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Azathioprine Disease Interactions

There are 4 disease interactions with azathioprine.

Major

Azathioprine (applies to azathioprine) bone marrow depression

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility. Applicable conditions: Bone Marrow Depression/Low Blood Counts

Azathioprine may cause severe leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, macrocytic anemia, severe bone marrow depression and, rarely, pure red cell aplasia. Therapy with azathioprine should be administered cautiously in patients with bone marrow depression. Hematological toxicities are dose related. Caution and routine monitoring of blood counts and platelets is recommended. Patients should report any unusual bleeding or bruising.

References

  1. Lennard L, Van Loon JA, Weinshilboum RM "Pharmacogenetics of acute azathioprine toxicity: relationship to thiopurine methyltransferase genetic polymorphism." Clin Pharmacol Ther 46 (1989): 149-54
  2. DeClerck YA, Ortega JA, Pennisi AJ, Ettenger RB "Macrocytosis and pure RBC anemia caused by azathioprine." Am J Dis Child 134 (1980): 377-9
  3. Besinger U, Hohlfeld R, Heininger K, Michels M, Toyka KV "Azathioprine toxicity during long-term immunosuppression of generalized myasthenia gravis." Neurology 38 (1988): 258-61
  4. Nossent JC, Swaak AJ "Pancytopenia in systemic lupus erythematosus related to azathioprine." J Intern Med 227 (1990): 69-72
  5. Cattran DC, Hogge DE, Wilson DR, Shumak KH "Reversible azathioprine-induced erythrocyte aplasia in a renal transplant recipient." Can Med Assoc J 126 (1982): 512-3
  6. Fries JF, Spitz P, Singh G, Williams CA "Toxic effects of azathioprine in rheumatoid arthritis: a national post-marketing perspective." Arthritis Rheum 32 (1989): 837-43
  7. Boerbooms AM, Jeurissen ME, Van de Putte LB "Pancytopenia related to azathioprine in rheumatoid arthritis." Ann Rheum Dis 47 (1988): 503-5
  8. Boerbooms AM, van de Putte LB, Speerstra F, et al. "Side-effects of azathioprine treatment in rheumatoid arthritis: analysis of 10 years of experience." Ann Rheum Dis 41 (1982): 37-9
  9. Pelkey J, Whisnant JK "Rheumatoid arthritis: treatment with azathioprine (IMURAN (R)): clinical side-effects and laboratory abnormalities." Ann Rheum Dis 41 (1982): 44-7
  10. "Product Information. Imuran (azathioprine)." Glaxo Wellcome (2002):
  11. Anstey A, Kirby JD, Lennard L, Mayou SC "Pancytopenia related to azathioprine-an enzyme deficiency caused by a common genetic polymorphism: a review." J R Soc Med 85 (1992): 752-6
  12. Creemers GJ, Lowenberg B, van der Heul C, van Boven WP "Azathioprine-associated pure red cell aplasia." J Intern Med 233 (1993): 85-7
  13. Agarwal SK, Mehta SN, Mittal D, Saxena R, Tiwari SC, Dash SC, Saxena S "Azathioprine-induced pure red blood cell aplasia in a renal transplant recipient." Nephron 63 (1993): 471
  14. Boerbooms AM, Kerstens PJ, Deabreu RA, Hilbrands LB, Stolk JN, Vandeputte LB "5-nucleotidase and azathioprine-related bone-marrow toxicity." Lancet 342 (1993): 1245-6
  15. Boerbooms AAMT, Kerstens PJSM, Deabreu RA, Lambooy LHJ, Vandeputte LBA, Stolk JN "Azathioprine-related bone marrow toxicity and low activities of purine enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis." Arthritis Rheum 38 (1995): 142-5
  16. Snow JL, Gibson LE "A pharmacogenetic basis for the safe and effective use of azathioprine and other thiopurine drugs in dermatologic patients." J Am Acad Dermatol 32 (1995): 114-6
  17. Gales MA, Thompson DF "Drug-induced pure red cell aplasia." Pharmacotherapy 16 (1996): 1002-8
View all 17 references
Major

Azathioprine (applies to azathioprine) infections

Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Infection - Bacterial/Fungal/Protozoal/Viral

Serious infections, including reactivation of latent infections have been reported with the use of azathioprine. Cases of JC virus-associated infection resulting in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), sometimes fatal, have been reported in patients treated with immunosuppressants, including azathioprine. A diagnosis of PML should be considered in any patient presenting with new-onset neurological manifestations and a consultation with a neurologist is recommended. Consider reducing the amount of immunosuppression in patients who develop PML, and in transplant patients, consider the risk that the reduced immunosuppression represents to the graft.

References

  1. "Product Information. Imuran (azathioprine)." Glaxo Wellcome (2002):
Major

Azathioprine (applies to azathioprine) renal dysfunction

Major Potential Hazard, High plausibility.

Azathioprine may accumulate in patients with impaired renal function. Therapy with azathioprine should be administered cautiously and may need dosage reduction in patients with impaired renal function.

References

  1. Carolla RL, Duttera MJ, Gallelli JF, et al. "Hematuria and crystalluria after high-dose 6-mercaptopurine administration." N Engl J Med 287 (1972): 292-4
  2. Schusziarra V, Siemensen HC, Schlamp R, Ziekursch V "Pharmacokinetics of azathioprine under haemodialysis." Int J Clin Pharmacol 14 (1976): 298-302
  3. Amend JC, Ding TL, Gambertoglio JG, et al. "Azathioprine (AZA) bioavailability and pharmacokinetics in kidney transplant patients." Clin Pharmacol Ther 27 (1980): 250
  4. Fries JF, Spitz P, Singh G, Williams CA "Toxic effects of azathioprine in rheumatoid arthritis: a national post-marketing perspective." Arthritis Rheum 32 (1989): 837-43
  5. Keystone EC, Schabas R "Hypotension with oliguria: a side-effect of azathioprine." Arthritis Rheum 24 (1981): 1453-4
  6. Fiocchi O, Trotta F, Menegale G "Azathioprine-induced hypotension with oliguria." Arthritis Rheum 25 (1982): 1388-9
  7. Pelkey J, Whisnant JK "Rheumatoid arthritis: treatment with azathioprine (IMURAN (R)): clinical side-effects and laboratory abnormalities." Ann Rheum Dis 41 (1982): 44-7
  8. Gruber SA, Chan GL, Erdmann GR, et al. "Pharmacokinetics of 6-thiouric acid and 6-mercaptopurine in renal allograft recipients after oral administration of azathioprine." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 36 (1989): 265-71
  9. Lonnerholm G, Grefberg N, Hartvig P, Odlind B, Lindstrom B "Serum azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine levels and immunosuppressive activity after azathioprine in uremic patients." Int J Immunopharmacol 8 (1986): 1-11
  10. Canafax DM, Gruber SA, Chan GL, Erdmann GR, Matas AJ "Azathioprine metabolism: pharmacokinetics of 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thiouric acid and 6-thioguanine nucleotides in renal transplant patients." J Clin Pharmacol 30 (1990): 358-63
  11. Allan JG, Lever RS, Rodger RS, McHenry PM "Nephrotoxicity due to azathioprine." Br J Dermatol 128 (1993): 106
View all 11 references
Moderate

Azathioprine (applies to azathioprine) liver disease

Moderate Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility.

Azathioprine is metabolically converted to the pharmacologically active 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). Conversion to 6-MP and metabolism of 6-MP may be impaired in patients with liver disease. Therapy with azathioprine should be administered cautiously in patients with liver disease. Monitoring liver function is recommended in these patients.

References

  1. Millard PR, Herbertson BM, Calne RY, Evans DB "Azathioprine hepatotoxicity in renal transplantation." Transplantation 16 (1973): 527-30
  2. Dhumeaux D, Duvoux C, Vernant JP, Kracht M, Lang P, Zafrani ES "Hyperplasie nodulaire regenerative du foie associee a la prise d'azathioprine." Gastroenterol Clin Biol 15 (1991): 968-73
  3. Ascher N, Sterneck M, Wiesner R, et al. "Azathioprine hepatotoxicity after liver transplantation." Hepatology 14 (1991): 806-10
  4. Dandavino R, Forbes RD, Farge D, Guttmann RD, Parfrey PS "Reduction of azathioprine in renal transplant patients with chronic hepatitis." Transplantation 41 (1986): 55-9
  5. Gerlag PG, van Hooff JP "Hepatic sinusoidal dilatation with portal hypertension during azathioprine treatment: a cause of chronic liver disease after kidney transplantation." Transplant Proc 19 (1987): 3699-703
  6. Matesanz R, Liano F, Moreno A, et al. "Veno-occlusive hepatic disease of the liver in renal transplantation: is azathioprine the cause?" Nephron 51 (1989): 509-16
  7. Besinger U, Hohlfeld R, Heininger K, Michels M, Toyka KV "Azathioprine toxicity during long-term immunosuppression of generalized myasthenia gravis." Neurology 38 (1988): 258-61
  8. Cotton DW, Minihane N, Cawley MI, Cooper C "Azathioprine hypersensitivity manifesting as acute focal hepatocellular necrosis." J R Soc Med 79 (1986): 171-3
  9. Saul SH, Katska DA, Soloway RD, Jorkasky D, Reynolds JC, Sigal H "Azathioprine and hepatic venocclusive disease in renal transplant patients." Gastroenterology 90 (1986): 446-54
  10. DePinho RA, Goldberg CS, Lefkowitch JH "Azathioprine and the liver: evidence favoring idiosyncratic, mixed cholestatic-hepatocellular injury in humans." Gastroenterology 86 (1984): 162-5
  11. Fries JF, Spitz P, Singh G, Williams CA "Toxic effects of azathioprine in rheumatoid arthritis: a national post-marketing perspective." Arthritis Rheum 32 (1989): 837-43
  12. Delacy LM, Seeff LB, Ishak KG, Lemley DE, Nashel DJ "Azathioprine induced hepatic veno-occlusive disease in rheumatoid arthritis." Ann Rheum Dis 48 (1989): 342-6
  13. Boerbooms AM, Jeurissen ME, Kruijsen MW, van de Putte LB "Azathioprine induced fever, chills, rash, and hepatotoxicity in rheumatoid arthritis." Ann Rheum Dis 49 (1990): 25-7
  14. Read AE, Wiesner RH, LaBrecque DR, et al. "Hepatic veno-occlusive disease associated with renal transplantation and azathioprine therapy." Ann Intern Med 104 (1986): 651-5
  15. Lichter M, Small P "Probably azathioprine hepatotoxicity: a case report." Ann Allergy 62 (1989): 518-20
  16. "Product Information. Imuran (azathioprine)." Glaxo Wellcome (2002):
  17. Devogelaer JP, Meys E, de Deuxchaisnes CN, Geubel A, Rahier J "Fever, hepatitis and acute interstitial nephritis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Concurrent manifestations of azathioprine hypersensitivity." J Rheumatol 19 (1992): 807-9
View all 17 references

Azathioprine drug interactions

There are 361 drug interactions with azathioprine.


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Drug Interaction Classification

These classifications are only a guideline. The relevance of a particular drug interaction to a specific individual is difficult to determine. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting or stopping any medication.
Major Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.
Moderate Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.
Minor Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.
Unknown No interaction information available.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.