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Dronedarone

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on May 14, 2020.

Pronunciation

(droe NE da rone)

Index Terms

  • Dronedarone Hydrochloride
  • SR33589

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.

Tablet, Oral:

Multaq: 400 mg

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Multaq

Pharmacologic Category

  • Antiarrhythmic Agent, Class III

Pharmacology

A noniodinated antiarrhythmic agent structurally related to amiodarone exhibiting properties of all 4 antiarrhythmic classes. Dronedarone inhibits sodium (INa) and potassium (Ikr, IkS, Ik1, and Ik-ACh) channels resulting in prolongation of the action potential and refractory period in myocardial tissue without reverse-use dependent effects; decreases AV conduction and sinus node function through inhibition of calcium (ICa-L) channels and beta1-receptor blocking activity. Similar to amiodarone, dronedarone also inhibits alpha1-receptor mediated increases in blood pressure.

Distribution

Vd: ~1400 L

Metabolism

Hepatic via CYP3A4 to active N-debutyl metabolite (1/10 to 1/3 as potent as dronedarone) and other inactive metabolites

Excretion

Feces (84% mainly as metabolites); urine (~6% mainly as metabolites)

Time to Peak

Plasma: 3 to 6 hours

Half-Life Elimination

13 to 19 hours

Protein Binding

>98%

Special Populations: Hepatic Function Impairment

Dronedarone mean exposure increased 1.3-fold and mean exposure of the N-debutyl metabolite decreased by 50% in patients with moderate hepatic impairment.

Special Populations: Elderly

Dronedarone exposure is 23% higher in patients 65 years and older.

Special Populations: Gender

Dronedarone exposure is 30% higher in females than in males.

Special Populations: Race

Asian (Japanese) males have about a 2-fold higher exposure than white males.

Use: Labeled Indications

Paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation: To reduce the risk of hospitalization for atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients in sinus rhythm with a history of paroxysmal or persistent AF

Off Label Uses

Atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (alternative antiarrhythmic)

Based on the 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association (ACCF/AHA) guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and the 2014 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Heart Rhythm Society (AHA/ACC/HRS) guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), dronedarone may be considered an alternative to amiodarone or disopyramide (combined with a beta-blocker or a nondihydropyridine calcium channel blocker) for the treatment of AF in patients with HCM, especially in those with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), but clinical experience is limited.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to dronedarone or any component of the formulation; permanent atrial fibrillation (patients in whom normal sinus rhythm will not or cannot be restored); symptomatic heart failure (heart failure with recent [within the last 4 weeks] decompensation requiring hospitalization or NYHA Class III or IV symptoms); liver or lung toxicity related to previous amiodarone use; second-degree or third-degree atrioventricular block or sick sinus syndrome (except when used in conjunction with a functioning artificial pacemaker); bradycardia <50 bpm; concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, cyclosporine, telithromycin, clarithromycin, nefazodone, ritonavir); concomitant use of drugs or herbal products known to prolong the QT interval increasing the risk for torsade de pointes (eg, phenothiazine antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, certain oral macrolide antibiotics, class I and III antiarrhythmics); QTc (Bazett) interval ≥500 msec or PR interval >280 msec; severe hepatic impairment; pregnancy; breastfeeding

Canadian labeling: Additional contraindications (not in US labeling): Permanent atrial fibrillation of any duration where sinus rhythm cannot be restored and further attempts to restore it are no longer considered; history of or current heart failure regardless of NYHA class; left ventricular systolic dysfunction; complete bundle branch block, distal block, sinus node dysfunction, or atrial conduction defects (except when used in conjunction with a functioning pacemaker); unstable hemodynamic condition

Dosing: Adult

Note: Prior to initiation of dronedarone, class I or III antiarrhythmics (eg, amiodarone, flecainide, propafenone, quinidine, disopyramide, dofetilide, sotalol) or drugs that are strong inhibitors of CYP3A (eg, ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, cyclosporine, telithromycin, clarithromycin, nefazodone, ritonavir) must be discontinued.

Paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation: Note: For use in patients in normal sinus rhythm with a history of paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation; should not be used for patients permanently in atrial fibrillation to control ventricular rate; should not be used in patients with symptomatic heart failure, defined as recent (within 4 weeks) decompensated heart failure requiring hospitalization or NYHA Class III or IV symptoms (AHA/ACC [January 2014]).

Oral: 400 mg twice daily with meals

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Administration

Oral: Administer with morning and evening meal.

Dietary Considerations

Take with a meal. Avoid coadministration with grapefruit/grapefruit juice.

Storage

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).

Drug Interactions

Abametapir: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Abemaciclib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Abemaciclib. Management: Monitor for increased abemaciclib toxicities if combined with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider reducing the abemaciclib dose in 50 mg decrements if necessary. Monitor therapy

Acalabrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Acalabrutinib. Management: Reduce acalabrutinib dose to 100 mg once daily with concurrent use of a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor patient closely for both acalabrutinib response and evidence of adverse effects with any concurrent use. Consider therapy modification

Afatinib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Afatinib. Management: If combined, administer the P-gp inhibitor simultaneously with, or after, the dose of afatinib. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of afatinib toxicity and if the combination is not tolerated, reduce the afatinib dose by 10 mg. Consider therapy modification

Alfentanil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Alfentanil. Management: If use of alfentanil and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors is necessary, consider dosage reduction of alfentanil until stable drug effects are achieved. Frequently monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation when these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Alfuzosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Alfuzosin. Monitor therapy

Aliskiren: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Aliskiren. Monitor therapy

Alitretinoin (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Alitretinoin (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Amiodarone: QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Amiodarone. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Amisulpride (Oral): QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Amisulpride (Oral). Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even greater risk. Consider therapy modification

AmLODIPine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of AmLODIPine. Monitor therapy

Apixaban: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Moderate) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Apixaban. Monitor therapy

Aprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Aprepitant. Avoid combination

ARIPiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole. Management: Monitor for increased aripiprazole pharmacologic effects. Aripiprazole dose adjustments may or may not be required based on concomitant therapy, indication, or dosage form. Consult full interaction monograph for specific recommendations. Monitor therapy

ARIPiprazole Lauroxil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole Lauroxil. Monitor therapy

Asunaprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Asunaprevir. Avoid combination

AtorvaSTATin: Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of AtorvaSTATin. Monitor therapy

Avanafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Avanafil. Management: The maximum avanafil dose is 50 mg per 24-hour period when used together with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Patients receiving such a combination should also be monitored more closely for evidence of adverse effects (eg, hypotension, syncope, priapism). Consider therapy modification

Avapritinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Avapritinib. Management: Avoid use of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with avapritinib. If this combination cannot be avoided, reduce the avapritinib dose from 300 mg once daily to 100 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Axitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Axitinib. Monitor therapy

Azithromycin (Systemic): QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Azithromycin (Systemic). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Barnidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Barnidipine. Monitor therapy

Benzhydrocodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Benzhydrocodone. Specifically, the concentration of hydrocodone may be increased. Monitor therapy

Beta-Blockers: Dronedarone may enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. This likely applies only to those agents that are metabolized by CYP2D6. Management: Use lower initial beta-blocker doses; adequate tolerance of the combination, based on ECG findings, should be confirmed prior to any increase in beta-blocker dose. Consider therapy modification

Betrixaban: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Betrixaban. Management: Decrease adult betrixaban dose to an initial single dose of 80 mg followed by 40 mg once daily if combined with a P-gp inhibitor. Avoid concomitant use of betrixaban and P-gp inhibitors in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCL less than 30 mL/min). Consider therapy modification

Bilastine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Bilastine. Avoid combination

Blonanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Blonanserin. Monitor therapy

Bortezomib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Bortezomib. Monitor therapy

Bosutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Bosutinib. Avoid combination

Bradycardia-Causing Agents: May enhance the bradycardic effect of other Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Monitor therapy

Brexpiprazole: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Brexpiprazole. Management: The brexpiprazole dose should be reduced to 25% of usual if used together with both a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and a strong or moderate CYP2D6 inhibitor, or if a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor is used in a CYP2D6 poor metabolizer. Monitor therapy

Brigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Brigatinib. Management: Avoid concurrent use of brigatinib with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If such a combination cannot be avoided, reduce the dose of brigatinib by approximately 40% (ie, from 180 mg to 120 mg, from 120 mg to 90 mg, or from 90 mg to 60 mg). Consider therapy modification

Bromocriptine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Bromocriptine. Management: The bromocriptine dose should not exceed 1.6 mg daily with use of a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. The Cycloset brand specifically recommends this dose limitation, but other bromocriptine products do not make such specific recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Budesonide (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Budesonide (Systemic): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Systemic). Management: Avoid the concomitant use of CYP3A4 inhibitors and oral budesonide. If patients receive both budesonide and CYP3A4 inhibitors, they should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of corticosteroid excess. Consider therapy modification

Budesonide (Topical): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Budesonide (Topical). Avoid combination

Cabozantinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Cabozantinib. Monitor therapy

Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine): May enhance the AV-blocking effect of Dronedarone. Other electrophysiologic effects of Dronedarone may also be increased. Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine) may increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine). Management: Use lower starting doses of the nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (i.e., verapamil, diltiazem), and only consider increasing calcium channel blocker dose after obtaining ECG-based evidence that the combination is being well-tolerated. Exceptions: Bepridil. Consider therapy modification

Cannabidiol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabidiol. Monitor therapy

Cannabis: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Cannabis. More specifically, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol serum concentrations may be increased. Monitor therapy

Chloroquine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Chloroquine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

ChlorproMAZINE: Dronedarone may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of ChlorproMAZINE. Avoid combination

Cilostazol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Cilostazol. Management: Consider reducing the cilostazol dose to 50 mg twice daily in adult patients who are also receiving moderate inhibitors of CYP3A4. Consider therapy modification

Citalopram: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Citalopram. Avoid combination

Clarithromycin: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Clarithromycin. Avoid combination

Clofazimine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Clofazimine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

CloZAPine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of CloZAPine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Cobimetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Cobimetinib. Management: Avoid this combination when possible. If concurrent short term (14 days or less) use cannot be avoided, reduce the cobimetinib dose from 60 mg to 20 mg daily. Avoid concomitant use in patients already receiving reduced cobimetinib doses. Consider therapy modification

Codeine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Codeine. Monitor therapy

Colchicine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Management: Reduce colchicine dose as directed when using with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, and increase monitoring for colchicine-related toxicity. See interaction monograph for details. Use extra caution in patients with impaired renal and/or hepatic function. Consider therapy modification

Colchicine: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine. Colchicine distribution into certain tissues (e.g., brain) may also be increased. Management: Colchicine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function who are also receiving a P-gp inhibitor. In those with normal renal and hepatic function, reduce colchicine dose as directed. See interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Conivaptan: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Copanlisib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Copanlisib. Monitor therapy

CycloSPORINE (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inducers (Moderate): May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inducers (Strong): May decrease the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate): May decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong): May increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Exceptions: Ceritinib; Clarithromycin; Saquinavir; Voriconazole. Avoid combination

CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may decrease the metabolism of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Exceptions: Alitretinoin (Systemic); Bromperidol; Copanlisib; Praziquantel; Ripretinib; Trabectedin; Vinorelbine. Monitor therapy

Dabigatran Etexilate: Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Dabigatran Etexilate. Management: Dose reductions and/or avoidance of this combination may be necessary. Specific recommendations vary by renal function and indication for dabigatran. Refer to full interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Dabrafenib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Management: Seek alternatives to the CYP3A4 substrate when possible. If concomitant therapy cannot be avoided, monitor clinical effects of the substrate closely (particularly therapeutic effects). Consider therapy modification

Dapoxetine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Dapoxetine. Management: The dose of dapoxetine should be limited to 30 mg per day when used together with a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4. Consider therapy modification

Darifenacin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Darifenacin. Monitor therapy

Dasatinib: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dasatinib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Deferasirox: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Deflazacort: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Deflazacort. Management: Administer one third of the recommended deflazacort dose when used together with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Digitoxin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Digitoxin. Monitor therapy

Digoxin: May enhance the AV-blocking effect of Dronedarone. Digoxin may also enhance the other electrophysiologic effects of Dronedarone. Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Digoxin. Management: Avoid concurrent use of digoxin when possible. If concurrent use is necessary, reduce adult digoxin dose by 50%, monitor digoxin concentration closely, and increase monitoring for both clinical response to therapy and the occurrence of adverse effects. Consider therapy modification

DOCEtaxel: Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of DOCEtaxel. Management: Avoid this combination whenever possible. If this combination must be used, consider using a reduced docetaxel dose, and/or increase monitoring for evidence of serious docetaxel toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, mucositis, etc.). Consider therapy modification

Domperidone: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Domperidone. Avoid combination

Doxepin-Containing Products: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. Avoid combination

DOXOrubicin (Conventional): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of DOXOrubicin (Conventional). Avoid combination

Dronabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Dronabinol. Monitor therapy

Droperidol: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Droperidol. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Duvelisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Edoxaban: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Edoxaban. Management: Exceptions to this monograph are discussed in separate Lexi-Interact monographs. Monitor therapy

Eletriptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Eletriptan. Management: The use of eletriptan within 72 hours of a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor should be avoided. Consider therapy modification

Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Elexacaftor, Tezacaftor, and Ivacaftor. Management: When combined with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors, two elexacaftor/tezacaftor/ivacaftor (100 mg/50 mg/75 mg) tablets should be given in the morning, every other day. Ivacaftor (150 mg) should be given in the morning, every other day on alternate days. Consider therapy modification

Eliglustat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Eliglustat. Management: Reduce eliglustat dose to 84 mg daily in CYP2D6 EMs when used with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Use in CYP2D6 EMs who are also taking strong or moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors is contraindicated. Avoid use of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors in CYP2D6 IMs or PMs. Consider therapy modification

Encorafenib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Encorafenib. Management: Avoid use of dronedarone and encorafenib if possible. If combined, reduce the encorafenib dose (if 450 mg, decrease to 225 mg; if 300 mg decrease to 150 mg; if 225 mg or 150 mg decrease to 75 mg) and monitor the QT interval. Consider therapy modification

Entrectinib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Entrectinib. Avoid combination

Eplerenone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Eplerenone. Management: When used concomitantly with moderate inhibitors of CYP3A4, eplerenone dosing recommendations vary by indication and international labeling. See full drug interaction monograph for details. Consider therapy modification

Erdafitinib: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Erdafitinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Erythromycin (Systemic): Dronedarone may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Erythromycin (Systemic). Erythromycin (Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Avoid combination

Escitalopram: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Escitalopram. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Estrogen Derivatives: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Etoposide: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Etoposide. Monitor therapy

Etoposide Phosphate: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Etoposide Phosphate. Monitor therapy

Everolimus: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Moderate) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Everolimus. Management: Afinitor: For TSC-associated SEGA or TSC-associated seizures reduce everolimus dose 50%. For other Afinitor indications, reduce everolimus dose to 2.5 mg/day, increase to 5 mg/day if tolerated. Zortress: Monitor for increased everolimus concentrations. Consider therapy modification

Fedratinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Fedratinib. Monitor therapy

FentaNYL: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of FentaNYL. Management: Consider fentanyl dose reductions when combined with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for respiratory depression and sedation. Upon discontinuation of a CYP3A4 inhibitor, consider a fentanyl dose increase; monitor for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. Consider therapy modification

Fexinidazole [INT]: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk). Avoid combination

Fexinidazole [INT]: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Fexinidazole [INT]. Avoid combination

Fingolimod: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Avoid combination

Flecainide: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Flecainide. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Flibanserin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Flibanserin. Management: Use of flibanserin with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors is contraindicated. If starting flibanserin, start 2 weeks after the last dose of the CYP3A4 inhibitor. If starting a CYP3A4 inhibitor, start 2 days after the last dose of flibanserin. Avoid combination

Flupentixol: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Flupentixol. Avoid combination

Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation): CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Fluticasone (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Fosaprepitant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Fosaprepitant. Avoid combination

Fosnetupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Fusidic Acid (Systemic): May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Gadobenate Dimeglumine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Gadobenate Dimeglumine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Gemifloxacin: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Avoid combination

Gilteritinib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If use is necessary, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and arrhythmias. Consider therapy modification

Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir. Monitor therapy

Grapefruit Juice: May increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Avoid combination

GuanFACINE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of GuanFACINE. Management: Reduce the extended-release guanfacine dose 50% when combined with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor for increased guanfacine toxicities when these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Halofantrine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Halofantrine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Haloperidol: QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Haloperidol. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

HYDROcodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of HYDROcodone. Monitor therapy

Ibrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ibrutinib. Management: When treating B-cell malignancies, decrease ibrutinib to 280 mg daily when combined with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. When treating graft versus host disease, monitor patients closely and reduce the ibrutinib dose as needed based on adverse reactions. Consider therapy modification

Idelalisib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Avoid combination

Ifosfamide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide. Monitor therapy

Imatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Imatinib. Monitor therapy

Inotuzumab Ozogamicin: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Inotuzumab Ozogamicin. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Ivabradine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ivabradine. Avoid combination

Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ivacaftor. Management: Ivacaftor dose reductions may be required; consult full drug interaction monograph content for age- and weight-specific dosage recommendations. Consider therapy modification

Ivosidenib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Ivosidenib. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Lacosamide: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the AV-blocking effect of Lacosamide. Monitor therapy

Lacosamide: Antiarrhythmic Agents (Class III) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Lacosamide. Specifically the risk for bradycardia, ventricular tachyarrhythmias, or a prolonged PR interval may be increased. Monitor therapy

Lapatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lapatinib. Monitor therapy

Larotrectinib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Larotrectinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Larotrectinib. Monitor therapy

Lefamulin: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging CYP3A4 Substrates. Management: Do not use lefamulin tablets with QT-prolonging CYP3A4 substrates. Lefamulin prescribing information lists this combination as contraindicated. Avoid combination

Lemborexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lemborexant. Avoid combination

Lercanidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lercanidipine. Monitor therapy

Levamlodipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Levamlodipine. Monitor therapy

Levofloxacin-Containing Products (Systemic): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Avoid combination

Lidocaine (Topical): May enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Antiarrhythmic Agents (Class III). Antiarrhythmic Agents (Class III) may increase the serum concentration of Lidocaine (Topical). This mechanism specifically applies to amiodarone and dronedarone. Monitor therapy

Lofexidine: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Lomitapide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide. Avoid combination

Lorlatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lorlatinib. Monitor therapy

Lovastatin: Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Lovastatin. Management: Initiate immediate release lovastatin at a dose of 10 mg/day, and do not exceed 20 mg/day for immediate or extended release lovastatin, in patients receiving dronedarone. Monitor closely for signs of lovastatin toxicity (eg, myositis, rhabdomyolysis). Consider therapy modification

Lumateperone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lumateperone. Avoid combination

Lurasidone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lurasidone. Management: US labeling recommends reducing lurasidone dose by 50% with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and initiating 20 mg/day, max 80 mg/day. Some non-US labels recommend initiating lurasidone 20 mg/day, max 40 mg/day. Avoid concurrent use of grapefruit products. Consider therapy modification

Lurbinectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Lurbinectedin. Management: Avoid concomitant use of lurbinectedin and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. If combined, consider a lurbinectedin dose reduction as clinically indicated. Consider therapy modification

Macitentan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Macitentan. Monitor therapy

Manidipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Manidipine. Monitor therapy

Meperidine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Meperidine. Monitor therapy

Methadone: QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Methadone. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Midodrine: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Monitor therapy

Midostaurin: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Midostaurin. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Mirodenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Mirodenafil. Monitor therapy

Morphine (Systemic): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Morphine (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Moxifloxacin (Systemic): QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Moxifloxacin (Systemic). Avoid combination

Naldemedine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Naldemedine. Monitor therapy

Nalfurafine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Nalfurafine. Monitor therapy

Naloxegol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Naloxegol. Management: The use of naloxegol and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided. If concurrent use is unavoidable, reduce naloxegol dose to 12.5 mg once daily and monitor for signs of opiate withdrawal (eg, hyperhidrosis, chills, diarrhea, anxiety, irritability). Consider therapy modification

Neratinib: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Moderate) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Neratinib. Avoid combination

Netupitant: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

Nilotinib: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Nilotinib. Avoid combination

NiMODipine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of NiMODipine. Monitor therapy

Nintedanib: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Moderate) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Nintedanib. Monitor therapy

OLANZapine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of OLANZapine. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Olaparib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Olaparib. Management: Avoid use of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors with olaparib, if possible. If such concurrent use cannot be avoided, the dose of olaparib tablets should be reduced to 150 mg twice daily and the dose of olaparib capsules should be reduced to 200 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Oliceridine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Oliceridine. Monitor therapy

Ondansetron: QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Ondansetron. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Osimertinib: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Osimertinib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

OxyCODONE: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of OxyCODONE. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of OxyCODONE. Serum concentrations of the active metabolite Oxymorphone may also be increased. Monitor therapy

Palbociclib: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Monitor therapy

PAZOPanib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib. Avoid combination

Pemigatinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Pemigatinib. Management: If combined use cannot be avoided, reduce the pemigatinib dose from 13.5 mg daily to 9 mg daily, or from 9 mg daily to 4.5 mg daily. Resume prior pemigatinib dose after stopping the moderate inhibitor once 3 half-lives of the inhibitor has passed. Consider therapy modification

Pentamidine (Systemic): QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Pentamidine (Systemic). Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Pexidartinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Pexidartinib. Management: Avoid use of pexidartinib with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors if possible. If combined, the pexidartinib dose should be reduced. Decrease 800 mg or 600 mg daily doses to 200 mg twice daily. Decrease doses of 400 mg per day to 200 mg once daily. Consider therapy modification

Pilsicainide: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Pilsicainide. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Pimecrolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may decrease the metabolism of Pimecrolimus. Monitor therapy

Pimozide: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. Avoid combination

Pimozide: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Pimozide. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Avoid combination

Piperaquine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Piperaquine. Avoid combination

Posaconazole: May increase the serum concentration of QT-prolonging CYP3A4 Substrates. Such increases may lead to a greater risk for proarrhythmic effects and other similar toxicities. Avoid combination

Pralsetinib: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Moderate) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Pralsetinib. Monitor therapy

Probucol: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Probucol. Avoid combination

Propafenone: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

QT-prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk - Avoid): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Agents (Indeterminate Risk - Caution): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk). Management: Monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias when these agents are combined. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Monitor therapy

QT-prolonging Class IA Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Avoid combination

QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of other QT-prolonging Class III Antiarrhythmics (Highest Risk). Avoid combination

QT-prolonging Kinase Inhibitors (Highest Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Exceptions: Ivosidenib; Selpercatinib. Consider therapy modification

QT-prolonging Miscellaneous Agents (Highest Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Exceptions: ChlorproMAZINE. Consider therapy modification

QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. QT-prolonging Moderate CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Exceptions: Erythromycin (Systemic); Nilotinib; Ribociclib. Consider therapy modification

QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. QT-prolonging Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate Risk) may increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Avoid combination

QUEtiapine: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of QUEtiapine. Avoid combination

Ranolazine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ranolazine. Management: Limit the ranolazine dose to a maximum of 500 mg twice daily in patients concurrently receiving moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Monitor for increased ranolazine effects and toxicities during concomitant use. Consider therapy modification

Red Yeast Rice: Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Red Yeast Rice. In particular, concentrations of the lovastatin-like components may be increased. Monitor therapy

Ribociclib: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Ribociclib. Avoid combination

RifAXIMin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of RifAXIMin. Monitor therapy

Rimegepant: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Rimegepant. Avoid combination

RisperiDONE: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the CNS depressant effect of RisperiDONE. QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of RisperiDONE. Management: Consider alternatives to this drug combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Rivaroxaban: Inhibitors of CYP3A4 (Moderate) and P-glycoprotein may increase the serum concentration of Rivaroxaban. Management: No action is needed in patients with normal renal function. Do not use this combination in patients with estimated creatinine clearance 15 to 80 mL/min unless prospective benefits outweigh the risks. Consider therapy modification

RomiDEPsin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of RomiDEPsin. Monitor therapy

Rosuvastatin: Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Rosuvastatin. Monitor therapy

Rupatadine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Rupatadine. Monitor therapy

Ruxolitinib: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Management: Ruxolitinib Canadian product labeling recommends avoiding use with bradycardia-causing agents to the extent possible. Monitor therapy

Ruxolitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ruxolitinib. Monitor therapy

Salmeterol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Salmeterol. Monitor therapy

Sarilumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

SAXagliptin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of SAXagliptin. Monitor therapy

Selpercatinib: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Selpercatinib. Management: Avoid combination if possible. If use is necessary, reduce selpercatinib dose as follows: from 120mg twice/day to 80mg twice/day, or from 160mg twice/day to 120mg twice/day. Monitor QT interval more closely for QTc interval prolongation and arrhythmias. Consider therapy modification

Selumetinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Selumetinib. Management: Avoid concomitant use when possible. If combined, selumetinib dose reductions are recommended and vary based on body surface area and selumetinib dose. For details, see the full drug interaction monograph or selumetinib prescribing information. Consider therapy modification

Sildenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Sildenafil. Monitor therapy

Silodosin: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Silodosin. Monitor therapy

Silodosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Silodosin. Monitor therapy

Siltuximab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Simeprevir: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Simeprevir. Avoid combination

Simvastatin: Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin. Management: Avoid the concurrent use of dronedarone with simvastatin when possible. If used together, limit adult simvastatin dose to 10 mg daily, and monitor closely for signs of simvastatin toxicity (eg, myositis, rhabdomyolysis). Consider therapy modification

Siponimod: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the bradycardic effect of Siponimod. Management: Avoid coadministration of siponimod with drugs that may cause bradycardia. Consider therapy modification

Sirolimus: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus. Management: Monitor for increased serum concentrations of sirolimus if combined with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Lower initial sirolimus doses or sirolimus dose reductions will likely be required. Consider therapy modification

Sirolimus: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus. Management: Avoid concurrent use of sirolimus with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors when possible and alternative agents with lesser interaction potential with sirolimus should be considered. Monitor for increased sirolimus concentrations/toxicity if combined. Consider therapy modification

Sodium Stibogluconate: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Sodium Stibogluconate. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. If combined, monitor for QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Patients with additional risk factors for QTc prolongation may be at even higher risk. Consider therapy modification

Sonidegib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Sonidegib. Management: Avoid concomitant use of sonidegib and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors when possible. When concomitant use cannot be avoided, limit CYP3A4 inhibitor use to less than 14 days and monitor for sonidegib toxicity (particularly musculoskeletal adverse reactions). Consider therapy modification

Sparfloxacin: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Sparfloxacin. Avoid combination

St John's Wort: May decrease the serum concentration of Dronedarone. Avoid combination

Stiripentol: May increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inhibitors). Management: Use of stiripentol with CYP3A4 substrates that are considered to have a narrow therapeutic index should be avoided due to the increased risk for adverse effects and toxicity. Any CYP3A4 substrate used with stiripentol requires closer monitoring. Consider therapy modification

SUNItinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of SUNItinib. Monitor therapy

Suvorexant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Suvorexant. Management: The recommended dose of suvorexant is 5 mg daily in patients receiving a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. The dose can be increased to 10 mg daily (maximum dose) if necessary for efficacy. Consider therapy modification

Tacrolimus (Systemic): May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus (Systemic). Management: Monitor for increased serum tacrolimus concentrations, tacrolimus toxicity, and QTc interval prolongation if combined with dronedarone. Tacrolimus dose adjustments may be needed. Consider therapy modification

Tadalafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tadalafil. Monitor therapy

Talazoparib: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Talazoparib. Monitor therapy

Tamsulosin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tamsulosin. Monitor therapy

Tazemetostat: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tazemetostat. Management: Avoid when possible. If combined, reduce tazemetostat dose from 800 mg twice daily to 400 mg twice daily, from 600 mg twice daily to 400 mg in AM and 200 mg in PM, or from 400 mg twice daily to 200 mg twice daily. Consider therapy modification

Tegaserod: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Tegaserod. Monitor therapy

Teniposide: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Teniposide. Monitor therapy

Terlipressin: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Monitor therapy

Tetrahydrocannabinol: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tetrahydrocannabinol. Monitor therapy

Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tezacaftor and Ivacaftor. Management: If combined with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors, give tezacaftor/ivacaftor in the morning, every other day; give ivacaftor in the morning, every other day on alternate days. Tezacaftor/ivacaftor dose depends on age and weight; see full Lexi-Interact monograph Consider therapy modification

Thioridazine: May enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Dronedarone. Avoid combination

Ticagrelor: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ticagrelor. Monitor therapy

Tocilizumab: May decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates (High risk with Inducers). Monitor therapy

Tofacitinib: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Monitor therapy

Tofacitinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tofacitinib. Monitor therapy

Tolvaptan: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Tolvaptan. Management: Avoid this combination with Samsca brand of tolvaptan. Reduce dose for Jynarque brand: 90 mg AM and 30 mg PM, reduce to 45 mg AM and 15 mg PM; 60 mg AM and 30 mg PM, reduce to 30 mg AM and 15 mg PM; 45 mg AM and 15 mg PM, reduce to 15 mg AM and PM. Consider therapy modification

Topotecan: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Topotecan. Avoid combination

Trabectedin: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Trabectedin. Monitor therapy

Triazolam: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Triazolam. Management: Consider triazolam dose reduction in patients receiving concomitant moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Tricyclic Antidepressants: May enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Dronedarone. Management: Drugs listed as exceptions to this monograph are discussed in further detail in separate drug interaction monographs. Exceptions: Doxepin (Systemic); Doxepin (Topical). Avoid combination

Ubrogepant: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ubrogepant. Management: Use an initial ubrogepant dose of 50 mg and avoid a second dose for 24 hours when used with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Udenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Udenafil. Monitor therapy

Ulipristal: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Ulipristal. Management: This is specific for when ulipristal is being used for signs/symptoms of uterine fibroids (Canadian indication). When ulipristal is used as an emergency contraceptive, patients receiving this combination should be monitored for ulipristal toxicity. Avoid combination

Vardenafil: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Vardenafil. Management: Limit Levitra (vardenafil) dose to a single 5 mg dose within a 24-hour period if combined with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Avoid concomitant use of Staxyn (vardenafil) and moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Combined use is contraindicated outside of the US. Consider therapy modification

Vemurafenib: QT-prolonging Agents (Highest Risk) may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Vemurafenib. Management: Consider alternatives to this combination. Patients with other risk factors (eg, older age, female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, heart disease, and higher drug concentrations) are likely at greater risk for these toxicities. Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: Reduce the venetoclax dose by at least 50% in patients requiring concomitant treatment with moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Resume the previous venetoclax dose 2 to 3 days after discontinuation of moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors. Consider therapy modification

Venetoclax: P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Venetoclax. Management: Reduce the venetoclax dose by at least 50% in patients requiring concomitant treatment with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors. Resume the previous venetoclax dose 2 to 3 days after discontinuation of a P-gp inhibitor. Consider therapy modification

Vilazodone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone. Monitor therapy

VinBLAStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of VinBLAStine. Monitor therapy

VinCRIStine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine. Monitor therapy

VinCRIStine (Liposomal): P-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine (Liposomal). Avoid combination

Vindesine: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Vindesine. Monitor therapy

Vitamin K Antagonists (eg, warfarin): Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Vitamin K Antagonists. Monitor therapy

Zanubrutinib: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Zanubrutinib. Management: Decrease the zanubrutinib dose to 80 mg twice daily during coadministration with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Further dose adjustments may be required for zanubrutinib toxicities, refer to prescribing information for details. Consider therapy modification

Zopiclone: CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Moderate) may increase the serum concentration of Zopiclone. Management: The starting adult dose of zopiclone should not exceed 3.75 mg if combined with a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of zopiclone toxicity if these agents are combined. Consider therapy modification

Adverse Reactions

>10%:

Cardiovascular: Prolonged QT interval on ECG (Bazett; 28% [placebo: 19%]; defined as >450 msec in males or >470 msec in female)

Renal: Increased serum creatinine (51%; increased >10%; occurred 5 days after initiation)

1% to 10%:

Cardiovascular: Bradycardia (3%)

Dermatologic: Allergic dermatitis (≤5%), dermatitis (≤5%), eczema (≤5%), pruritus (≤5%), skin rash (≤5%; described as generalized, macular, maculopapular, erythematous)

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea (9%), nausea (5%), abdominal pain (4%), dyspepsia (2%), vomiting (2%)

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Weakness (7%)

<1%, postmarketing, and/or case reports: Acute hepatic failure (requiring transplant), anaphylaxis, angioedema, atrial flutter (with 1:1 atrioventricular conduction), cardiac failure (new or worsened), dysgeusia, hepatic injury, hyperbilirubinemia, hypersensitivity angiitis, increased blood urea nitrogen, increased liver enzymes, interstitial pulmonary disease, pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, skin photosensitivity, vasculitis

ALERT: U.S. Boxed Warning

Increased risk of death, stroke, and heart failure:

Dronedarone is contraindicated in patients with symptomatic heart failure with recent decompensation requiring hospitalization or New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure. Dronedarone doubles the risk of death in these patients.

Dronedarone is contraindicated in patients in atrial fibrillation (AF) who will not or cannot be cardioverted into normal sinus rhythm. In patients with permanent AF, dronedarone doubles the risk of death, stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure.

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse effects:

• Heart failure (HF): New-onset or worsening HF symptoms have been observed. If patient develops new or worsening HF symptoms (eg, weight gain, dependent edema, or increasing shortness of breath) requiring hospitalization while on therapy, discontinue dronedarone.

• Hepatic effects: Severe liver injury, including acute liver failure leading to liver transplant, has been reported. If liver injury is suspected, discontinue therapy and evaluate liver enzymes/bilirubin. Appropriate treatment should be started and therapy should not be reinitiated if liver injury is confirmed. Advise patients to report any signs or symptoms of hepatic injury (anorexia, malaise, fatigue, jaundice, dark urine, itching, right upper quadrant pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and/or fever). Consider periodic monitoring of serum liver enzymes and bilirubin, especially during the first 6 months of therapy.

• QTc interval prolongation: Dronedarone induces a moderate prolongation of the QT interval (average ~10 msec); much greater effects have been observed. Use in patients with QTc (Bazett) interval ≥500 msec is contraindicated; discontinue use of dronedarone if this occurs during therapy.

• Renal effects: Dronedarone may produce a slight increase in serum creatinine (~0.1 mg/dL) within 7 days of initiation due to inhibition of tubular secretion; glomerular filtration rate is not affected. Effect is reversible upon discontinuation. Marked increase in serum creatinine, prerenal azotemia and acute renal failure have been reported; usually in the setting of heart failure or hypovolemia. The effects appear to be reversible upon drug discontinuation and with appropriate medical treatment; monitor renal function periodically. Discontinue use in the setting of heart failure as this is a contraindication.

• Respiratory effects: Interstitial lung disease (including pulmonary fibrosis and pneumonitis) has been reported. Evaluate patients with onset of dyspnea or nonproductive cough for pulmonary toxicity. Discontinue therapy with confirmed pulmonary toxicity. Use is contraindicated in patients with previous pulmonary toxicity with amiodarone.

Disease-related concerns:

• Cardiac devices (eg, implanted defibrillators): One trial conducted during ischemia in a closed-chest animal (porcine) model demonstrated that dronedarone does not affect defibrillation threshold of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) compared to amiodarone (Chevalier 2012). However, prospective human studies are necessary to confirm these results in humans. Assess defibrillation threshold when initiating dronedarone and during therapy.

• Electrolyte imbalance: Correct electrolyte disturbances, especially hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, prior to use and throughout therapy.

• Heart failure (HF): [US Boxed Warning]: The risk of death is doubled when used in patients with symptomatic HF with recent decompensation requiring hospitalization or NYHA Class IV symptoms; use is contraindicated in these patients. Canadian labeling contraindicates use of dronedarone in patients with a history of or current heart failure, regardless of NYHA class.

• Hepatic impairment: Use with caution in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment; use is contraindicated in severe hepatic impairment. Use is also contraindicated in patients with previous liver toxicity with amiodarone.

• Permanent atrial fibrillation (AF): [US Boxed Warning]: Use in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation doubles the risk of death, stroke (especially within the first 2 weeks of therapy), and hospitalization for heart failure. Use is contraindicated in patients with permanent AF who will not or cannot be converted to normal sinus rhythm. Monitor ECG at least every 3 months. Cardiovert patients who are in AF (if clinically indicated) or discontinue dronedarone.

Special populations:

• Elderly: In the treatment of atrial fibrillation, avoid antiarrhythmics as first-line treatment. In older adults, data suggests rate control may provide more benefits than risks compared to rhythm control for most patients.

• Women of childbearing potential: Should use effective contraceptive methods during treatment.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Appropriate use: Initiate only in patients in sinus rhythm who are receiving appropriate antithrombotic therapy.

Monitoring Parameters

ECG (at least every 3 months), blood pressure, heart rate, and rhythm throughout therapy; assess patient for signs of new or worsening heart failure (eg, lethargy, breathlessness, edema of the hands or feet, weight gain) as well as liver injury (eg, jaundice, dark urine, anorexia, nausea, itching, fatigue, right upper quadrant pain, fever); monitor serum electrolytes (especially potassium and magnesium), periodically monitor serum liver enzymes and bilirubin (especially during the first 6 months of therapy)

Patients with implantable cardiac devices: Monitor pacing or defibrillation thresholds with initiation of dronedarone and during treatment.

Canadian labeling: Additional monitoring recommendations: ECG at least every 6 months during therapy; serum creatinine 1 week after initiating therapy followed by periodic renal function tests; periodic pulmonary function assessment

Reproductive Considerations

Use is contraindicated in women who may become pregnant. Women of reproductive potential should use effective contraception during treatment.

Pregnancy Risk Factor

X

Pregnancy Considerations

Studies in animals have shown evidence of fetal abnormalities and use is contraindicated in women who are pregnant.

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat certain types of atrial fibrillation (Afib) to lower the risk of having to go to the hospital.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Diarrhea, upset stomach, or throwing up

• Feeling tired or weak

• Stomach pain

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Kidney problems like unable to pass urine, blood in the urine, change in amount of urine passed, or weight gain

• Heart problems like shortness of breath, a big weight gain, a heartbeat that is not normal, or swelling in the arms or legs that is new or worse

• Liver problems like dark urine, feeling tired, not hungry, upset stomach or stomach pain, light-colored stools, throwing up, or yellow skin or eyes

• Lung problems like shortness of breath or other trouble breathing, cough, or fever

• Dizziness or passing out

• Slow heartbeat

• Abnormal heartbeat that is new or worse

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.