quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (eg, amiodarone, dofetilide, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents or other drugs known to prolong the QT interval.

• Hepatic effects: Elevated liver function tests and hepatitis (hepatocellular and/or cholestatic with or without jaundice) have been reported; usually reversible after discontinuation of clarithromycin. May lead to hepatic failure or death (rarely), especially in the presence of preexisting diseases and/or concomitant use of medications. Discontinue immediately if symptoms of hepatitis (eg, anorexia, jaundice, abdominal tenderness, pruritus, dark urine) occur.

• Hypersensitivity reactions: Severe acute reactions have been reported, including anaphylaxis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Henoch-Schönlein purpura (IgA vasculitis), and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis; discontinue therapy and initiate treatment immediately for severe acute hypersensitivity reactions.

• Superinfection: Use may result in fungal or bacterial superinfection, including C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) and pseudomembranous colitis; CDAD has been observed >2 months postantibiotic treatment.

Disease-related concerns:

• CAD: Use with caution in patients with CAD. A clinical trial in patients with CAD demonstrated an increase in risk of all-cause mortality ≥1 year after the end of treatment in patients randomized to receive clarithromycin. Other epidemiologic studies evaluating this risk have variable results.

• Myasthenia gravis: Use with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis; exacerbation of symptoms and new onset of symptoms has occurred.

• Renal impairment: Use with caution in severe renal impairment; dosage adjustment required.

Concurrent drug therapy issues:

• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.

Special populations:

• Elderly: Use with caution; elderly patients may be at increased risk of torsades de pointes.

• HIV patients: Decreased survival has been observed in HIV patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) receiving clarithromycin doses above the maximum recommended dose; maximum recommended dosing should not be exceeded in this population. Development of resistance to clarithromycin has been observed when used as prophylaxis and treatment of MAC infection (Biaxin Canadian product labeling).

Dosage form specific issues:

• Extended release formulation: The presence of extended release tablets in the stool has been reported, particularly in patients with anatomic (eg, ileostomy, colostomy) or functional GI disorders with decreased transit times. Consider alternative dosage forms (eg, suspension) or an alternative antimicrobial for patients with tablet residue in the stool and no signs of clinical improvement.

• Propylene glycol: Some dosage forms may contain propylene glycol; large amounts are potentially toxic and have been associated hyperosmolality, lactic acidosis, seizures, and respiratory depression; use caution (AAP 1997; Zar 2007).

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Helicobacter pylori eradication: Short-term combination therapy (≤7 days) has been associated with a higher incidence of treatment failure. Current guidelines recommend 10 to 14 days of therapy (triple or quadruple) for eradication of H. pylori in pediatric and adult patients (Chey 2007; NASPHGAN [Koletzko 2011]).

Monitoring Parameters

BUN, creatinine; perform culture and sensitivity studies prior to initiating drug therapy as appropriate

Pregnancy Considerations

Clarithromycin crosses the placenta (Witt 2003).

The manufacturer recommends that clarithromycin not be used in a pregnant woman unless there are no alternative therapies. Clarithromycin is not recommended as a first-line agent for the treatment or prophylaxis of Mycobacterium avium complex or for treatment of bacterial respiratory disease in HIV-infected pregnant patients (HHS [OI adult] 2019]).

Patient Education

• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)

• Patient may experience abdominal pain, change in taste, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Have patient report immediately to prescriber rash, swollen glands, abnormal heartbeat, muscle pain, joint pain, tachycardia, severe dizziness, passing out, muscle weakness, angina, shortness of breath, signs of severe cerebrovascular disease (change in strength on one side is greater than the other, difficulty speaking or thinking, change in balance, or vision changes), signs of kidney problems (urinary retention, hematuria, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain), signs of liver problems (dark urine, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, light-colored stools, vomiting, or jaundice), signs of a severe pulmonary disorder (lung or breathing problems like difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, or a cough that is new or worse), signs of Clostridium difficile (C. diff)-associated diarrhea (abdominal pain or cramps, severe diarrhea or watery stools, or bloody stools), signs of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin [with or without fever]; red or irritated eyes; or sores in mouth, throat, nose, or eyes), or tablet shell in stool (HCAHPS).

• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.

Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

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