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Diabetic Kidney Disease
Diabetic kidney disease
(DKD) is the gradual and permanent loss of kidney function. This occurs because of kidney damage caused by high blood sugar levels. Normally, the kidneys remove fluid, chemicals, and waste from your blood. These wastes are turned into urine by your kidneys. When you have DKD, your kidneys do not function properly. DKD may worsen over time and lead to kidney failure.
Common signs and symptoms of DKD include the following:
Your signs and symptoms will depend on how well your kidneys work. You may not have any symptoms, or you may have any of the following:
- Changes in how often you need to urinate
- Ankle and leg swelling
- Fatigue or weakness
- Muscle cramps
- Nausea, vomiting, or loss of appetite
Call 911 for any of the following:
- You have a seizure.
- You have sudden chest pain or shortness of breath.
Seek care immediately:
- Your heart is beating faster than normal for you.
- You are confused and very drowsy.
Contact your healthcare provider if:
- You suddenly gain or lose more weight than your healthcare provider has told you is okay.
- You have itchy skin or a rash.
- You have nausea and repeated vomiting.
- You have fatigue or muscle weakness.
- You have an increased need to urinate, burning or pain when you urinate, blood in your urine, or strong odor to your urine.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
The goals of treatment
are to control your symptoms and prevent your DKD from getting worse. You may need any of the following:
- Medicines may be given to decrease blood pressure and get rid of extra fluid. Blood pressure medicines can help to slow down the loss of kidney function.
- Dialysis is a treatment that may be needed to remove chemicals and waste from your blood when your kidneys can no longer do this.
- Surgery may be needed to create an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in your arm or insert a catheter into your abdomen or chest. This is done so you can receive dialysis.
- A kidney transplant may be done if your DKD becomes severe.
- Control your blood sugar levels. If you use insulin or take diabetes medicine, take these as directed. Follow the meal and exercise plan recommended by your healthcare provider. Check your blood sugar levels every day, as often as your healthcare provider has recommended. Your healthcare provider may want you to have your A1c checked every 3 to 6 months. Most people should keep their A1c at or below 7%.
- Follow your meal plan as directed. You may need to eat only a certain amount of protein at each meal. You may also need to track your sodium (salt) and potassium intake. Work with your dietitian to develop a meal plan that is right for you.
- Check your blood pressure as directed. High blood pressure can damage the blood vessels in your kidneys. This prevents your kidneys from working correctly and increases your risk for DKD. A normal blood pressure is 119/79 or lower. Talk to your healthcare provider about your blood pressure goals. Together you can create a plan to lower your blood pressure if needed and keep it in a healthy range. The plan may include lifestyle changes or medicines to lower your blood pressure.
- Talk to your healthcare provider about over-the-counter (OTC) medicines you should avoid. Some OTC medicines, such as ibuprofen, can damage your kidneys.
Follow up with your healthcare provider as directed:
Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.
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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
Learn more about Diabetic Kidney Disease (Ambulatory Care)
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