Insulin Aspart Protamine and Insulin Aspart
Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Apr 7, 2019.
(IN soo lin AS part PROE ta meen & IN soo lin AS part)
- Aspart Insulin and Insulin Aspart Protamine
- Insulin Aspart and Insulin Aspart Protamine
- NovoLog 70/30
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
NovoLOG® Mix 70/30: Insulin aspart protamine suspension 70% [intermediate acting] and insulin aspart solution 30% [rapid acting]: 100 units/mL (10 mL)
NovoLOG® Mix 70/30 FlexPen®: Insulin aspart protamine suspension 70% [intermediate acting] and insulin aspart solution 30% [rapid acting]: 100 units/mL (3 mL)
Brand Names: U.S.
- NovoLOG Mix 70/30
- NovoLOG Mix 70/30 FlexPen
- Insulin, Combination
Insulin acts via specific membrane-bound receptors on target tissues to regulate metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and fats. Target organs for insulin include the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue.
Within the liver, insulin stimulates hepatic glycogen synthesis. Insulin promotes hepatic synthesis of fatty acids, which are released into the circulation as lipoproteins. Skeletal muscle effects of insulin include increased protein synthesis and increased glycogen synthesis. Within adipose tissue, insulin stimulates the processing of circulating lipoproteins to provide free fatty acids, facilitating triglyceride synthesis and storage by adipocytes; also directly inhibits the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In addition, insulin stimulates the cellular uptake of amino acids and increases cellular permeability to several ions, including potassium, magnesium, and phosphate. By activating sodium-potassium ATPases, insulin promotes the intracellular movement of potassium.
Normally secreted by the pancreas, insulin products are manufactured for pharmacologic use through recombinant DNA technology using either E. coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Insulin aspart differs from human insulin by containing aspartic acid at position B28 in comparison to the proline found in human insulin. Insulins are categorized based on the onset, peak, and duration of effect (eg, rapid-, short-, intermediate-, and long-acting insulin). Insulin aspart protamine and insulin aspart is an intermediate-acting combination product with a more rapid onset and similar duration of action as compared to that of insulin NPH and insulin regular combination products.
Onset of Action
10 to 20 minutes; Peak effect: 1 to 4 hours
Time to Peak
1 to 1.5 hours
Duration of Action
Novolog Mix 50/50: ~13 hours; Novolog Mix 70/30: 18 to 24 hours
Novolog Mix 50/50: 5.5 hours; Novolog Mix 70/30: ~8 to 9 hours
Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment
Insulin Cl may be reduced in patients with impaired renal function.
Use: Labeled Indications
Diabetes mellitus, types 1 and 2: Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycemic control
Hypersensitivity to insulin aspart protamine, insulin aspart, or any component of the formulation; during episodes of hypoglycemia.
Documentation of allergenic cross-reactivity for insulin is limited. However, because of similarities in chemical structure and/or pharmacologic actions, the possibility of cross-sensitivity cannot be ruled out with certainty.
Note: Insulin aspart protamine is an intermediate-acting insulin and insulin aspart is a rapid-acting insulin administered by subcutaneous injection. Insulin aspart protamine and insulin aspart combination products are approximately equipotent to insulin NPH and insulin regular combination products with a similar duration of activity, but with a more rapid onset. With combination insulin products, the proportion of rapid-acting to long-acting insulin is fixed; basal vs prandial dose adjustments cannot be made. Because of variability in the peak effect and individual patient variability in activities, meals, etc, it may be more difficult to achieve complete glycemic control using fixed combinations of insulins.
Diabetes mellitus, type 1: SubQ:
General insulin dosing: Note: Use of premixed insulin is not generally recommended in type 1 diabetes. Most patients should be treated with multiple daily injections of prandial and basal insulin or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) (ADA 2019; Peters 2013). The total daily doses (TDD) presented below are expressed as the total units/kg/day of all insulin formulations combined.
Initial TDD: ~0.4 to 0.5 units/kg/day; conservative initial doses of 0.2 to 0.4 units/kg/day may be considered to avoid the potential for hypoglycemia; higher initial doses may be required in patients who are obese, sedentary, or presenting with ketoacidosis (AACE/ACE [Handelsman 2015]; ADA 2019).
Usual TDD maintenance range: 0.4 to 1 units/kg/day in divided doses (ADA 2019).
Dosage adjustment: Dosage must be titrated to achieve glucose control and avoid hypoglycemia. Note: If using insulin aspart protamine and insulin aspart combination, the TDD is typically divided into 2 doses. Given the fixed proportion of individual components in premixed insulin combination products, independent adjustment of the basal or prandial component is not possible. Therefore, use of premixed insulins should be reserved for patients unwilling to take more than two daily doses of insulin and unable to mix individual insulins. In these patients, consistent carbohydrate intake at each meal is essential (Peters 2013).
Diabetes mellitus, type 2: SubQ: Note: Initiation of premixed insulin is an option if adequate glycemic control has not been achieved with other injectable therapy, including a GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or basal insulin (± prandial insulin) (ADA 2019).
Initial: If insulin naive, administer 0.3 units/kg/day or 10 to 12 units/day in 2 or 3 divided doses or if converting from other insulin therapy, administer the current total daily insulin dose in 2 or 3 divided doses (dose may require adjustment based on individual patient needs) (ADA 2019).
Dosage adjustment: Individualize dose adjustment based on type of biphasic insulin used; adjustment may be more complex with three times daily regimen. Risk of hypoglycemia is greater given the fixed proportion of individual components (ADA 2019).
In patients who develop hypoglycemia (without clear reason), dosage reductions of 10% to 20% have been recommended for basal and prandial insulins (as individual components); in cases of severe hypoglycemia (requiring assistance from another person or blood glucose <40 mg/dL) dosage reductions of 20% to 40% have been recommended (AACE/ACE [Garber 2019]; ADA 2019).
Refer to adult dosing.
Insulin aspart protamine is an intermediate-acting insulin and insulin aspart is a rapid-acting insulin; the combination product is not intended for initial therapy; basal insulin requirements should be established first to direct dosing of combination insulin products. Insulin aspart protamine and insulin aspart combination products are approximately equipotent to insulin NPH and insulin regular combination products with a similar duration of activity, but with a more rapid onset. Because of variability in the peak effect and individual patient variability in activities, meals, etc, it may be more difficult to achieve complete glycemic control using fixed combinations of insulins; frequent monitoring and close medical supervision may be necessary. Premixed insulins are not recommended for routine use in pediatric patients; the proportion of rapid-acting to long-acting insulin is fixed; basal vs prandial dose adjustments cannot be made; premixed insulins may be useful when adherence is an issue (AACE/ACE [Handelsman 2015]; Beck 2015; ISPAD [Danne 2018]). Insulin regimens vary widely by region, practice, and institution; consult institution-specific guidelines.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus: Limited data available: Children and Adolescents: Note: Fixed ratio insulins (such as insulin aspart protamine and insulin aspart combination) are typically administered as 2 daily doses with each dose intended to cover 2 meals and a snack.
General insulin dosing: The daily doses presented are expressed as the total units/kg/day of all insulin formulations combined. Premixed insulin is not recommended for routine use in pediatric patients; may be useful when adherence is an issue (Beck 2015; ISPAD [Danne 2018]).
Initial total daily insulin: SubQ: Initial: 0.4 to 0.5 units/kg/day in divided doses (AACE/ACE [Handelsman 2015]; ADA 2018); usual range: 0.4 to 1 units/kg/day in divided doses (AACE/ACE [Handelsman 2015]; ADA 2018; Silverstein 2005); lower doses (0.25 units/kg/day) may be used especially in young children to avoid potential hypoglycemia (Beck 2015); higher doses may be necessary for some patients (eg, obese, concomitant steroids, puberty, sedentary lifestyle, following diabetic ketoacidosis presentation) (AACE/ACE [Handelsman 2015]; ADA 2018).
Usual total daily maintenance range: SubQ: Doses must be individualized; however, an estimate can be determined based on phase of diabetes and level of maturity (ISPAD [Danne 2018]; ISPAD [Sundberg 2017])
Partial remission phase (Honeymoon phase): <0.5 units/kg/day
Prepubertal children (not in partial remission):
Infants ≥6 months and Children ≤6 years: 0.4 to 0.8 units/kg/day
Children ≥7 years: 0.7 to 1 units/kg/day
Pubescent Children and Adolescents: During puberty, requirements may substantially increase to >1 unit/kg/day and in some cases up to 2 units/kg/day
Dosage titration: Treatment and monitoring regimens must be individualized to maintain premeal and bedtime glucose in target range; titrate dose to achieve glucose control and avoid hypoglycemia. Since combinations of agents are frequently used, dosage adjustment must address the individual component of the insulin regimen which most directly influences the blood glucose value in question, based on the known onset and duration of the insulin component. With combination insulin products, the proportion of rapid-acting to long-acting insulin is fixed; basal vs prandial dose adjustments cannot be made.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus: Limited data available: Children ≥10 years and Adolescents: SubQ: The goal of therapy is to achieve an HbA1c <7% as quickly as possible using the safe titration of medications. Initial therapy in metabolically unstable patients (eg, plasma glucose ≥250 mg/dL, HbA1c >9% and symptoms excluding acidosis) may include once daily intermediate-acting insulin or basal insulin in combination with lifestyle changes and metformin. In patients who fail to achieve glycemic goals with metformin and basal insulin, may consider initiating prandial insulin (regular insulin or rapid-acting insulin) and titrate to achieve goals. Once initial goal reached, insulin should be slowly tapered over 2 to 6 weeks by decreasing the insulin dose by 10% to 30% every few days and the patient transitioned to lowest effective doses or metformin monotherapy if able (AAP [Copeland 2013]; ADA 2018; ISPAD [Zeitler 2018]). Insulin aspart protamine and insulin aspart combination product is not intended for initial therapy; basal insulin requirements should be established first to direct dosing of combination insulin products. Note: Patients who are ketotic or present with ketoacidosis require aggressive management as indicated.
SubQ administration: Insulin aspart protamine and insulin aspart combination product is administered by SubQ injection, typically in 2 divided doses/day with each dose intended to cover two meals or a meal and a snack; patients with type 1 diabetes should administer within 15 minutes before meal initiation; patients with type 2 diabetes may administer within 15 minutes before or after meal initiation. Administer into the thigh, upper arm, buttocks, or abdomen; absorption rates vary amongst injection sites; be consistent with area used while rotating injection sites within the same region to reduce the risk of lipodystrophy.
In order to properly resuspend the insulin, vials and prefilled pens should be gently rolled between the palms ten times; it is important that the vials and pens are kept horizontal throughout this process. After prefilled pens are rolled between the palms, the, prefilled pens should then be inverted until the glass ball moves from one end of the reservoir to the other ten times. Properly resuspended insulin should look uniformly white and cloudy; do not use if any white insulin substance remains at the bottom of the container, if any clumps are present, if the insulin remains clear after adequate mixing, or if white particles are stuck to the bottom or wall of the container. Cold injections should be avoided.
Do not administer IM or IV, or in an insulin pump. Do not dilute or mix with any other insulin formulation or solution.
For prefilled pens, prime the needle before each injection with 2 units of insulin. Once injected, hold the needle in the skin for a count of at least 6 after the dose dial has returned to 0 units before removing the needle to ensure the full dose has been administered. NovoLog 70/30 FlexPen is designed to dial doses in 1-unit increments. When there are <12 units remaining in NovoLog 70/30 FlexPen, replace it with a new one to ensure even mixing.
Individualized medical nutrition therapy (MNT) based on ADA recommendations is an integral part of therapy.
Unopened vials and prefilled pens may be stored under refrigeration between 2°C and 8°C (36°F to 46°F) until the expiration date or at room temperature <30°C (<86°F) for 14 days (prefilled pens) or 28 days (vials); do not freeze; keep away from heat and sunlight. Once punctured (in use), vials may be stored under refrigeration or at room temperature <30°C (<86°F); use within 28 days. Prefilled pens that have been punctured (in use) should be stored at room temperature <30°C (<86°F) and used within 14 days; do not freeze or refrigerate.
Alpha-Lipoic Acid: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy
Androgens: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Exceptions: Danazol. Monitor therapy
Antidiabetic Agents: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy
Beta-Blockers: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Exceptions: Levobunolol; Metipranolol. Monitor therapy
Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Management: Consider a decrease in insulin dose when initiating therapy with a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification
Direct Acting Antiviral Agents (HCV): May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy
Edetate CALCIUM Disodium: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Monitor therapy
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Agonists: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Management: Consider insulin dose reductions when used in combination with glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists. Avoid the use of lixisenatide in patients receiving both basal insulin and a sulfonylurea. Exceptions: Liraglutide. Consider therapy modification
Guanethidine: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy
Herbs (Hypoglycemic Properties): May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy
Hyperglycemia-Associated Agents: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy
Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of other Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy
Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents: Antidiabetic Agents may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Hypoglycemia-Associated Agents. Monitor therapy
Liraglutide: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Management: If liraglutide is used for the treatment of diabetes (Victoza), consider insulin dose reductions. The combination of liraglutide and insulin should be avoided if liraglutide is used exclusively for weight loss (Saxenda). Consider therapy modification
Macimorelin: Insulins may diminish the diagnostic effect of Macimorelin. Avoid combination
Maitake: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Metreleptin: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Management: Insulin dosage adjustments (including potentially large decreases) may be required to minimize the risk for hypoglycemia with concurrent use of metreleptin. Monitor closely. Consider therapy modification
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Pegvisomant: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Pioglitazone: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Insulins. Specifically, the risk for hypoglycemia, fluid retention, and heart failure may be increased with this combination. Management: If insulin is combined with pioglitazone, dose reductions should be considered to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. Monitor patients for fluid retention and signs/symptoms of heart failure. Consider therapy modification
Pramlintide: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Management: Upon initiation of pramlintide, decrease mealtime insulin dose by 50% to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. Monitor blood glucose frequently and individualize further insulin dose adjustments based on glycemic control. Consider therapy modification
Prothionamide: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Quinolones: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Quinolones may diminish the therapeutic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Specifically, if an agent is being used to treat diabetes, loss of blood sugar control may occur with quinolone use. Monitor therapy
Ritodrine: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy
Rosiglitazone: Insulins may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Rosiglitazone. Specifically, the risk of fluid retention, heart failure, and hypoglycemia may be increased with this combination. Avoid combination
Salicylates: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Blood Glucose Lowering Agents. Monitor therapy
Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SLGT2) Inhibitors: May enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulins. Management: Consider a decrease in insulin dose when initiating therapy with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor and monitor patients for hypoglycemia. Consider therapy modification
Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics: May diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents. Monitor therapy
>10%: Endocrine & metabolic: Hypoglycemia (47% to 75%), severe hypoglycemia (4% to 16%)
Frequency not defined:
Cardiovascular: Peripheral edema
Endocrine & metabolic: Hypokalemia, weight gain
Hypersensitivity: Anaphylaxis, hypersensitivity reaction
Immunologic: Antibody development
Local: Hypersensitivity at injection site (including edema, erythema, or pruritus), lipoatrophy at injection site, lipotrophy at injection site
Concerns related to adverse effects:
• Glycemic control: Hyper- or hypoglycemia may result from changes in insulin strength, manufacturer, type, and/or administration method. The most common adverse effect of insulin is hypoglycemia. The timing of hypoglycemia differs among various insulin formulations. Hypoglycemia may result from changes in meal pattern (eg, macronutrient content, timing of meals), changes in the level of physical activity, increased work or exercise without eating, or changes to coadministered medications. Use of long-acting insulin preparations (eg, insulin degludec, insulin detemir, insulin glargine) may delay recovery from hypoglycemia. Patients with renal or hepatic impairment may be at a higher risk. Symptoms differ in patients and may change over time in the same patient; awareness may be less pronounced in those with long-standing diabetes, diabetic nerve disease, patients taking beta-blockers, or in those who experience recurrent hypoglycemia. Profound and prolonged episodes of hypoglycemia may result in convulsions, unconsciousness, temporary or permanent brain damage, or even death. Insulin requirements may be altered during illness, emotional disturbances, or other stressors. Instruct patients to use caution with ethanol; may increase risk of hypoglycemia.
• Hypersensitivity: Severe, life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis may occur with insulin products; discontinue use if hypersensitivity occurs and treat as indicated.
• Hypokalemia: Insulin (especially IV insulin) causes a shift of potassium from the extracellular space to the intracellular space, possibly producing hypokalemia. If left untreated, hypokalemia may result in respiratory paralysis, ventricular arrhythmia and even death. Use with caution in patients at risk for hypokalemia (eg, loop diuretic use). Monitor serum potassium and supplement potassium when necessary.
• Cardiac disease: Concurrent use with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonists, including thiazolidinediones may cause dose-related fluid retention and lead to or exacerbate heart failure, particularly when used in combination with insulin. If PPAR-gamma agonists are prescribed, monitor for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If heart failure develops, consider PPAR-gamma agonist dosage reduction or therapy discontinuation.
• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with hepatic impairment. Dosage requirements may be reduced.
• Renal impairment: Use with caution in patients with renal impairment. Dosage requirements may be reduced.
Concurrent drug therapy issues:
• Drug-drug interactions: Potentially significant interactions may exist, requiring dose or frequency adjustment, additional monitoring, and/or selection of alternative therapy. Consult drug interactions database for more detailed information.
• Hospitalized patients with diabetes: Exclusive use of a sliding scale insulin regimen (insulin regular) in the inpatient hospital setting is strongly discouraged. In the critical care setting, continuous IV insulin infusion (insulin regular) has been shown to best achieve glycemic targets. In noncritically ill patients with either poor oral intake or taking nothing by mouth, basal insulin or basal plus bolus is preferred. In noncritically ill patients with adequate nutritional intake, a combination of basal insulin, nutritional, and correction components is preferred. An effective insulin regimen will achieve the goal glucose range without the risk of severe hypoglycemia). A blood glucose value <70 mg/dL should prompt a treatment regimen review and change, if necessary, to prevent further hypoglycemia (ADA 2019).
Dosage form specific issues:
• Multiple dose injection pens: According to the CDC, pen-shaped injection devices should never be used for more than one person (even when the needle is changed) because of the risk of infection. The injection device should be clearly labeled with individual patient information to ensure that the correct pen is used (CDC 2012).
• Administration: Insulin aspart protamine and insulin aspart premixed combination products are NOT intended for IV or IM administration or administration in an insulin infusion pump.
• Appropriate use: Not recommended for treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.
• Patient education: Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is essential to maximize the effectiveness of therapy.
Diabetes mellitus: Plasma glucose (typically before meals and snacks and at bedtime; occasionally additional monitoring may be required), electrolytes, HbA1c (at least twice yearly in patients who have stable glycemic control and are meeting treatment goals; quarterly in patients not meeting treatment goals or with therapy change [ADA 2019]); renal function, hepatic function, weight.
Gestational diabetes mellitus: Blood glucose 4 times daily (one fasting and three postprandial) until well controlled, then as appropriate (ACOG 190 2018).
Biphasic insulin aspart (insulin aspart protamine suspension 70% [intermediate acting] and insulin aspart solution 30% [rapid acting]) was found to be comparable to biphasic human insulin (Insulin NPH suspension 70% [intermediate acting] and insulin regular solution 30% [short acting]) in initial studies of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (Balaji 2010; Balaji 2012).
In women with diabetes, maternal hyperglycemia can be associated with congenital malformations as well as adverse effects in the fetus, neonate, and the mother (ACOG 201 2018; ADA 2019; Metzger 2007). To prevent adverse outcomes, prior to conception and throughout pregnancy, maternal blood glucose and HbA1c should be kept as close to target goals as possible but without causing significant hypoglycemia (ACOG 2013; ADA 2019; Blumer 2013; Lambert 2013).
Insulin therapy is the preferred treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in pregnant women, as well as GDM when pharmacologic therapy is needed (ACOG 190 2018; ADA 2019). Insulin requirements tend to fall during the first trimester of pregnancy and increase in the later trimesters, peaking at 28 to 32 weeks of gestation. Following delivery, insulin requirements decrease rapidly (ACOG 201 2018).
Most available information for use of insulin aspart in pregnancy is from studies using the rapid action solution. Refer to Insulin Aspart monograph for additional information.
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience headache, back pain, diarrhea, flu-like symptoms, nausea, common cold symptoms, abdominal pain, or heartburn. Have patient report immediately to prescriber signs of low blood sugar (dizziness, headache, fatigue, feeling weak, shaking, tachycardia, confusion, increased hunger, or sweating), signs of low potassium (muscle pain or weakness, muscle cramps, or an abnormal heartbeat), severe injection site irritation, burning or numbness feeling, vision changes, passing out, mood changes, seizures, slurred speech, shortness of breath, excessive weight gain, swelling of arms or legs, or injection site change in skin to thick or thin (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for health care professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience, and judgment in diagnosing, treating, and advising patients.
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
More about insulin aspart/insulin aspart protamine
- Side Effects
- During Pregnancy
- Dosage Information
- Drug Interactions
- En Español
- 4 Reviews
- Drug class: insulin
- FDA Alerts (1)