hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide (Oral route)
hye-DRAL-a-zeen hye-droe-KLOR-ide, hye-droe-klor-oh-THYE-a-zide
This fixed-combination drug is not indicated for initial therapy of hypertension. Hypertension requires therapy titrated to the individual patient. If the fixed combination represents the dosage so determined, its use may be more convenient in patient management. The treatment of hypertension is not static but must be reevaluated as conditions in each patient warrant .
Commonly used brand name(s)
In the U.S.
Available Dosage Forms:
Therapeutic Class: Vasodilator/Thiazide Combination
Pharmacologic Class: Diuretic
Chemical Class: Thiazide
Uses For hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide
Hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide combination is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension).
High blood pressure adds to the workload of the heart and arteries. If it continues for a long time, the heart and arteries may not function properly. This can damage the blood vessels of the brain, heart, and kidneys, resulting in a stroke, heart failure, or kidney failure. High blood pressure also may increase the risk of heart attacks. These problems may be less likely to occur if blood pressure is controlled.
Hydralazine works by relaxing blood vessels and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart while reducing its workload. The hydrochlorothiazide is a type of medicine known as a thiazide diuretic and helps reduce the amount of water in the body by acting on the kidneys to increase the flow of urine.
hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide is available only with your doctor's prescription.
Before Using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide, the following should be considered:
Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.
Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide combination in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established .
Many medicines have not been studied specifically in older people. Therefore, it may not be known whether they work exactly the same way they do in younger adults. Although there is no specific information comparing use of hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide combination in the elderly with use in other age groups, hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide is not expected to cause different side effects or problems in older people than it does in younger adults. However, dizziness or lightheadedness or symptoms of too much potassium loss may be more likely to occur in the elderly, who are usually more sensitive to the effects of hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide. Also, hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide may reduce tolerance to cold temperatures in elderly patients.
|All Trimesters||C||Animal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been conducted and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.|
There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.
Interactions with Medicines
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.
Using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.
Using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
- Amtolmetin Guacil
- Arsenic Trioxide
- Choline Salicylate
- Flufenamic Acid
- Mefenamic Acid
- Niflumic Acid
- Nimesulide Beta Cyclodextrin
- Salicylic Acid
- Sodium Salicylate
- Tiaprofenic Acid
- Tolfenamic Acid
Using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.
Interactions with Food/Tobacco/Alcohol
Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.
Using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide with any of the following may cause an increased risk of certain side effects but may be unavoidable in some cases. If used together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide, or give you special instructions about the use of food, alcohol, or tobacco.
- Enteral Nutrition
Other Medical Problems
The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:
- Gout (history of)
- Hyperuricemia (high uric acid in the blood) or—Hydrochlorothiazide may increase the amount of uric acid in the blood, which can lead to gout .
- Heart or blood vessel disease or
- Stroke (recent)—Lowering blood pressure may make problems resulting from these conditions worse.
- Hypochloremia (low chloride in the blood) or
- Hypokalemia (low potassium in the blood)
- Hypomagnesemia (low magnesium in the blood) or
- Hyponatremia (low sodium in the blood) or
- Parathyroid disease or
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (history of)—Use with caution. hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide may make these conditions worse .
- Kidney disease—Hydrochlorothiazide may worsen this condition. Also, the blood pressure lowering effects may be increased because of slower removal of hydralazine from the body.
- Liver disease—If hydrochlorothiazide causes loss of too much water from the body, liver disease can become much worse.
- Sympathectomy—Use with caution. The effects of hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide may be increased .
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus—Hydrochlorothiazide may change the amount of diabetes medicine needed .
Proper Use of hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide
hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide may cause you to have an unusual feeling of tiredness when you begin to take it. You may also notice an increase in the amount of urine or in your frequency of urination. After taking the medicine for a while, these effects should lessen. To keep the increase in urine from affecting your sleep:
- If you are to take a single dose a day, take it in the morning after breakfast.
- If you are to take more than one dose a day, take the last dose no later than 6 p.m., unless otherwise directed by your doctor.
However, it is best to plan your dose or doses according to a schedule that will least affect your personal activities and sleep. Ask your health care professional to help you plan the best time to take hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide.
In addition to the use of the medicine your doctor has prescribed, treatment for your high blood pressure may include weight control and care in the types of foods you eat, especially foods high in sodium. Your doctor will tell you which of these are most important for you. You should check with your doctor before changing your diet.
Many patients who have high blood pressure will not notice any signs of the problem. In fact, many may feel normal. It is very important that you take your medicine exactly as directed and that you keep your appointments with your doctor even if you feel well.
Remember that hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide will not cure your high blood pressure but it does help control it. Therefore, you must continue to take it as directed if you expect to lower your blood pressure and keep it down. You may have to take high blood pressure medicine for the rest of your life . If high blood pressure is not treated, it can cause serious problems such as heart failure, blood vessel disease, stroke, or kidney disease.
To help you remember to take your medicine, try to get into the habit of taking it at the same time each day.
The dose of hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.
The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.
- For oral dosage forms (capsules):
- For high blood pressure:
- Adults—1 capsule two times a day.
- Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor .
- For high blood pressure:
If you miss a dose of hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.
Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.
Keep out of the reach of children.
Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.
Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.
Precautions While Using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide
It is important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure that hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide is working properly. Blood tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects .
Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This especially includes over-the-counter (nonprescription) medicines for appetite control, asthma, colds, cough, hay fever, or sinus problems, since they may tend to increase your blood pressure.
hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide may cause some people to have headaches or to feel dizzy. Make sure you know how you react to hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are dizzy or are not alert.
Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting may occur, especially when you get up from a lying or sitting position. This is more likely to occur in the morning. Getting up slowly may help. When you get up from lying down, sit on the edge of the bed with your feet dangling for 1 or 2 minutes. Then stand up slowly. If the problem continues or gets worse, check with your doctor.
The dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting is also more likely to occur if you drink alcohol, stand for a long time, exercise, or if the weather is hot. While you are taking hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide, be careful in the amount of alcohol you drink. Also, use extra care during exercise or hot weather or if you must stand for a long time.
hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide may cause a loss of potassium from your body.
- To help prevent this, your doctor may want you to:
- eat or drink foods that have a high potassium content (for example, orange or other citrus fruit juices), or
- take a potassium supplement, or
- take another medicine to help prevent the loss of the potassium in the first place.
- It is very important to follow these directions. Also, it is important not to change your diet on your own. This is more important if you are already on a special diet (as for diabetes), or if you are taking a potassium supplement or a medicine to reduce potassium loss. Extra potassium may not be necessary and, in some cases, too much potassium could be harmful.
Check with your doctor if you become sick and have severe or continuing nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. These problems may cause you to lose additional water and potassium.
For diabetic patients:
- Thiazide diuretics may raise blood sugar levels. While you are using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide, be especially careful in testing for sugar in your blood or urine. If you have any questions about this, check with your doctor.
Some people who take hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide may become more sensitive to sunlight than they are normally. Exposure to sunlight, even for brief periods of time, may cause severe sunburn; skin rash, redness, itching, or discoloration; or vision changes. When you begin taking hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide:
- Stay out of direct sunlight, especially between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m., if possible.
- Wear protective clothing, including a hat and sunglasses.
- Apply a sun block product that has a skin protection factor (SPF) of at least 15. Some patients may require a product with a higher SPF number, especially if they have a fair complexion. If you have any questions about this, check with your health care professional.
- Do not use a sunlamp or tanning bed or booth.
If you have a severe reaction from the sun, check with your doctor.
hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide Side Effects
Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.
Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:Signs and symptoms of too much potassium loss
- Dryness of mouth
- increased thirst
- irregular heartbeats
- mood or mental changes
- muscle cramps or pain
- weak pulse
- decreased mental activity
- muscle cramps
- unusual tiredness or weakness
- Blisters on skin
- chest pain
- general feeling of discomfort or illness or weakness
- joint pain
- numbness, tingling, pain, or weakness in hands or feet
- skin rash or itching
- sore throat and fever
- swelling of the lymph glands
- Lower back or side pain
- severe stomach pain with nausea and vomiting
- unusual bleeding or bruising
- yellow eyes or skin
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:More common
- fast or irregular heartbeat
- loss of appetite
- nausea or vomiting
- decreased sexual ability
- dizziness or lightheadedness, especially when getting up from a lying or sitting position
- increased sensitivity of skin to sunlight
- redness or flushing of face
- shortness of breath with exercise or work
- stuffy nose
- watering or irritated eyes
Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
See also: Side effects (in more detail)
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- Drug class: miscellaneous antihypertensive combinations
Other brands: Apresazide