(KAR tee oh lole)
- Carteolol Hydrochloride
Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling.
Solution, Ophthalmic, as hydrochloride:
Generic: 1% (5 mL, 10 mL, 15 mL)
- Ophthalmic Agent, Antiglaucoma
Blocks both beta1- and beta2-receptors and has mild intrinsic sympathomimetic activity; reduces intraocular pressure by decreasing aqueous humor production
~25% of ophthalmic dose is absorbed systemically (Chrisp 1992)
Hepatic via CYP2D6 (Henness 2007)
Urine (Henness 2007)
Time to Peak
Plasma 0.25 hours (Henness 2007)
~5 hours (urinary elimination); 13.8 hours (terminal) (Henness 2007)
Special Populations: Renal Function Impairment
The t½ may be prolonged and elimination decreased. Dosage adjustment may be needed.
Use: Labeled Indications
Treatment of chronic open-angle glaucoma and intraocular hypertension
Hypersensitivity to carteolol or any component of the formulation; sinus bradycardia; heart block greater than first-degree (except in patients with a functioning artificial pacemaker); cardiogenic shock; bronchial asthma, bronchospasm, or COPD; uncompensated cardiac failure; pulmonary edema
Glaucoma or intraocular hypertension: Ophthalmic: Instill 1 drop in affected eye(s) twice daily
Refer to adult dosing.
Intended for twice daily dosing. Keep eye open and do not blink for 30 seconds after instillation. Apply gentle pressure to lacrimal sac for 1 minute. Wear sunglasses to avoid photophobic discomfort.
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy
Alpha-/Beta-Agonists (Direct-Acting): Beta-Blockers may enhance the vasopressor effect of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists (Direct-Acting). Epinephrine used as a local anesthetic for dental procedures will not likely cause clinically relevant problems. Some beta-adrenoceptor mediated effects of Alpha-/Beta-Agonists (Direct-Acting), including anti-anaphylactic effects of epinephrine, may be diminished by Beta-Blockers. Management: Cardioselective beta-blockers and lower doses of epinephrine may confer a more limited risk. Patients who may require acute subcutaneous epinephrine (e.g., bee sting kits) should probably avoid beta blockers. Exceptions: Dipivefrin. Consider therapy modification
Alpha1-Blockers: Beta-Blockers may enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of Alpha1-Blockers. The risk associated with ophthalmic products is probably less than systemic products. Monitor therapy
Alpha2-Agonists: May enhance the AV-blocking effect of Beta-Blockers. Sinus node dysfunction may also be enhanced. Beta-Blockers may enhance the rebound hypertensive effect of Alpha2-Agonists. This effect can occur when the Alpha2-Agonist is abruptly withdrawn. Management: Closely monitor heart rate during treatment with a beta blocker and clonidine. Withdraw beta blockers several days before clonidine withdrawal when possible, and monitor blood pressure closely. Recommendations for other alpha2-agonists are unavailable. Exceptions: Apraclonidine. Consider therapy modification
Amiodarone: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Possibly to the point of cardiac arrest. Amiodarone may increase the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy
Anilidopiperidine Opioids: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Anilidopiperidine Opioids may enhance the hypotensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy
Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Beta-Blockers may decrease the metabolism of Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines). Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines) may decrease the metabolism of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy
Barbiturates: May decrease the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy
Beta2-Agonists: Beta-Blockers (Nonselective) may diminish the bronchodilatory effect of Beta2-Agonists. Avoid combination
Bradycardia-Causing Agents: May enhance the bradycardic effect of other Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Monitor therapy
Bretylium: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Bretylium may also enhance atrioventricular (AV) blockade in patients receiving AV blocking agents. Monitor therapy
Bupivacaine: Beta-Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Bupivacaine. Monitor therapy
Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine): May enhance the hypotensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Bradycardia and signs of heart failure have also been reported. Calcium Channel Blockers (Nondihydropyridine) may increase the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. Exceptions: Bepridil. Monitor therapy
Cardiac Glycosides: Beta-Blockers may enhance the bradycardic effect of Cardiac Glycosides. Monitor therapy
Ceritinib: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the bradycardic effect of Ceritinib. Management: If this combination cannot be avoided, monitor patients for evidence of symptomatic bradycardia, and closely monitor blood pressure and heart rate during therapy. Avoid combination
Cholinergic Agonists: Beta-Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cholinergic Agonists. Of particular concern are the potential for cardiac conduction abnormalities and bronchoconstriction. Management: Administer these agents in combination with caution, and monitor for conduction disturbances. Avoid methacholine with any beta blocker due to the potential for additive bronchoconstriction. Monitor therapy
Dipyridamole: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy
Disopyramide: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Beta-Blockers may enhance the negative inotropic effect of Disopyramide. Monitor therapy
Dronedarone: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. This likely applies only to those agents that are metabolized by CYP2D6. Management: Use lower initial beta-blocker doses; adequate tolerance of the combination, based on ECG findings, should be confirmed prior to any increase in beta-blocker dose. Consider therapy modification
Ergot Derivatives: Beta-Blockers may enhance the vasoconstricting effect of Ergot Derivatives. Exceptions: Nicergoline. Consider therapy modification
Fingolimod: Beta-Blockers may enhance the bradycardic effect of Fingolimod. Management: Avoid the concomitant use of fingolimod and beta-blockers if possible. If coadministration is necessary, patients should have overnight continuous ECG monitoring conducted after the first dose of fingolimod. Monitor patients for bradycardia. Consider therapy modification
Floctafenine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Beta-Blockers. Avoid combination
Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract): Beta-Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). More specifically, Beta-Blockers may inhibit the ability to effectively treat severe allergic reactions to Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract) with epinephrine. Some other effects of epinephrine may be unaffected or even enhanced (e.g., vasoconstriction) during treatment with Beta-Blockers. Consider therapy modification
Insulin: Beta-Blockers may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Insulin. Monitor therapy
Ivabradine: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the bradycardic effect of Ivabradine. Monitor therapy
Lacosamide: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the AV-blocking effect of Lacosamide. Monitor therapy
Lidocaine (Systemic): Beta-Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Lidocaine (Systemic). Monitor therapy
Lidocaine (Topical): Beta-Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Lidocaine (Topical). Monitor therapy
Mepivacaine: Beta-Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Mepivacaine. Monitor therapy
Methacholine: Beta-Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methacholine. Avoid combination
Midodrine: Beta-Blockers may enhance the bradycardic effect of Midodrine. Monitor therapy
NIFEdipine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Beta-Blockers. NIFEdipine may enhance the negative inotropic effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: May diminish the antihypertensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy
Regorafenib: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy
Reserpine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy
Rivastigmine: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Avoid combination
Ruxolitinib: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Management: Ruxolitinib Canadian product labeling recommends avoiding use with bradycardia-causing agents to the extent possible. Monitor therapy
Sulfonylureas: Beta-Blockers may enhance the hypoglycemic effect of Sulfonylureas. Cardioselective beta-blockers (eg, acebutolol, atenolol, metoprolol, and penbutolol) may be safer than nonselective beta-blockers. All beta-blockers appear to mask tachycardia as an initial symptom of hypoglycemia. Ophthalmic beta-blockers are probably associated with lower risk than systemic agents. Monitor therapy
Theophylline Derivatives: Beta-Blockers (Nonselective) may diminish the bronchodilatory effect of Theophylline Derivatives. Consider therapy modification
Tofacitinib: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Monitor therapy
>10%: Ocular: Conjunctival hyperemia
1% to 10%: Ocular: Anisocoria, corneal punctate keratitis, corneal staining, corneal sensitivity decreased, eye pain, vision disturbances
• Bronchospastic disease: In general, patients with bronchospastic disease should not receive beta-blockers; if used at all, should be used cautiously with close monitoring.
• Conduction abnormality: Consider preexisting conditions such as sick sinus syndrome before initiating.
• Diabetes: Use with caution in patients with diabetes mellitus; may potentiate hypoglycemia and/or mask signs and symptoms.
• Heart failure (HF): Use with caution in patients with compensated heart failure and monitor for a worsening of the condition.
• Myasthenia gravis: Use with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis.
• Peripheral vascular disease (PVD): Use with caution in patients with PVD (including Raynaud's).
• Pheochromocytoma (untreated): Adequate alpha-blockade is required prior to use of any beta-blocker.
• Pediatric: Safety and efficacy have not been established in children.
Dosage form specific issues:
• Ophthalmic: Systemic absorption and adverse effects may occur, including bradycardia and/or hypotension. Should not be used alone in angle-closure glaucoma (has no effect on pupillary constriction).
Pregnancy Risk Factor
Adverse events were observed in some animal reproduction studies. The same adverse effects observed with systemic administration of beta-blockers may occur following ophthalmic use of carteolol. If ophthalmic agents are needed for the treatment of glaucoma during pregnancy, the minimum effective dose should be used in combination with punctal occlusion to decrease potential exposure to the fetus (Johnson 2001; Salim 2014; Samples 1988).
• Discuss specific use of drug and side effects with patient as it relates to treatment. (HCAHPS: During this hospital stay, were you given any medicine that you had not taken before? Before giving you any new medicine, how often did hospital staff tell you what the medicine was for? How often did hospital staff describe possible side effects in a way you could understand?)
• Patient may experience burning or watery eyes. Have patient report immediately to prescriber vision changes, eye pain, severe eye irritation, bradycardia, muscle weakness, shortness of breath, excessive weight gain, or swelling of arms or legs (HCAHPS).
• Educate patient about signs of a significant reaction (eg, wheezing; chest tightness; fever; itching; bad cough; blue skin color; seizures; or swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat). Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Patient should consult prescriber for additional questions.
Intended Use and Disclaimer: Should not be printed and given to patients. This information is intended to serve as a concise initial reference for healthcare professionals to use when discussing medications with a patient. You must ultimately rely on your own discretion, experience and judgment in diagnosing, treating and advising patients.
More about carteolol ophthalmic
- Other brands: Ocupress