Metformin and sitagliptin
Medically reviewed on April 13, 2018
What is metformin and sitagliptin?
Metformin and sitagliptin are oral diabetes medicines that help control blood sugar levels.
Metformin works by decreasing glucose (sugar) production in the liver and decreasing absorption of glucose by the intestines. Sitagliptin works by regulating the levels of insulin your body produces after eating.
Metformin and sitagliptin is a combination medicine that is used together with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. metformin and sitagliptin is not for treating type 1 diabetes.
Metformin and sitagliptin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
You should not use this medicine if you have severe kidney disease or diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment).
You may develop lactic acidosis, a dangerous build-up of lactic acid in your blood. Call your doctor or get emergency medical help if you have unusual muscle pain, trouble breathing, stomach pain, dizziness, feeling cold, or feeling very weak or tired.
Before taking this medicine
You should not use metformin and sitagliptin if you are allergic to metformin or sitagliptin (Januvia), or if you have severe kidney disease or diabetic ketoacidosis (call your doctor for treatment with insulin).
Tell your doctor if you have ever had:
kidney disease (your kidney function may need to be checked before you take this medicine);
high triglycerides (a type of fat in the blood);
You may develop lactic acidosis, a dangerous build-up of lactic acid in your blood. This may be more likely if you have other medical conditions, a severe infection, chronic alcoholism, or if you are 65 or older. Ask your doctor about your risk.
If you need to have surgery or any type of x-ray or CT scan using a dye that is injected into your veins, you will need to temporarily stop taking metformin and sitagliptin. Be sure your caregivers know ahead of time that you are using this medication.
Follow your doctor's instructions about using this medicine if you are pregnant or breast-feeding a baby. Blood sugar control is very important during pregnancy, and your dose needs may be different during each trimester of pregnancy. Your dose needs may also be different while you are breast-feeding.
Metformin may stimulate ovulation in a premenopausal woman and may increase the risk of unintended pregnancy. Talk to your doctor about your risk.
This medicine is not approved for use by anyone younger than 18 years old.
How should I take metformin and sitagliptin?
Follow all directions on your prescription label and read all medication guides or instruction sheets. Use the medicine exactly as directed.
Take metformin and sitagliptin with meals.
Swallow the tablet whole and do not crush, chew, or break it.
Some tablets are made with a shell that is not absorbed or melted in the body. Part of this shell may appear in your stool. This is normal and will not make the medicine less effective.
Call your doctor if you see a tablet in your stool several times.
Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can happen to everyone who has diabetes. Symptoms include headache, hunger, sweating, irritability, dizziness, nausea, and feeling shaky. To quickly treat low blood sugar, always keep a fast-acting source of sugar with you such as fruit juice, hard candy, crackers, raisins, or non-diet soda.
Your doctor can prescribe a glucagon emergency injection kit to use in case you have severe hypoglycemia and cannot eat or drink. Be sure your family and close friends know how to give you this injection in an emergency.
Also watch for signs of high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) such as increased thirst or urination, blurred vision, headache, and tiredness.
Blood sugar levels can be affected by stress, illness, surgery, exercise, alcohol use, or skipping meals. Ask your doctor before changing your dose or medication schedule.
Metformin and sitagliptin is only part of a complete treatment program that may also include diet, exercise, weight control, regular blood sugar testing, and special medical care. Follow your doctor's instructions very closely.
Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat.
What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the medicine (with food) as soon as you can, but skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next dose. Do not take two doses at one time.
What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222. You may have severely low blood sugar (extreme weakness, nausea, tremors, sweating, confusion, trouble speaking, fast heartbeats, or seizure).
What should I avoid while taking metformin and sitagliptin?
Avoid drinking alcohol. It lowers blood sugar and may increase your risk of lactic acidosis.
Metformin and sitagliptin side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction (hives, difficult breathing, swelling in your face or throat) or a severe skin reaction (fever, sore throat, burning in your eyes, skin pain, red or purple skin rash that spreads and causes blistering and peeling).
Stop taking metformin and sitagliptin and call your doctor right away if you have symptoms of pancreatitis: severe pain in your upper stomach spreading to your back, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, or fast heartbeats.
Some people using metformin develop lactic acidosis, which can be fatal. Get emergency medical help if you have even mild symptoms such as:
unusual muscle pain;
feeling dizzy, light-headed, tired, or very weak;
stomach pain, vomiting; or
irregular heart rate.
Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:
severe autoimmune reaction--itching, blisters, breakdown of the outer layer of skin;
severe or ongoing pain in your joints;
little or no urinating; or
symptoms of heart failure--shortness of breath (even while lying down), swelling in your legs or feet, rapid weight gain.
Common side effects may include:
headache, weakness; or
cold symptoms such as runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, sore throat.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
See also: Side effects (in more detail)
Metformin and sitagliptin dosing information
Usual Adult Dose for Diabetes Type 2:
Dose should be individualized based on patient's current regimen, effectiveness, and tolerability.
Initial doses: IMMEDIATE-RELEASE:
-For patients not receiving with metformin: sitagliptin 50 mg/ metformin 500 mg orally twice a day
-For patients receiving metformin 1000 mg/day: sitagliptin 50 mg/ metformin 500 mg orally twice a day
-For patients receiving metformin 1700 or 2000 mg/day: sitagliptin 50 mg/ metformin 1000 mg orally twice a day
Initial Doses: EXTENDED-RELEASE:
-For patients not receiving metformin: sitagliptin 100 mg/ metformin 1000 mg orally once a day
-For patients receiving metformin 1000 mg/day: sitagliptin 100 mg/ metformin 1000 mg orally once a day
-For patients receiving metformin 1700 or 2000 mg/day: sitagliptin 100 mg/ metformin 2000 mg orally once a day
Titrate dose to achieve optimal glycemic control
MAXIMUM daily doses: Sitagliptin 100 mg; Metformin 2000 mg
- For patients changing between immediate-release and extended-release: Maintain the same daily dose of metformin-sitagliptin
-When initiating therapy, dose adjustment of insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin may be necessary to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.
Use: As an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when treatment with both sitagliptin and metformin is appropriate.
What other drugs will affect metformin and sitagliptin?
Many drugs can affect metformin and sitagliptin, making this medicine less effective or increasing your risk of lactic acidosis. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible interactions are listed here. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any medicine you start or stop using.
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.
Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.
Copyright 1996-2018 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 6.09.
More about metformin/sitagliptin
- Metformin/sitagliptin Side Effects
- During Pregnancy
- Dosage Information
- Drug Interactions
- Support Group
- En Español
- 53 Reviews
- Drug class: antidiabetic combinations
- Sitagliptin and Metformin Extended-Release Tablets
- Sitagliptin and Metformin Tablets
- Sitagliptin and metformin (Advanced Reading)