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Simvastatin / sitagliptin and Alcohol/Food Interactions

There are 2 alcohol/food/lifestyle interactions with simvastatin / sitagliptin which include:

Major

simvastatin food

Major Food Interaction

Consumer information for this interaction is not currently available.

GENERALLY AVOID: Coadministration with grapefruit juice may significantly increase the plasma concentrations of lovastatin and simvastatin and their active acid metabolites. The proposed mechanism is inhibition of CYP450 3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism in the gut wall by certain compounds present in grapefruit. When a single 60 mg dose of simvastatin was coadministered with 200 mL of double-strength grapefruit juice three times a day, simvastatin systemic exposure (AUC) increased by 16-fold and simvastatin acid AUC increased by 7-fold. Administration of a single 20 mg dose of simvastatin with 8 ounces of single-strength grapefruit juice increased the AUC of simvastatin and simvastatin acid by 1.9-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively. The interaction has also been reported with lovastatin, which has a similar metabolic profile to simvastatin. Clinically, high levels of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity in plasma is associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal toxicity. Myopathy manifested as muscle pain and/or weakness associated with grossly elevated creatine kinase exceeding ten times the upper limit of normal has been reported occasionally. Rhabdomyolysis has also occurred rarely, which may be accompanied by acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria and may result in death.

ADJUST DOSING INTERVAL: Fibres such as oat bran and pectin may diminish the pharmacologic effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors by interfering with their absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.

Coadministration with green tea may increase the plasma concentrations of simvastatin. The mechanism of interaction has not been established, but may involve inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1- and/or 2B1-mediated hepatic uptake of simvastatin by catechins in green tea. The interaction was suspected in a 61-year-old man who experienced muscle intolerance during treatment with simvastatin while drinking an average of 3 cups of green tea daily. He also experienced similar muscle intolerance (leg cramps without creatine phosphokinase elevation) during treatments with atorvastatin and rosuvastatin while drinking green tea. Pharmacokinetic studies performed during his usual green tea intake demonstrated an approximately two-fold higher exposure to simvastatin lactone (the administered form of simvastatin) than that observed after stopping green tea intake for a month. He was also able to tolerate simvastatin after discontinuing green tea consumption. The authors of the report subsequently conducted two independent studies to assess the effect of different green tea preparations on simvastatin pharmacokinetics. One study was conducted in 12 Italian subjects and the other in 12 Japanese subjects. In the Italian study, administration of a single 20 mg dose of simvastatin following pretreatment with 200 mL of a hot green tea standardized infusion 3 times daily for 14 days (estimated daily intake of 335 mg total catechins and 173 mg epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant and biologically active catechin in green tea) was found to have no significant effect on mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) or systemic exposure (AUC) of simvastatin lactone and simvastatin acid relative to administration with water. However, green tea increased simvastatin lactone AUC (0-6h) by about two-fold in 3 of the study subjects. In the Japanese study, administration of a single 10 mg dose of simvastatin following pretreatment with 350 mL of a commercial green tea beverage twice daily for 14 days (estimated daily intake of 638 mg total catechins and 322 mg EGCG) did not affect mean simvastatin lactone Cmax or AUC to a statistically significant extent compared to administration with water, but increased mean simvastatin acid Cmax and AUC by 42% and 22%, respectively. Similar to the first study, green tea increased simvastatin lactone AUC (0-6h) by two- to three-fold in 4 of the study subjects. Although not studied, the interaction may also occur with lovastatin due to its similar metabolic profile to simvastatin.

MANAGEMENT: Patients receiving therapy with lovastatin, simvastatin, or red yeast rice (which contains lovastatin) should be advised to avoid the consumption of grapefruit and grapefruit juice. Fluvastatin, pravastatin, pitavastatin, and rosuvastatin are metabolized by other enzymes and may be preferable alternatives in some individuals. All patients receiving statin therapy should be advised to promptly report any unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness, particularly if accompanied by fever, malaise and/or dark colored urine. Therapy should be discontinued if creatine kinase is markedly elevated in the absence of strenuous exercise or if myopathy is otherwise suspected or diagnosed. Also, patients should either refrain from the use of oat bran and pectin, or separate the administration times by at least 2 to 4 hours if concurrent use cannot be avoided. Caution may be advisable when coadministered with green tea or green tea extracts. Dosing reduction of the statin and/or limiting consumption of green tea and green tea products may be required if an interaction is suspected.

References

  1. Richter WO, Jacob BG, Schwandt P "Interaction between fibre and lovastatin." Lancet 338 (1991): 706
  2. Neuvonen PJ, Backman JT, Niemi M "Pharmacokinetic comparison of the potential over-the-counter statins simvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin and pravastatin." Clin Pharmacokinet 47 (2008): 463-74
  3. Werba JP, Giroli M, Cavalca V, Nava MC, Tremoli E, Dal Bo L "The effect of green tea on simvastatin tolerability." Ann Intern Med 149 (2008): 286-7
  4. Knop J, Misaka S, Singer K, et. al "Inhibitory effects of green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on transport by OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, MATE2-K and P-glycoprotein." PLoS One 10 (2015): e0139370
  5. "Product Information. Mevacor (lovastatin)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  6. Kantola T, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ "Grapefruit juice greatly increases serum concentrations of lovastatin and lovastatin acid." Clin Pharmacol Ther 63 (1998): 397-402
  7. Thompson PD, Clarkson P, Karas RH "Statin-associated myopathy." JAMA 289 (2003): 1681-90
  8. Werba JP, Misaka S, Giroli MG, et al. "Overview of Green Tea Interaction with Cardiovascular Drugs." Curr Pharm Des (2014):
  9. Bailey DG, Malcolm J, Arnold O, Spence JD "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions." Br J Clin Pharmacol 46 (1998): 101-10
  10. "Product Information. Zocor (simvastatin)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  11. Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Neuvonen PJ "Grapefruit juice-simvastatin interaction: Effect on serum concentrations of simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors." Clin Pharmacol Ther 64 (1998): 477-83
  12. Roth M, Timmermann BN, Hagenbuch B "Interactions of green tea catechins with organic anion-transporting polypeptides." Drug Metab Dispos 39 (2011): 920-6
View all 12 references
Moderate

SITagliptin food

Moderate Food Interaction

Consumer information for this interaction is not currently available.

GENERALLY AVOID: Alcohol may cause hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. Hypoglycemia most frequently occurs during acute consumption of alcohol. Even modest amounts can lower blood sugar significantly, especially when the alcohol is ingested on an empty stomach or following exercise. The mechanism involves inhibition of both gluconeogenesis as well as the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia. Episodes of hypoglycemia may last for 8 to 12 hours after ethanol ingestion. By contrast, chronic alcohol abuse can cause impaired glucose tolerance and hyperglycemia. Moderate alcohol consumption generally does not affect blood glucose levels in patients with well controlled diabetes. A disulfiram-like reaction (e.g., flushing, headache, and nausea) to alcohol has been reported frequently with the use of chlorpropamide and very rarely with other sulfonylureas.

MANAGEMENT: Patients with diabetes should avoid consuming alcohol if their blood glucose is not well controlled, or if they have hypertriglyceridemia, neuropathy, or pancreatitis. Patients with well controlled diabetes should limit their alcohol intake to one drink daily for women and two drinks daily for men (1 drink = 5 oz wine, 12 oz beer, or 1.5 oz distilled spirits) in conjunction with their normal meal plan. Alcohol should not be consumed on an empty stomach or following exercise.

References

  1. Skillman TG, Feldman JM "The pharmacology of sulfonylureas." Am J Med 70 (1981): 361-72
  2. "Product Information. Diabinese (chlorpropamide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  3. Jerntorp P, Almer LO "Chlorpropamide-alcohol flushing in relation to macroangiopathy and peripheral neuropathy in non-insulin dependent diabetes." Acta Med Scand 656 (1981): 33-6
  4. "Product Information. Glucotrol (glipizide)." Pfizer US Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
  5. "Position Statement: evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes related complications. American Diabetes Association." Diabetes Care 25(Suppl 1) (2002): S50-S60
  6. "Product Information. Diabeta (glyburide)." Hoechst Marion-Roussel Inc, Kansas City, MO.
  7. Hartling SG, Faber OK, Wegmann ML, Wahlin-Boll E, Melander A "Interaction of ethanol and glipizide in humans." Diabetes Care 10 (1987): 683-6
  8. Jerntorp P, Almer LO, Holin H, et al "Plasma chlorpropamide: a critical factor in chlorpropamide-alcohol flush." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 24 (1983): 237-42
  9. Barnett AH, Spiliopoulos AJ, Pyke DA, et al "Metabolic studies in chlorpropamide-alcohol flush positive and negative type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetic patients with and without retinopathy." Diabetologia 24 (1983): 213-5
  10. Cerner Multum, Inc. "UK Summary of Product Characteristics." O 0
View all 10 references

Simvastatin / sitagliptin drug interactions

There are 495 drug interactions with simvastatin / sitagliptin

Simvastatin / sitagliptin disease interactions

There are 8 disease interactions with simvastatin / sitagliptin which include:

Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.