Generic Name: progesterone
Dosage Form: vaginal insert
Medically reviewed on May 1, 2018
Indications and Usage for Endometrin
Endometrin ® (progesterone) is indicated to support embryo implantation and early pregnancy by supplementation of corpus luteal function as part of an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment program for infertile women.
Endometrin Dosage and Administration
General Dosing Information
The dose of Endometrin is 100 mg administered vaginally two or three times daily starting the day after oocyte retrieval and continuing for up to 10 weeks total duration. Efficacy in women 35 years of age and older has not been clearly established. The appropriate dose of Endometrin in this age group has not been determined.
Dosage Forms and Strengths
100 mg vaginal insert is a white to off-white oblong-shaped tablet debossed with "FPI" on one side and "100" on the other side.
Endometrin is contraindicated in individuals with any of the following conditions:
- Previous allergic reactions to progesterone or any of the ingredients of Endometrin [ see Description (11)] Previous allergic reactions to progesterone or any of the ingredients of Endometrin [ see Description (11)]
- Undiagnosed vaginal bleeding Undiagnosed vaginal bleeding
- Known missed abortion or ectopic pregnancyKnown missed abortion or ectopic pregnancy
- Liver diseaseLiver disease
- Known or suspected malignancy of the breast or genital organsKnown or suspected malignancy of the breast or genital organs
- Active arterial or venous thromboembolism or severe thrombophlebitis, or a history of these eventsActive arterial or venous thromboembolism or severe thrombophlebitis, or a history of these events
Warnings and Precautions
Cardiovascular or Cerebrovascular Disorders
The physician should be alert to earliest signs of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disorders, arterial or venous thromboembolism (venous thromboembolism or pulmonary embolism), thrombophlebitis, or retinal thrombosis. Endometrin should be discontinued if any of these are suspected.
Patients with a history of depression need to be closely observed. Consider discontinuation if symptoms worsen.
Use of Other Vaginal Products
Endometrin should not be recommended for use with other vaginal products (such as antifungal products) as this may alter progesterone release and absorption from the vaginal insert [ see Drug Interactions (7)].
Clinical Studies Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety data reflect exposure to Endometrin in 808 infertile women (74.9% White, 10.3% Hispanic, 5.4% Black, 5% Asian, and 4.6% Other) in a single Assisted Reproductive Technology 10 week clinical study conducted in the U.S. Endometrin was studied at doses of 100 mg twice daily and 100 mg three times daily. The adverse reactions that occurred at a rate greater than or equal to 2% in either Endometrin group are summarized in Table 1.
100 mg twice daily
100 mg three times daily
|Abdominal pain||50 (12%)||50 (12%)|
|Nausea||32 (8%)||29 (7%)|
|Abdominal distension||18 (4%)||17 (4%)|
|Constipation||9 (2%)||14 (3%)|
|Vomiting||13 (3%)||9 (2%)|
|General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions|
|Fatigue||7 (2%)||12 (3%)|
|Infections and Infestations|
|Urinary tract infection||9 (2%)||4 (1%)|
|Injury, Poisoning and Procedural Complications|
|Post-oocyte retrieval pain||115 (28%)||102 (25%)|
|Nervous System Disorders|
|Headache||15 (4%)||13 (3%)|
|Reproductive System and Breast Disorders|
|Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome||30 (7%)||27 (7%)|
|Uterine spasm||15 (4%)||11 (3%)|
|Vaginal bleeding||13 (3%)||14 (3%)|
Other less common reported adverse reactions included vaginal irritation, itching, burning, discomfort, urticaria, and peripheral edema.
Expected Adverse Reaction Profile Seen with Progesterone
Endometrin is also expected to have adverse reactions similar to other drugs containing progesterone that may include breast tenderness, bloating, mood swings, irritability, and drowsiness.
No formal drug-drug interaction studies have been conducted for Endometrin. Drugs known to induce the hepatic cytochrome-P450-3A4 system (such as rifampin, carbamazepine) may increase the elimination of progesterone.
The effect of concomitant vaginal products on the exposure of progesterone from Endometrin has not been assessed. Endometrin is not recommended for use with other vaginal products (such as antifungal products) as this may alter progesterone release and absorption from the vaginal insert [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Endometrin has been used to support embryo implantation and maintain clinical pregnancy in one clinical study. The livebirth outcomes of these pregnancies were as follows:
- Among the 404 subjects treated with Endometrin twice daily, 143 subjects had livebirths consisting of 85 singletons, 56 twins, and 2 triplets. In this treatment group, 13 subjects had a spontaneous abortion, 1 subject had an ectopic pregnancy, and 7 subjects reported fetal birth defects (3.4% based on 203 livebirths).
- Among the 404 subjects treated with Endometrin three times daily, 155 subjects had livebirths consisting of 91 singletons, 60 twins, and 4 triplets. In this treatment group, 22 subjects had a spontaneous abortion, 4 subjects had an ectopic pregnancy, and 7 subjects reported fetal birth defects (3.1% based on 223 livebirths).
Birth defects reported in the Endometrin twice daily group included: one fetus with a cleft palate and intrauterine growth retardation, one fetus with spina bifida, three fetuses with congenital heart defects, one fetus with an umbilical hernia, and one fetus with an intestinal anomaly.
Birth defects reported in the Endometrin three times daily group included: one fetus with an esophageal fistula, one fetus with hypospadias and an underdeveloped right ear, one fetus with Down's and an atrial septal defect, one fetus with congenital heart anomalies, one fetus with DiGeorge's syndrome, one fetus with a hand deformity, and one fetus with cleft palate.
Detectable amounts of progesterone have been identified in the milk of nursing mothers. The effect of this on the nursing infant has not been determined.
This drug is not intended for pediatric use and no clinical data have been collected in children. Therefore, the safety and effectiveness of Endometrin in pediatric patients have not been established.
No clinical data have been collected in patients over age 65.
Treatment of overdosage consists of discontinuation of Endometrin together with institution of appropriate symptomatic and supportive care.
Endometrin (progesterone) Vaginal Insert contains micronized progesterone. Endometrin is supplied with polyethylene vaginal applicators.
The active ingredient, progesterone, is present in 100 mg amount along with other excipients. The chemical name for progesterone is pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. It has an empirical formula of C 21H 30O 2 and a molecular weight of 314.5. Progesterone exists in two polymorphic forms. The form used in Endometrin, the alpha-form, has a melting point of 127-131°C.
The structural formula is:
Each Endometrin Vaginal Insert delivers 100 mg of progesterone in a base containing lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, adipic acid, sodium bicarbonate, sodium lauryl sulfate, magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch, and colloidal silicon dioxide.
Endometrin - Clinical Pharmacology
Mechanism of Action
Progesterone is a naturally occurring steroid that is secreted by the ovary, placenta, and adrenal gland. In the presence of adequate estrogen, progesterone transforms a proliferative endometrium into a secretory endometrium. Progesterone is necessary to increase endometrial receptivity for implantation of an embryo. Once an embryo is implanted, progesterone acts to maintain a pregnancy.
Progesterone serum concentrations increased following the administration of the Endometrin Vaginal Insert in 12 healthy pre-menopausal females. On single dosing, the mean C max was 17.0 ng/mL in the Endometrin twice daily group and 19.8 ng/mL in the Endometrin three times daily group. On multiple dosing, steady-state concentrations were attained within approximately 1 day after initiation of treatment with Endometrin. Both Endometrin regimens provided average serum concentrations of progesterone exceeding 10 ng/mL on Day 5. The pharmacokinetic results are summarized in Table 2.
|Pharmacokinetic Parameter (unit)||Endometrin 100 mg
twice daily (N=6)
|Endometrin 100 mg
three times daily (N=6)
|C max Maximum progesterone serum concentration.|
|T max Time to maximum progesterone serum concentration.|
|C avg Average progesterone serum concentration.|
|AUC 0-24 Area under the drug concentration versus time curve from 0-24 hours post dose.|
|C min Minimum progesterone serum concentration.|
|C max (ng/mL)||17.0 ± 6.5||19.8 ± 7.2|
|T max (hr)||24.0 ± 0.0||17.3 ± 7.4|
|217 ± 113||284 ± 143|
|Day 5 of Multiple Dosing|
|C max (ng/mL)||18.5 ± 5.5||24.1 ± 5.6|
|T max (hr)||18.0 ± 9.4||18.0 ± 9.4|
|C min (ng/mL)||8.9 ± 4.5||10.9 ± 6.7|
|C avg (ng/ml)||14.0 ± 4.8||15.9 ± 4.3|
|327 ± 127||436 ± 106|
Progesterone is approximately 96% to 99% bound to serum proteins, primarily to serum albumin and corticosteroid binding globulin.
Progesterone is metabolized primarily by the liver, largely to pregnanediols and pregnanolones. Pregnanediols and pregnanolones are conjugated in the liver to glucuronide and sulfate metabolites. Progesterone metabolites that are excreted in the bile may be deconjugated and may be further metabolized in the gut via reduction, dehydroxylation, and epimerization.
Progesterone undergoes renal and biliary elimination. Following injection of labeled progesterone, 50-60% of the excretion of metabolites occurs via the kidney; approximately 10% occurs via the bile and feces. Overall recovery of the labeled material accounts for 70% of an administered dose. Only a small portion of unchanged progesterone is excreted in the bile .
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Nonclinical toxicity studies to determine the potential of Endometrin to cause carcinogenicity or mutagenicity have not been performed. The effect of Endometrin on fertility has not been evaluated in animals.
Luteal Supplementation During Assisted Reproductive Treatment Study
A randomized, open-label, active-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of 10 weeks of treatment with two different daily dosing regimens of Endometrin (100 mg twice daily and 100 mg three times daily) for support of implantation and early pregnancy in infertile women participating in an Assisted Reproductive Technology treatment program. Efficacy was assessed on the endpoint of ongoing pregnancies, defined as the presence of at least one fetal heartbeat seen on ultrasound at 6 weeks post-embryo transfer. The study randomized to Endometrin 808 infertile women (74.9% White; 10.3% Hispanic, 5.4% Black, 5% Asian, and 4.6% Other) between 19 and 42 years of age (mean age 33) who had a body mass index <34 kg/m 2 at screening.
The ongoing pregnancy rates for subjects treated with both dosing regimens of Endometrin were non-inferior (lower bounds of the 95% confidence interval of the difference between Endometrin and the active comparator excluded a difference greater than 10%) to the ongoing pregnancy rate for subjects treated with the active comparator. The results of this study are shown in Table 3.
100 mg twice daily
100 mg three times daily
|Number of subjects||404||404|
|Ongoing pregnancy: n (%)||156 (39%)||171 (42%)|
|95% Confidence Interval of pregnancy rate||[33.8, 43.6]||[37.5, 47.3]|
|Pregnancy rate percentage difference between Endometrin and comparator||-3.6%||0.1%|
|95% Confidence Interval for difference vs comparator||[-10.3, 3.2]||[-6.7, 6.9]|
Subjects participating in the study were stratified at randomization by age and ovarian reserve (as measured by serum FSH levels). The ongoing pregnancy rates for these subgroups are shown in Table 4.
100 mg twice daily
100 mg three times daily
|Subjects age < 35 years (N)||247||247|
|Ongoing pregnancy: n (%)||111 (45%)||117 (47%)|
|Pregnancy rate percentage difference between Endometrin and comparator||0.5%||2.9%|
|95% Confidence Interval for difference vs. comparator||[-8.3, 9.3]||[-5.9, 11.7]|
|Subjects 35-42 years of age (N)||157||157|
|Ongoing pregnancy: n (%)||45 (28%)||54 (34%)|
|Pregnancy rate percentage difference between Endometrin and comparator||-10.1%||-4.4%|
|95% Confidence Interval for difference vs. comparator||[-20.3, 0.3]||[-14.9, 6.3]|
|Subjects with FSH < 10 IU/L (N)||350||347|
|Ongoing pregnancy: n (%)||140 (40%)||150 (43%)|
|Pregnancy rate percentage difference between Endometrin and comparator||-2.0%||1.2%|
|95% Confidence Interval for difference vs. comparator||[-9.3, 5.3]||[-6.1, 8.5]|
|Subjects with FSH between 10 and 15 IU/L (N)||46||51|
|Ongoing pregnancy: n (%)||16 (35%)||20 (39%)|
|Pregnancy rate percentage difference between Endometrin and comparator||-12.2%||-7.7%|
|95% Confidence Interval for difference vs. comparator||[-31.0, 7.7]||[-26.6, 11.6]|
In subjects under the age of 35 or with serum FSH levels less than 10 IU/L, results from both dosing regimens were non-inferior to the results from the comparator with respect to ongoing pregnancy rates. In women age 35 and older and in women with serum FSH levels between 10 and 15 IU/L, the results with respect to ongoing pregnancy rates for both dosing regimens of Endometrin did not reach the criteria for non-inferiority.
Subjects who became pregnant received study medication for a total of 10 weeks. Patients over 34 kg/m 2 were not studied. The efficacy of Endometrin in this patient group is unknown.
How Supplied/Storage and Handling
Each Endometrin Vaginal Insert is a white to off-white oblong-shaped insert debossed with "FPI" on one side and "100" on the other side. Each Endometrin (progesterone) Vaginal Insert, 100 mg, is packed individually in a sealed foil pouch. These pouches are available in cartons packed:
- 21 vaginal inserts with 21 disposable vaginal applicators (NDC 55566-6500-3)
Store at 20 - 25°C (68 - 77°F); excursions permitted between 15 - 30°C (59 - 86°F).
FERRING PHARMACEUTICALS INC.
PARSIPPANY, NJ 07054
Patient Counseling Information
Inform patients of the importance of reporting irregular vaginal bleeding to their doctor as soon as possible.
Common Adverse Reactions with Progesterone
Inform patients of the possible side effects of progesterone therapy such as headaches, breast tenderness, bloating, mood swings, irritability, and drowsiness.
Coadministration of Other Vaginal Products
Inform patients that Endometrin is not recommended for use with other vaginal products.
FDA-Approved Patient Labeling
IMPORTANT: For Vaginal Use Only.
Read the patient information that comes with Endometrin ® (progesterone) before you start to use it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This leaflet does not take the place of talking with your doctor about your medical condition or treatment. Your doctor may do a physical exam before prescribing Endometrin.
What is Endometrin?
Endometrin is a vaginal insert that contains the hormone progesterone. Endometrin is for women who need extra progesterone while undergoing treatment in an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) program.
Progesterone is one of the hormones essential for helping you to become and to stay pregnant. If you are undergoing ART treatment, your doctor may prescribe Endometrin to provide the progesterone your body needs.
Who should not use Endometrin?
Do not use Endometrin if you:
- Are allergic to anything in Endometrin. See the end of this leaflet for a complete list of ingredients.
- Have unusual vaginal bleeding that has not been evaluated by a doctor.
- Currently have or have had liver problems or cancer of the breast or genital organs.
- Have or have had blood clots in the legs, lungs, eyes, or elsewhere in your body.
Endometrin may not be right for you. Before starting Endometrin, tell your doctor about all your health problems.
Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take including prescription and nonprescription medicines, vaginal products, vitamins, and herbal supplements.
Some medicines may affect Endometrin.
Know what medicines you take. Keep a list of your medicines to show to the doctor and pharmacist.
How should I use Endometrin?
- Use Endometrin exactly as prescribed. The usual dose of Endometrin is one insert placed in your vagina 2 to 3 times a day for up to a total of 10 weeks, unless your healthcare provider advises otherwise.
- Place an Endometrin insert in your vagina with the disposable applicator provided.
Follow the steps below:
- Unwrap the applicator.
- Put one insert in the space provided at the end of the applicator. The insert should fit snugly and not fall out.
- Place applicator with the insert into the vagina while you are standing, sitting, or when lying on your back with your knees bent. Gently place the thin end of the applicator well into the vagina.
- Push the plunger to release the insert.
- Remove the applicator and throw it away in the trash.
Other information for using Endometrin
- If you forget a dose of Endometrin, take the dose as soon as you remember, but do not use more than your daily dose.
- Call your doctor if you use too much Endometrin.
- Do not use any other vaginal products when you are using Endometrin.
What are the possible side effects of Endometrin?
Common side effects seen with ART and Endometrin included pelvic pain after surgery, abdominal pain, nausea, and swollen ovaries (ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome).
Other reported side effects included abdominal bloating, headache, urinary infections, uterine cramping, constipation, vomiting, tiredness, and vaginal bleeding.
Vaginal products with progesterone may also cause vaginal irritation, burning, and discharge.
Serious Risks of Progesterone
Progesterone can increase your chance of getting blood clots. Blood clots can be serious and lead to death.
Serious blood clots include those in the:
- legs (thrombophlebitis)
- lungs (pulmonary embolus)
- eyes (blindness)
- heart (heart attack)
- brain (stroke)
Call your doctor or get medical help right away if you have:
- persistent pain in the lower leg (calf)
- sudden shortness of breath
- coughing up blood
- sudden blindness, partial or complete
- severe chest pain
- sudden, severe headache, vomiting, dizziness, or fainting
- weakness in an arm or leg, or trouble speaking
- yellowing of the skin and/or white of the eyes indicating possible liver problem
Other risks of progesterone use include:
- breast tenderness
- bloating or fluid retention
- mood swings and depression
Call your doctor immediately if you have abnormal vaginal bleeding.
These are not all the side effects with Endometrin. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
How should I store Endometrin?
- Store Endometrin at room temperature, 20 - 25°C (68 - 77°F); excursions permitted between 15 - 30°C (59 - 86°F).
- Do not use Endometrin after the expiration date that is printed on the carton.
- Keep Endometrin and all medicines out of the reach of children.
General information about Endometrin
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Patient Information Leaflet. Do not use Endometrin for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Endometrin to other women, even if they have the same condition as you do. It may harm them.
This leaflet summarizes the most important information about Endometrin. If you would like more information, talk with your doctor. You can ask your doctor or pharmacist for information about Endometrin that was written for healthcare professionals. For more information call Ferring Pharmaceuticals Inc. at 1-(888)-FERRING or 1-(888)-337-7464.
What are the ingredients in Endometrin?
Active Ingredient: progesterone
Inactive Ingredients: lactose monohydrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, adipic acid, sodium bicarbonate, sodium lauryl sulfate, magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch, and colloidal silicon dioxide
FERRING PHARMACEUTICALS INC.
PARSIPPANY, NJ 07054
PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 100 mg Carton
(progesterone) Vaginal Insert 100 mg
21 vaginal inserts with 21 disposable vaginal applicators
Each insert contains 100 mg progesterone, USP
FOR VAGINAL USE ONLY
See enclosed package insert for dosage and
complete Prescribing Information.
This carton contains instructions intended
for the patient.
|Labeler - Ferring Pharmaceuticals Inc. (103722955)|
|Pharmaceutics International Inc.||878265586||manufacture(55566-6500)|
More about Endometrin (progesterone)
- Endometrin Side Effects
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- Drug class: progestins
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