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Diltiazem / enalapril and Alcohol/Food Interactions

There are 2 alcohol/food/lifestyle interactions with diltiazem / enalapril which include:


enalapril food

Moderate Food Interaction

Consumer information for this interaction is not currently available.

GENERALLY AVOID: Moderate-to-high dietary intake of potassium can cause hyperkalemia in some patients who are using angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In some cases, affected patients were using a potassium-rich salt substitute. ACE inhibitors can promote hyperkalemia through inhibition of the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin (RAA) system.

MANAGEMENT: It is recommended that patients who are taking ACE inhibitors be advised to avoid moderately high or high potassium dietary intake. Particular attention should be paid to the potassium content of salt substitutes.


  1. Ray K, Dorman S, Watson R "Severe hyperkalaemia due to the concomitant use of salt substitutes and ACE inhibitors in hypertension: a potentially life threatening interaction." J Hum Hypertens 13 (1999): 717-20
  2. "Product Information. Vasotec (enalapril)." Merck & Co, Inc, West Point, PA.
  3. Good CB, McDermott L "Diet and serum potassium in patients on ACE inhibitors." JAMA 274 (1995): 538

dilTIAZem food

Moderate Food Interaction

Consumer information for this interaction is not currently available.

MONITOR: Like many CNS-active agents, alcohol can exhibit hypotensive effects. Coadministration with antihypertensive agents including diltiazem may result in additive effects on blood pressure and orthostasis.

MONITOR: Grapefruit juice may increase the plasma concentrations of orally administered diltiazem in some patients. The proposed mechanism is inhibition of CYP450 3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism in the gut wall by certain compounds present in grapefruit. In a study of ten healthy male volunteers, administration of a single 120 mg oral dose of immediate-release diltiazem in combination with 250 mL of grapefruit juice increased the diltiazem peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure (AUC) by an average of 22% and 20%, respectively, compared to administration with water. The time to reach Cmax (Tmax) and the terminal half-life were not affected, and no statistically significant differences in blood pressure and heart rate were observed during administration with grapefruit juice relative to water. In a different study, repeated administration of 200 mL of grapefruit juice at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 hours had no significant effect on the Cmax or AUC of a single 120 mg oral dose of diltiazem, but increased its half-life from 4.1 to 5.1 hours. The ratios for the N-demethyl and deacetyl metabolites to diltiazem were also not affected by grapefruit juice. However, because pharmacokinetic interactions involving grapefruit juice are often subject to a high degree of interpatient variability, the extent to which a given patient may be affected is difficult to predict.

MANAGEMENT: Patients should be advised that alcohol may potentiate the hypotensive effects of diltiazem, especially during the initiation of therapy and following a dosage increase. Caution should be exercised when rising from a sitting or recumbent position, and patients should notify their physician if they experience dizziness, lightheadedness, syncope, orthostasis, or tachycardia. Patients who regularly consume grapefruit or grapefruit juice should be monitored for increased adverse effects of diltiazem such as such as headache, irregular heartbeat, edema, unexplained weight gain, and chest pain. Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should be avoided if an interaction is suspected.


  1. Bailey DG, Arnold JMO, Spence JD "Grapefruit juice and drugs - how significant is the interaction." Clin Pharmacokinet 26 (1994): 91-8
  2. Sigusch H, Henschel L, Kraul H, Merkel U, Hoffmann A "Lack of effect of grapefruit juice on diltiazem bioavailability in normal subjects." Pharmazie 49 (1994): 675-9
  3. Cerner Multum, Inc. "UK Summary of Product Characteristics." O 0
  4. Bailey DG, Malcolm J, Arnold O, Spence JD "Grapefruit juice-drug interactions." Br J Clin Pharmacol 46 (1998): 101-10
  5. Christensen H, Asberg A, Holmboe AB, Berg KJ "Coadministration of grapefruit juice increases systemic exposure of diltiazem in healthy volunteers." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 58 (2002): 515-520
View all 5 references

Diltiazem / enalapril drug interactions

There are 782 drug interactions with diltiazem / enalapril

Diltiazem / enalapril disease interactions

There are 17 disease interactions with diltiazem / enalapril which include:

Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.