Skip to Content

Triquilar 28 (ethinyl estradiol / levonorgestrel) and Alcohol / Food Interactions

There are 7 alcohol/food/lifestyle interactions with Triquilar 28 (ethinyl estradiol / levonorgestrel) which include:

Minor

levonorgestrel ↔ Alcohol (Ethanol)

Minor Drug Interaction

Consumer information for this minor interaction is not currently available. Some minor drug interactions may not be clinically relevant in all patients. Minor drug interactions do not usually cause harm or require a change in therapy. However, your healthcare provider can determine if adjustments to your medications are needed.

For clinical details see professional interaction data.

Minor

ethinyl estradiol ↔ Alcohol (Ethanol)

Minor Drug Interaction

Consumer information for this minor interaction is not currently available. Some minor drug interactions may not be clinically relevant in all patients. Minor drug interactions do not usually cause harm or require a change in therapy. However, your healthcare provider can determine if adjustments to your medications are needed.

For clinical details see professional interaction data.

Minor

ethinyl estradiol ↔ food

Minor Food Interaction

Consumer information for this minor interaction is not currently available. Some minor drug interactions may not be clinically relevant in all patients. Minor drug interactions do not usually cause harm or require a change in therapy. However, your healthcare provider can determine if adjustments to your medications are needed.

For clinical details see professional interaction data.

Major

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Severe Potential Hazard, High plausibility

estrogens - hypertension

The risk of myocardial infarction and strokes, including those associated with oral contraceptive use and some estrogen use, is increased in patients with hypertension. Moreover, estrogens (and also progestogens) may elevate blood pressure and worsen the hypertension, thus compounding the risk. Clinically significant blood pressure increases have been reported during estrogen therapy, particularly in patients receiving high dosages or treated with oral contraceptive combinations having high progestational activity. These effects also increase with duration of therapy and patient age. Therapy with estrogens should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting hypertension. Patients should be monitored for changes in cardiovascular status, and their antihypertensive regimen adjusted or estrogen therapy withdrawn as necessary. In patients requiring contraception, alternative methods should be considered for those who are hypertensive, over age 35, and smoke.

References

  1. "Product Information. Climara (estradiol)." Berlex, Richmond, CA.
  2. "Product Information. Ogen (estropipate topical)" Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  3. Levine AB, Teppa J, Mcgough B, Cowchock FS "Evaluation of the prethrombotic state in pregnancy and in women using oral contraceptives." Contraception 53 (1996): 255-7
  4. Thorneycroft IH "Oral contraceptives and myocardial infarction." Am J Obstet Gynecol 163 (1990): 1393-7
  5. Crane MG, Harris JJ, Winsor W 3d "Hypertension, oral contraceptive agents, and conjugated estrogens." Ann Intern Med 74 (1971): 13-21
  6. Rosenberg L, Slone D, Shapiro S, Kaufman D, Stolley PD, Miettinen OS "Noncontraceptive estrogens and myocardial infarction in young women." JAMA 244 (1980): 339-42
  7. Norris LA, Bonnar J "The effect of oestrogen dose and progestogen type on haemostatic changes in women taking low dose oral contraceptives." Br J Obstet Gynaecol 103 (1996): 261-7
  8. Martinelli I, Rosendaal FR, Vandenbroucke JP, Mannucci PM "Oral contraceptives are a risk factor for cerebral vein thrombosis." Thromb Haemost 76 (1996): 477-8
  9. "Product Information. Ortho-Cyclen (ethinyl estradiol-norgestimate)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  10. "Product Information. Ortho-Cept (desogestrel-ethinyl estradiol)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  11. Wren BG, Routledge DA "Blood pressure changes: oestrogens in climacteric women." Med J Aust 2 (1981): 528-31
  12. Steinberg WM "Oral contraception: risks and benefits." Adv Contracept 5 (1989): 219-28
  13. Thorogood M "Risk of stroke in users of oral contraceptives." JAMA 281 (1999): 1255-6
  14. "Product Information. Ortho Novum 1/50 (mestranol-norethindrone)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  15. Leiman G "Depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate as a contraceptive agent: its effect on weight and blood pressure." Am J Obstet Gynecol 114 (1972): 97-102
  16. Petitti DB, Sidney S, Bernstein A, Wolf S, Quesenberry C, Ziel HK "Stroke in users of low-dose oral contraceptives." N Engl J Med 335 (1996): 8-15
  17. Derman RJ "Oral contraceptives and cardiovascular risk. Taking a safe course of action." Postgrad Med 88 (1990): 119-22
  18. Poulter NR, Chang CL, Farley TMM, Meirik O, Marmot MG, Debertribeiro M, Medina E, Artigas J, Shen H, Zhong YH, Zhang DW, "Ischaemic stroke and combined oral contraceptives: results of an international, multicentre, case-control study." Lancet 348 (1996): 498-505
  19. "Product Information. Estinyl Tablets (ethinyl estradiol)" Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  20. Poulter NR, Chang CL, Farley TMM, Meirik O, Marmot MG "Haemorrhagic stroke, overall stroke risk, and combined oral contraceptives: results of an international, multicentre, case-control study." Lancet 348 (1996): 505-10
  21. Derman R "Oral contraceptives: a reassessment." Obstet Gynecol Surv 44 (1989): 662-8
  22. "Product Information. Triphasil (ethinyl estradiol-levonorgestrel)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  23. "Product Information. Ortho Novum 10/11 (ethinyl estradiol-norethindrone)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  24. "Product Information. Estraderm (estradiol)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  25. Schwartz J, Freeman R, Frishman W "Clinical pharmacology of estrogens: cardiovascular actions and cardioprotective benefits of replacement therapy in postmenopausal women." J Clin Pharmacol 35 (1995): 1-16
  26. Thorogood M, Mann J, Murphy M, Vessey M "Fatal stroke and use of oral contraceptives: findings from a case- control study." Am J Epidemiol 136 (1992): 35-45
  27. "Product Information. Vivelle (estradiol)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  28. Lidegaard O "Oral contraception and risk of a cerebral thromboembolic attack: results of a case-control study." BMJ 306 (1993): 956-63
  29. Belchetz PE "Hormonal treatment of postmenopausal women." N Engl J Med 330 (1994): 1062-71
  30. Barrett-Connor E, Wingard DL, Criqui MH "Postmenopausal estrogen use and heart disease risk factors in the 1980s. Rancho Bernardo, Calif, revisited." JAMA 261 (1989): 1095-2100
  31. "Product Information. Ortho Dienestrol Cream (dienestrol topical)" Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  32. "Product Information. Premarin (conjugated estrogens)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  33. Peterson HB, Lee NC "Long-term health risks and benefits of oral contraceptive use." Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 17 (1990): 775-88
  34. Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC, et al. "Postmenopausal estrogen and cardiovascular disease. Ten-year follow-up from the Nurses' Health Study." N Engl J Med 325 (1991): 756-62
  35. Williams RS "Benefits and risks of oral contraceptive use." Postgrad Med 92 (1992): 155-7
  36. "Product Information. Demulen (ethinyl estradiol-ethynodiol)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  37. "Product Information. Estrace (estradiol)." Warner Chilcott Laboratories, Rockaway, NJ.
  38. The Writing Group for the PEPI Trial "Effects of estrogen or estrogen/progestin regimens on heart disease risk factors in postmenopausal women: the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Trial." JAMA 273 (1995): 199-208
  39. Piegsa K, Guillebaud J "Oral contraceptives and the risk of DVT." Practitioner 240 (1996): 544
  40. Leaf DA, Bland D, Schaad D, Neighbor WE, Scott CS "Oral contraceptive use and coronary risk factors in women." Am J Med Sci 301 (1991): 365-8
  41. Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Lesko SM, Shapiro S "Oral contraceptive use and the risk of myocardial infarction." Am J Epidemiol 131 (1990): 1009-16
  42. "Product Information. Ortho-Est (estropipate)." Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  43. "Product Information. Lo/Ovral (ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  44. Barrett-Connor E, Bush TL "Estrogen and coronary heart disease in women." JAMA 265 (1991): 1861-7
  45. Mishell DR "Contraception." N Engl J Med 320 (1989): 777-85
  46. Crane MG, Harris JJ "Estrogens and hypertension: effect of discontinuing estrogens on blood pressure, exchangeable sodium, and the renin-aldosterone system." Am J Med Sci 276 (1978): 33-55
  47. Sidney S, Petitti DB, Quesenberry CP "Myocardial infarction and the use of estrogen and estrogen-progestogen in postmenopausal women." Ann Intern Med 127 (1997): 501-8
  48. "Product Information. Estratab (esterified estrogens)" Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marietta, GA.
  49. Jick H, Dinan B, Rothman KJ "Noncontraceptive estrogens and nonfatal myocardial infarction." JAMA 239 (1978): 1407-8
  50. Speroff L "Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism." Int J Gynaecol Obstet 54 (1996): 45-50
  51. Hannaford PC, Croft PR, Kay CR "Oral contraception and stroke. Evidence from the Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study." Stroke 25 (1994): 935-42
  52. Farley TMM, Meirik O, Poulter NR, Chang CL, Marmot MG "Oral contraceptives and thrombotic diseases: impact of new epidemiological studies." Contraception 54 (1996): 193-5
View all 52 references
Moderate

High Cholesterol (Hyperlipoproteinemia, Hypertriglyceridemia, Sitosterolemia)

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

estrogens - hyperlipidemia

Although estrogens have generally favorable effects on plasma lipids, including increases in HDL and decreases in total cholesterol and LDL, they have also been associated with significant elevations in triglyceride levels, particularly when high dosages are used. Severe hyperlipidemia is known to sometimes cause pancreatitis. Patients with preexisting hyperlipidemia may require closer monitoring during estrogen therapy, and adjustments made accordingly in their lipid-lowering regimen.

References

  1. Hulley S, Grady D, Bush T, Furberg C, Herrington D, Riggs B, Vittinghoff E "Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women." JAMA 280 (1998): 605-13
  2. "Product Information. Estrace (estradiol)." Warner Chilcott Laboratories, Rockaway, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Ortho-Cyclen (ethinyl estradiol-norgestimate)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  4. "Product Information. Ortho-Est (estropipate)." Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  5. Janaud A, Rouffy J, Upmalis D, Dain MP "A comparison study of lipid and androgen metabolism with triphasic oral contraceptive formulations containing norgestimate or levonorgestrel." Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl 156 (1992): 33-8
  6. Burkman RT, Zacur HA, Kimball AW, Kwiterovich P, Bell WR "Oral contraceptives and lipids and lipoproteins: Part I--Variations in mean levels by oral contraceptive type." Contraception 40 (1989): 553-61
  7. "Product Information. Premarin (conjugated estrogens)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Ortho Dienestrol Cream (dienestrol topical)" Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  9. "Product Information. Ortho Novum 1/50 (mestranol-norethindrone)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  10. "Product Information. Triphasil (ethinyl estradiol-levonorgestrel)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  11. "Product Information. Estraderm (estradiol)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  12. "Product Information. Estratab (esterified estrogens)" Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marietta, GA.
  13. "Product Information. Estinyl Tablets (ethinyl estradiol)" Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
  14. "Product Information. Ortho-Cept (desogestrel-ethinyl estradiol)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  15. "Product Information. Lo/Ovral (ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  16. "Product Information. Demulen (ethinyl estradiol-ethynodiol)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  17. Godsland IF, Crook D "Update on the metabolic effects of steroidal contraceptives and their relationship to cardiovascular disease risk." Am J Obstet Gynecol 170 (1994): 1528-36
  18. "Product Information. Vivelle (estradiol)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  19. "Product Information. Ortho Novum 10/11 (ethinyl estradiol-norethindrone)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  20. Derman R "Oral contraceptives: a reassessment." Obstet Gynecol Surv 44 (1989): 662-8
  21. "Product Information. Climara (estradiol)." Berlex, Richmond, CA.
  22. Steinberg WM "Oral contraception: risks and benefits." Adv Contracept 5 (1989): 219-28
  23. Molitch ME, Oill P, Odell WD "Massive hyperlipemia during estrogen therapy." JAMA 227 (1974): 522-5
  24. "Product Information. Ogen (estropipate topical)" Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
View all 24 references
Moderate

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

estrogens/progestogens - fluid retention

Estrogens and progestogens may cause fluid retention, particularly when given in high dosages or for prolonged periods. Therapy with these agents should be administered cautiously in patients who have preexisting problems with excess fluid. In addition, patients with conditions that may be adversely affected by fluid accumulation, such as asthma, epilepsy, migraine, and cardiovascular or renal dysfunction, should be observed for exacerbation of their condition during estrogen and/or progestogen therapy.

References

  1. "Product Information. Estrace (estradiol)." Warner Chilcott Laboratories, Rockaway, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Micronor (norethindrone)" Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  3. "Product Information. Demulen (ethinyl estradiol-ethynodiol)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  4. "Product Information. Provera (medroxyprogesterone)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  5. "Product Information. Ortho-Cyclen (ethinyl estradiol-norgestimate)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  6. "Product Information. Megace (megestrol)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Ovrette (norgestrel)" Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  8. "Product Information. Ortho Novum 10/11 (ethinyl estradiol-norethindrone)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  9. "Product Information. Ortho-Cept (desogestrel-ethinyl estradiol)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  10. "Product Information. Emcyt (estramustine)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  11. "Product Information. Norplant System (levonorgestrel)" Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  12. "Product Information. Climara (estradiol)." Berlex, Richmond, CA.
  13. "Product Information. Ortho-Est (estropipate)." Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  14. "Product Information. Lo/Ovral (ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  15. "Product Information. Estratab (esterified estrogens)" Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc, Marietta, GA.
  16. "Product Information. Estraderm (estradiol)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  17. "Product Information. Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  18. "Product Information. Triphasil (ethinyl estradiol-levonorgestrel)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  19. "Product Information. Ortho Novum 1/50 (mestranol-norethindrone)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  20. Leiman G "Depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate as a contraceptive agent: its effect on weight and blood pressure." Am J Obstet Gynecol 114 (1972): 97-102
  21. "Product Information. Ortho Dienestrol Cream (dienestrol topical)" Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  22. "Product Information. Premarin (conjugated estrogens)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  23. "Product Information. Vivelle (estradiol)." Ciba Pharmaceuticals, Summit, NJ.
  24. "Product Information. Ogen (estropipate topical)" Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  25. "Product Information. Estinyl Tablets (ethinyl estradiol)" Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.
View all 25 references
Moderate

High Cholesterol (Hyperlipoproteinemia, Hypertriglyceridemia, Sitosterolemia)

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

progestogens - hyperlipidemia

Some progestogenic agents may elevate plasma LDL levels and/or lower HDL levels, although data have been inconsistent. Patients with preexisting hyperlipidemia may require closer monitoring during progestogen therapy, and adjustments made accordingly in their lipid-lowering regimen.

References

  1. "Product Information. Provera (medroxyprogesterone)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  2. "Product Information. Ortho-Cyclen (ethinyl estradiol-norgestimate)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  3. Luciano AA, De Souza MJ, Roy MP, Schoenfeld MJ, Nulsen JC, Halvorson CV "Evaluation of low-dose estrogen and progestin therapy in postmenopausal women." J Reprod Med 38 (1993): 207-14
  4. "Product Information. Norplant System (levonorgestrel)" Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  5. "Product Information. Lo/Ovral (ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  6. "Product Information. Demulen (ethinyl estradiol-ethynodiol)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  7. "Product Information. Micronor (norethindrone)" Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  8. "Product Information. Ortho-Cept (desogestrel-ethinyl estradiol)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  9. Virutamasen P, Wongsrichanalai C, Tangkeo P, Nitichai Y, Rienprayoon D "Metabolic effects of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate in long-term users: a cross-sectional study." Int J Gynaecol Obstet 24 (1986): 291-6
  10. Barnes RB, Roy S, Lobo RA "Comparison of lipid and androgen levels after conjugated estrogen or depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate treatment in postmenopausal women." Obstet Gynecol 66 (1985): 216-9
  11. Haiba NA, el-Habashy MA, Said SA, Darwish EA, Abdel-Sayed WS, Nayel SE "Clinical evaluation of two monthly injectable contraceptives and their effects on some metabolic parameters." Contraception 39 (1989): 619-32
  12. Teichmann AT, Wander HE, Cremer P, et al. "Medroxyprogesterone acetate and lipid metabolic changes." Arzneimittelforschung 37 (1987): 573-77
  13. Who Task Force on Long-acting Agents for Fertility Regulation "Metabolic side-effects of injectable depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, 150 mg three-monthly, in undernourished lactating women." Bull World Health Organ 64 (1986): 587-94
  14. "Product Information. Ortho Novum 10/11 (ethinyl estradiol-norethindrone)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  15. "Product Information. Ovrette (norgestrel)" Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  16. "Product Information. Triphasil (ethinyl estradiol-levonorgestrel)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  17. "Product Information. Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
View all 17 references
Moderate

Obesity

Minor Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility

progestogens - weight gain

Progestogens can cause weight gain, which may be significant (as is the case with parenteral medroxyprogesterone) and undesirable in obese patients attempting to lose weight.

References

  1. "Product Information. Micronor (norethindrone)" Ortho McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ.
  2. "Product Information. Lo/Ovral (ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  3. "Product Information. Demulen (ethinyl estradiol-ethynodiol)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
  4. Amatayakul K, Sivasomboon B, Thanangkul O "A study of the mechanism of weight gain in medroxyprogesterone acetate users." Contraception 22 (1980): 605-22
  5. "Product Information. Ortho Novum 10/11 (ethinyl estradiol-norethindrone)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  6. "Product Information. Ortho-Cyclen (ethinyl estradiol-norgestimate)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  7. "Product Information. Ortho-Cept (desogestrel-ethinyl estradiol)." Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation, Raritan, NJ.
  8. "Product Information. Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  9. "Product Information. Triphasil (ethinyl estradiol-levonorgestrel)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  10. "Product Information. Provera (medroxyprogesterone)." Pharmacia and Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI.
  11. "Product Information. Ovrette (norgestrel)" Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
  12. Leiman G "Depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate as a contraceptive agent: its effect on weight and blood pressure." Am J Obstet Gynecol 114 (1972): 97-102
  13. "Product Information. Norplant System (levonorgestrel)" Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA.
View all 13 references

Triquilar 28 (ethinyl estradiol / levonorgestrel) drug Interactions

There are 574 drug interactions with Triquilar 28 (ethinyl estradiol / levonorgestrel)

Triquilar 28 (ethinyl estradiol / levonorgestrel) disease Interactions

There are 24 disease interactions with Triquilar 28 (ethinyl estradiol / levonorgestrel) which include:

Drug Interaction Classification

The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No information available.

Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.

Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Multum is accurate, up-to-date and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. In addition, the drug information contained herein may be time sensitive and should not be utilized as a reference resource beyond the date hereof. This material does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients, or recommend therapy. Multum's information is a reference resource designed as supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge, and judgement of healthcare practitioners in patient care. The absence of a warning for a given drug or combination thereof in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for any given patient. Multum Information Services, Inc. does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. Copyright 2000-2018 Multum Information Services, Inc. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist.

Hide