Immunocidin (Canada)This page contains information on Immunocidin for veterinary use.
The information provided typically includes the following:
- Immunocidin Indications
- Warnings and cautions for Immunocidin
- Direction and dosage information for Immunocidin
ImmunocidinThis treatment applies to the following species:
MYCOBACTERIAL CELL WALL FRACTION IMMUNOSTIMULANT
FOR VETERINARY USE ONLY
Description and Action: The Mycobacteriaceae have been known for many years to have antitumour activity. Immunocidin® is an emulsion of mycobacterium cell wall fractions that have been modified to reduce their toxic and allergic effect but retain their antitumour activity. Immunocidin® stimulates the activation of macrophages and thymic lymphocytes which kill tumour cells.
Indications: Immunocidin® is recommended for the immunotherapy of mixed mammary tumours and mammary adenocarcinomas in dogs and cutaneous sarcoids in horses. Although Immunocidin® is administered by intratumoural injection, the response is generalized, and untreated sites frequently undergo regression. Prognosis should be guarded in advanced malignant disease with metastases, as remission will be less frequent. Remissions cannot be guaranteed, as each tumour will vary in its response.
Adverse ReactionsMild fever, drowsiness, and an increased metabolic rate leading to decreased appetite may occur for one to two days following an Immunocidin® injection. These are all normal responses to the release of cytokines.1,2,3 An elevated body temperature enhances the immune function by stimulating lymphocyte activity2, and thus, should not be considered an adverse side effect. Local inflammation which is sensitive to the touch occurs fairly often, but it usually is not bothersome to the patient. Necrosis with suppuration may occur in regressing tumours and clients should be informed that the tumour may drain for several weeks. Tumours may be aspirated with a sterile syringe and needle to help prevent drainage. If drainage develops, it often may be stopped by application of astringents such as silver nitrate and styptic powders.
Immunotherapy may not be as effective in animals receiving concurrent immunosuppressive therapies. Avoid the use of corticosteroids or ACTH where possible.
The inflammatory response with edema and malaise occasionally is severe after the initial treatment. Therapy should be discontinued until the reaction has subsided. Animals with a history of hyper-immune disease (vaccine bumps, allergies, etc.) should be closely monitored. In the event of urticaria, lymphadenitis, cellulitis, or abscessation, treat appropriately. Discontinue Immunocidin® therapy in animals that develop these signs. This product may cause an anaphylactic reaction. Antidote: epinephrine. The product contains gentamicin as a preservative. Do not administer to horses within 21 days of slaughter for human consumption.
Administration and Dosage: Immunocidin® is administered only by intratumoural injection. The entire tumour and a small region of adjacent and underlying tissue must be thoroughly infiltrated using no larger than a 20 gauge needle. Injection without careful infiltration of the tumour may not be effective. It is important to mix the emulsion thoroughly and inject the tumour as quickly as possible because the emulsion may begin to separate soon after mixing. The tumour tissue may be very firm and excessive pressure on the syringe plunger may be required to infiltrate the tumour. The injection may produce pain in some animals; anaesthetics or additional analgesics may be used. Dosage varies with tumour size but 1 mL should be considered a minimum dose.
Dogs: Immunocidin® proved to be effective against mixed mammary tumours and mammary adenocarcinomas in dogs but was not effective against liposarcomas in dogs. Canine mammary tumours may be treated once, 2 to 4 weeks prior to surgery. Whereas surgical removal of mammary tumours produces a desirable cosmetic result, tumour-free survival is not significantly improved. On the other hand, dogs treated with mycobacterial cell wall fractions, prior to surgery, experience significantly extended mean tumour-free survival time, and a significantly greater number of dogs survive free of tumours.4 Immunocidin® immunotherapy without surgery also is efficacious. Immunocidin® is well tolerated by aged dogs with chronic cardiovascular and renal disease. This makes immunotherapy without surgery an attractive method of treatment for those patients that are poor surgical risks. Treatment should be repeated every 1 to 3 weeks. Tumours that fail to respond after 4 treatments should be considered refractory and therapy discontinued. Individual doses range from 1 to 30 mL and average about 2.5 mL. The average cumulative dose is about 10 mL.
Horses: Equine sarcoids are very responsive to immunotherapy with mycobacterial cell wall fractions.5 Large, pedunculated sarcoids should be debulked by partial excision prior to therapy. Immunocidin® is safe for use in pregnant mares. Treatment should be repeated every 1 to 3 weeks. Tumours that fail to respond after 4 treatments should be considered refractory and therapy discontinued. Individual doses range from 1 to 60 mL and average about 10 mL. The average cumulative dose is about 30 mL.
Precaution: Store at 2°C to 7°C in a refrigerator. Do not freeze. The emulsion may separate on standing. Resuspend by shaking or rotating the vial between the hands until the emulsion has a homogeneous “milky” appearance.
Volume: 2.5 mL
1 Dinarello, C.A., 1988. Biology of interleukin-1. FASEB J. 2:108-115.
2 Tizard, I., 1986. Basic Immunology-3: The importance of macrophages. Vet. Med. Pp. 250-257.
3 Tizard, I., 1986. Basic Immunology-4: The indispensable lymphocyte. Vet. Med. Pp. 332-346.
4 Winters, W.D. and S.C. Harris, 1982. Increased survival and interferon induction by BCG cell wall immunotherapy in pet dogs with malignant mammary us. Proc. 73rd Ann. Mtg. Amer. Assoc. Cancer Res. 23:244.
5 Murphy, J.M., G.A. Severin, J.D. Lavach, D.l. Hepler, and D.C. Lueker, 1979. lmmunotherapy in ocular equine sarcoid, JAVMA 174:269.
Manufactured for: NovaVive Inc., Belleville, Ontario, Canada
by NovaVive USA Inc., Athens, Georgia, U.S.A.
USDA Establishment License Number 289
TOLL FREE: 1-844-663-3349
Protected by one or more of the following patents:
US: 4744984, 5632995, 5759554, 6139844, 6890541
CA: 1293190, 2154689, 2170142, 2284932, 2284937, 2378888
NAC No.: 1842000.0
19 NEWBERRY ST., UNIT A, BELLEVILLE, ON, K8N 3N2
|Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the Immunocidin information published above. However, it remains the responsibility of the readers to familiarize themselves with the product information contained on the Canadian product label or package insert.|
Copyright © 2016 North American Compendiums. Updated: 2016-10-31