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Minocycline (Topical)

Class: Antibacterials
Molecular Formula: C23H27N3O7
CAS Number: 10118-90-8
Brands: Amzeeq

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Nov 11, 2019.

Introduction

Minocycline hydrochloride is an antibacterial.

Uses for Minocycline (Topical)

Minocycline hydrochloride has the following uses:

Minocycline hydrochloride is a tetracycline-class drug indicated for the topical treatment of inflammatory lesions of non-nodular moderate to severe acne vulgaris in patients 9 years of age and older.1

Minocycline hydrochloride has the following limitations of use:

The topical foam formulation of minocycline hydrochloride has not been evaluated in the treatment of infections. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria as well as to maintain the effectiveness of other antibacterial drugs, minocycline foam should be used only as indicated.1

Minocycline (Topical) Dosage and Administration

General

Minocycline hydrochloride is available in the following dosage form(s) and strength(s):

Foam, 4%. Each gram of minocycline hydrochloride topical foam contains 40 mg (4%) of minocycline, equivalent to 43 mg of minocycline hydrochloride.1

Dosage

It is essential that the manufacturer's labeling be consulted for more detailed information on dosage and administration of this drug. Dosage summary:

Pediatric Patients

Dosage and Administration
  • For topical use only. Not for oral, ophthalmic or intravaginal use.1

  • After shaking the can containing the minocycline foam well, a small amount of topical foam (e.g., a cherry-sized amount) should be expressed from the can onto the fingertips of the hand and then gently rubbed into acne-affected parts of the face. This should be repeated as needed until all acne-affected parts of the face are treated.1

  • If acne is present on other parts of the patient’s body (neck, shoulders, arms, back or chest), additional amounts of topical foam should also be applied to these areas.1

  • The topical foam should be applied once daily at approximately the same time each day at least 1 hour before bedtime.1

  • The patient should not bathe, shower or swim for at least 1 hour after application of the product.1

Adults

Dosage and Administration
  • For topical use only. Not for oral, ophthalmic or intravaginal use.1

  • After shaking the can containing the minocycline foam well, a small amount of topical foam (e.g., a cherry-sized amount) should be expressed from the can onto the fingertips of the hand and then gently rubbed into acne-affected parts of the face. This should be repeated as needed until all acne-affected parts of the face are treated.1

  • If acne is present on other parts of the patient’s body (neck, shoulders, arms, back or chest), additional amounts of topical foam should also be applied to these areas.1

  • The topical foam should be applied once daily at approximately the same time each day at least 1 hour before bedtime.1

  • The patient should not bathe, shower or swim for at least 1 hour after application of the product.1

Cautions for Minocycline (Topical)

Contraindications

Topical use of minocycline foam is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines or any of the ingredients within the commercially available formulation.1

Warnings/Precautions

Flammability

The propellant in minocycline topical foam is flammable. Instruct the patient to avoid fire, flame, and smoking during and immediately following application. Do not puncture and/or incinerate the containers. Do not expose containers to heat and/or store at temperatures above 120°F (49°C).1

Teratogenic Effects

Minocycline, like other tetracycline-class drugs, may inhibit bone growth when administered orally during pregnancy. Based on animal data, when administered orally, tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can cause skeletal malformation and retardation of skeletal development on the developing fetus.1

Tooth Discoloration

The use of tetracycline-class drugs orally during tooth development (second and third trimesters of pregnancy, infancy, and childhood up to the age of 8 years) may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term oral use of the tetracycline but has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported with oral tetracycline drugs. Use of tetracycline drugs is not recommended during tooth development.1

The safety and effectiveness of topical minocycline foam have not been established in pediatric patients less than 9 years of age.1

Inhibition of Bone Growth

All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in premature human infants given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every 6 hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued. The safety and effectiveness of topical minocycline foam have not been established in patients less than 9 years of age.1

Results of animal studies indicate that oral tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can cause retardation of skeletal development on the developing fetus. Evidence of embryotoxicity has been noted in animals treated orally early in pregnancy.1

Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including oral minocycline, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.1

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.1

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.1

Hepatotoxicity

Post-marketing cases of serious liver injury, including irreversible drug-induced hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure (sometimes fatal), have been reported with oral minocycline use in the treatment of acne.1

Metabolic Effects

The anti-anabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN). In patients with significantly impaired function, higher serum levels of tetracycline-class drugs may lead to azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis. If renal impairment exists, recommended oral or parenteral doses may lead to excessive systemic accumulations of the drug and possible liver toxicity. Under such conditions, adjust the dose downward, and if therapy is prolonged, serum level determinations of the drug may be advisable.1

CNS Effects

CNS side effects including lightheadedness, dizziness or vertigo have been reported with oral minocycline therapy. Patients who experience these symptoms should be cautioned about driving vehicles or using hazardous machinery while on minocycline therapy. These symptoms may disappear during therapy and may disappear when the drug is discontinued.1

Intracranial Hypertension

Intracranial hypertension has been associated with the use of tetracycline-class drugs. Clinical manifestations of intracranial hypertension include headache, blurred vision, diplopia and vision loss; papilledema can be found on fundoscopy. Women of childbearing age who are overweight or have a history of intracranial hypertension are at a greater risk for developing intracranial hypertension. Patients should be questioned for visual disturbances prior to initiation of treatment with tetracyclines. Concomitant use of isotretinoin and tetracycline should be avoided because isotretinoin, a systemic retinoid, is also known to cause intracranial hypertension.1

Although intracranial hypertension typically resolves after discontinuation of treatment, the possibility for permanent visual loss exists. If visual disturbance occurs during treatment, prompt ophthalmologic evaluation is warranted. Because intracranial pressure can remain elevated for weeks after drug cessation, patients should be monitored until they stabilize.1

Autoimmune Syndromes

Tetracyclines have been associated with the development of autoimmune syndromes. The long-term use of oral minocycline in the treatment of acne has been associated with drug-induced lupus-like syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis and vasculitis. Sporadic cases of serum sickness have presented shortly after oral minocycline use. Symptoms may be manifested by fever, rash, arthralgia, and malaise. In symptomatic patients, immediately discontinue the use of all tetracycline-class drugs, including topical minocycline foam.1

Photosensitivity

Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking oral tetracyclines; this reaction has been reported less frequently with minocycline. Although topical minocycline foam did not induce phototoxicity or photoallergic responses in human dermal safety studies, patients should minimize or avoid exposure to natural or artificial sunlight (tanning beds or UVA/B treatment) while using minocycline. If patients need to be outdoors while using minocycline foam, they should wear loose-fitting clothes that protect skin from sun exposure and discuss other sun protection measures with their physician. Advise patients to discontinue treatment with topical minocycline foam at the first evidence of sunburn.1

Serious Skin/Hypersensitivity Reactions

Cases of anaphylaxis, serious skin reactions (e.g., Stevens-Johnson syndrome), erythema multiforme, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome have been reported postmarketing with oral minocycline use in patients with acne. DRESS syndrome consists of cutaneous reaction (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis), eosinophilia, and one or more of the following visceral complications such as: hepatitis, pneumonitis, nephritis, myocarditis, and pericarditis. Fever and lymphadenopathy may be present. In some cases, death has been reported with oral minocycline use. If this syndrome is recognized, discontinue topical therapy with minocycline foam immediately.1

Tissue Hyperpigmentation

Oral tetracyclines are known to cause hyperpigmentation. Tetracycline therapy may induce hyperpigmentation in many organs, including nails, bone, skin, eyes, thyroid, visceral tissue, oral cavity (teeth, mucosa, alveolar bone), sclerae and heart valves. Skin and oral pigmentation has been reported to occur independently of time or amount of drug administration, whereas other tissue pigmentation has been reported to occur upon prolonged administration. Skin pigmentation includes diffuse pigmentation as well as pigmentation over sites of scars or injury.1

Development of Drug-resistant Bacteria

Minocycline topical foam has not been evaluated in the treatment of infections. Bacterial resistance to the tetracyclines may develop in patients using minocycline foam; therefore, the susceptibility of bacteria associated with infection should be considered in selecting antimicrobial therapy. Because of the potential for drug-resistant bacteria to develop during the use of minocycline topical foam, it should be used only as indicated.1

Superinfection/Potential for Microbial Overgrowth

Use of minocycline topical foam may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, discontinue minocycline foam and institute appropriate therapy.1

Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Risk Summary: Available data with minocycline topical foam use in pregnant women are insufficient to evaluate for a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Systemic absorption of minocycline in humans is low following once-daily topical administration of minocycline foam for 21 days. Because of low systemic exposure, it is not expected that maternal use of minocycline foam will result in significant fetal exposure to the drug.1

Tetracycline-class drugs may cause permanent discoloration of teeth and reversible inhibition of bone growth when administered orally during pregnancy.1

Animal reproduction studies were not conducted with minocycline topical foam. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of minocycline administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis induced skeletal malformations in fetuses at systemic exposures of 750 and 500 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD; based on AUC comparison) of minocycline topical foam.1

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.1

Animal Data: Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can cause retardation of skeletal development of the developing fetus.1

Minocycline induced skeletal malformations (bent limb bones) in fetuses when orally administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses of 30 mg/kg/day and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively (750 and 500 times, respectively, the systemic exposure at the MRHD based on AUC comparison). Reduced mean fetal body weight was observed when minocycline was orally administered to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day (250 times the systemic exposure at the MRHD based on AUC comparison).1

Minocycline was assessed for effects on peri- and post-natal development of rats in a study that involved oral administration to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis through lactation, at doses of 5, 10, or 50 mg/kg/day. In this study, body weight gain was significantly reduced in pregnant females that received 50 mg/kg/day (650 times the systemic exposure at the MRHD based on AUC comparison). No effects of treatment on the duration of the gestation period or the number of live pups born per litter were observed. Gross external anomalies observed in F1 pups (offspring of animals that received oral minocycline) included reduced body size, improperly rotated forelimbs, and reduced size of extremities. No effects were observed on the physical development, behavior, learning ability, or reproduction of F1 pups, and there was no effect on gross appearance of F2 pups (offspring of F1 animals).1

Lactation

Tetracycline-class drugs, including minocycline, are present in breast milk following oral administration. It is not known whether minocycline is present in human milk after topical administration to the nursing mother. There are no data on the effects of minocycline on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with minocycline topical foam.1

Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of minocycline topical foam have been established in pediatric patients 9 years of age and older for the treatment of inflammatory lesions of non-nodular moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Use of minocycline foam for this indication is supported by three adequate and well controlled 12-week trials in patients 9 years of age and older; two of the trials included a 40-week open-label extension. Additional data were obtained from a 7-day open-label safety and pharmacokinetics study conducted in 20 patients 10 years to less than 17 years of age with acne vulgaris. A total of 686 subjects 9 years of age and older received minocycline topical foam in these clinical trials.1

Safety and effectiveness for this indication have not been established in pediatric patients less than 9 years of age. The use of oral tetracycline drugs during tooth development below the age of 8 years may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth (yellow-gray-brown) and inhibition of bone growth.1

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of topical minocycline foam did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.1

Common Adverse Effects

The most commonly observed adverse reaction is headache.1

Drug Interactions

Specific Drugs

It is essential that the manufacturer's labeling be consulted for more detailed information on interactions with this drug, including possible dosage adjustments. Interaction highlights:

  • Anticoagulants: Patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.1

  • Penicillin: Avoid coadministration.1

Actions

Mechanism of Action

The mechanism of action of topical minocycline in the treatment of acne is unknown.1

Advice to Patients

Patient Counseling Information

Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information and Instructions for Use).1

The propellant in minocycline topical foam is flammable. Instruct the patient to avoid fire, flame, and smoking during and immediately following application.1

Advise caregivers of pediatric patients that minocycline topical foam may cause permanent discoloration of deciduous and permanent teeth during tooth development (generally up to the age of 8 years) based on observations with oral tetracycline.1

Advise women that breastfeeding is not recommended during minocycline topical foam therapy.1

Inform patients that minocycline topical foam may cause discoloration of skin, scars, teeth or gums based on observations with oral minocycline.1

Advise patients that Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea can occur with oral minocycline therapy. Advise patients to seek medical attention if they develop watery or bloody stools while using minocycline topical foam.1

Inform patients about the possibility of hepatotoxicity reported with oral minocycline. Advise patients to seek medical advice if they experience symptoms or signs of hepatotoxicity, including loss of appetite, tiredness, diarrhea, jaundice, increased bleeding tendencies, confusion, and sleepiness.1

Inform patients that CNS adverse reactions including dizziness or vertigo have been reported with oral minocycline therapy. Caution patients about driving vehicles or using hazardous machinery if they experience such symptoms while on minocycline topical foam.1

Inform patients that intracranial hypertension can occur with minocycline therapy. Advise patients to seek medical attention if they develop unusual headache or visual symptoms, such as blurred vision, diplopia, and vision loss.1

Inform patients that photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking oral tetracyclines, including minocycline. Advise patients to minimize or avoid exposure to natural or artificial UV light (tanning beds or UVA/B treatment) while using minocycline topical foam. Discuss other sun protection measures, if patients need to be outdoors while using minocycline foam. Advise patients to discontinue treatment at the first evidence of sunburn.1

Inform patients that autoimmune syndromes, including drug-induced lupus-like syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, vasculitis and serum sickness have been observed with oral tetracycline-class drugs, including minocycline. Symptoms may be manifested by arthralgia, fever, rash and malaise. Advise patients who experience such symptoms to stop the drug immediately and seek medical help.1

Minocycline topical foam should be applied exactly as directed.1

Minocycline topical foam may stain fabric.1

Additional Information

AHFSfirstRelease. For additional information until a more detailed monograph is developed and published, the manufacturer's labeling should be consulted. It is essential that the manufacturer's labeling be consulted for more detailed information on usual uses, dosage and administration, cautions, precautions, contraindications, potential drug interactions, laboratory test interferences, and acute toxicity.

Preparations

Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

Please refer to the ASHP Drug Shortages Resource Center for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations.

Minocycline Hydrochloride

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Topical

Foam

4% (of minocycline)

Amzeeq

Foamix Pharmaceuticals Inc.

AHFS Drug Information. © Copyright 2021, Selected Revisions November 11, 2019. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 4500 East-West Highway, Suite 900, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

References

1. Foamix Pharmaceuticals Inc. AMZEEQ (minocycline) topical foam prescribing information. 2019 Oct. http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=5fd99a72-047f-4fd9-93c1-712599fd3870