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Boniva

Generic Name: Ibandronate Sodium
Class: Bone Resorption Inhibitors
VA Class: HS900
Chemical Name: [1-Hydroxy-3-(methylpentylamino)propylidene]diphosphonate trihydrogen sodium monohydrate
Molecular Formula: C9H22NNaO7
CAS Number: 138926-19-9

Medically reviewed on Mar 12, 2018

Introduction

See also: Prolia

Synthetic bisphosphonate; bone resorption inhibitor.1 4

Uses for Boniva

Osteoporosis

Prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.1 Risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis and related fractures include early menopause, advanced age, low bone mineral density (BMD), low body mass index (BMI), previous fracture or family history of fracture/osteoporosis, excessive alcohol intake, smoking, inadequate physical activity, low calcium and vitamin D intake, certain drugs (e.g., glucocorticoids), and medical conditions or diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, Cushing syndrome, hyperparathyroidism).5 6

Treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.1 3 7

In addition to adequate intake of calcium/vitamin D and other lifestyle modifications (e.g., exercise, avoidance of excessive alcohol and tobacco use), experts recommend that pharmacologic therapy for osteoporosis be considered in postmenopausal women with previous hip or vertebral fractures or low BMD; pharmacologic therapy also may be considered in postmenopausal women with low bone mass, although there is less evidence supporting overall fracture risk reduction in such patients.5 6

Use of a drug with proven efficacy in reducing fracture risk is recommended; bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate, risedronate, zoledronic acid, ibandronate) are recommended as one of several first-line drugs.5 6

Individualize choice of therapy based on potential benefits (with respect to fracture risk reduction) and adverse effects of therapy, patient preferences, comorbidities, and risk factors.5 6

Glucocorticoid-induced Osteoporosis

Also has been used in the management of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.45 46

American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recommends optimizing calcium and vitamin D intake and lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet, smoking cessation, weight-bearing or resistance-training exercise) in all patients receiving long-term glucocorticoid therapy; in addition, pharmacologic therapy with an oral bisphosphonate is recommended in patients who are considered to be at moderate-to-high risk of fracture.622 Oral bisphosphonates generally are preferred because of their demonstrated antifracture benefits, safety, and low cost.622

Boniva Dosage and Administration

General

  • Correct hypocalcemia and other disturbances of bone and mineral metabolism prior to initiation of therapy.1

  • Provide supplemental calcium and vitamin D if dietary intake is inadequate.1

Administration

Oral Administration

Administer orally with a full glass (180–240 mL) of plain water ≥60 minutes prior to the first food, beverage (other than plain water), or other orally administered drug or supplement (including vitamins, antacids, and calcium) of the day.1 4 16 (See Food under Pharmacokinetics.)

Avoid lying down for ≥60 minutes following administration.1

Do not to suck or chew tablets; potential for oropharyngeal ulceration.1 (See Upper GI Effects under Cautions.)

If a morning daily oral dose is missed, do not take missed dose later that same day.1 Resume the regular schedule the next day.1

When administered monthly, take tablets in the morning on the same day each month.1 If a monthly dose is missed and the next scheduled dose is more than 7 days away, take the missed dose the next morning after it is remembered and resume the regular schedule.1 If the next scheduled dose is 1–7 days away, maintain the regular schedule;1 do not take more than one 150-mg tablet within the same week.1

IV Administration

Administer by IV injection once every 3 months by a health-care professional.7 18

Injection must only be administered IV.7 18 Safety and efficacy of IV injection administered by other routes not established.7

Because of the risk of anaphylaxis or other severe hypersensitivity reactions, appropriate medical support should be readily available during IV administration.7 (See Hypersensitivity under Cautions.)

If a dose is missed, reschedule administration with a health-care professional as soon as possible.7 Schedule subsequent injections at 3-month intervals; should not be administered more often than once every 3 months.7

Administration Risks

Take care to avoid intra-arterial or paravenous injection as such administration could result in tissue damage.7

Rate of Administration

Administer IV over a period of 15–30 seconds.7

Dosage

Available as ibandronate sodium (as the monosodium monohydrate); dosage expressed in terms of ibandronate.1 7

Adults

Osteoporosis
Prevention in Postmenopausal Women
Oral

150 mg once monthly.1

Osteoporosis
Treatment in Postmenopausal Women
Oral

150 mg once monthly.1

Optimal duration of treatment not established.1 Safety and efficacy based on data over 3 years.1 Reevaluate need for continued therapy periodically in all patients receiving bisphosphonates.1 Consider discontinuance of bisphosphonate therapy after 3–5 years in patients at low risk of fracture.1 Evaluate fracture risk periodically in patients who discontinue therapy.1

IV

3 mg once every 3 months.7

Optimal duration of treatment not established.7 Safety and efficacy of IV ibandronate based on data supporting fracture reduction over 1 year of treatment.7 Reevaluate need for continued therapy periodically in all patients receiving bisphosphonates.7 Consider discontinuance of bisphosphonate therapy after 3–5 years in patients at low risk of fracture.7 Evaluate fracture risk periodically in patients who discontinue therapy.7

Special Populations

Renal Impairment

Oral or IV

Dosage adjustments not necessary in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (Clcr ≥30 mL/minute); use not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (Clcr <30 mL/minute).1 4 7 18

Cautions for Boniva

Contraindications

  • Oral: Esophageal abnormalities that delay esophageal emptying (e.g., stricture, achalasia).1

  • Oral and IV: Uncorrected hypocalcemia.1 7

    Oral and IV: Known hypersensitivity to ibandronate or any ingredient in the formulation.1 7

  • Oral: Inability to stand or sit upright for ≥60 minutes.1

Warnings/Precautions

Upper GI Effects

Possible severe adverse esophageal effects (e.g., esophagitis, esophageal ulcers, erosions, strictures, perforation).1 2 (See Oral Administration under Dosage and Administration.) Monitor for any manifestations and discontinue if dysphagia, odynophagia, new or worsening heartburn, or retrosternal pain occurs.1

Use with caution in patients with active upper GI disease (e.g., Barrett’s esophagus, dysphagia, other esophageal diseases, gastritis, duodenitis, ulcers).1 Gastric and duodenal ulcers (some severe and with complications) reported during postmarketing experience.1

Route of Administration

Injection must be administered IV by a health-care professional; do not administer by non-IV (e.g., intra-arterial) routes.7 (See Administration Risks under Dosage and Administration.)

Metabolic Effects

Correct hypocalcemia, hypovitaminosis D, and other disturbances of bone and mineral metabolism before initiating therapy.1 7 18

If daily intake inadequate, administer supplemental calcium and vitamin D.1 18

Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

Osteonecrosis and osteomyelitis of the jaw reported in patients receiving bisphosphonates.1 7 13 Most cases associated with tooth extraction and/or local infection with delayed healing.1 Known risk factors include cancer, concomitant therapies (e.g., chemotherapy, corticosteroids, angiogenesis inhibitors), poor oral hygiene, and comorbid disorders (e.g., periodontal and/or other preexisting dental disease, anemia, coagulopathy, infection, ill-fitting dentures).1 Risk also may be increased with increased duration of bisphosphonate use.1

If osteonecrosis of the jaw develops, consult an oral surgeon for treatment.1 Dental surgery may exacerbate condition.1

In patients requiring dental procedures, discontinuance of therapy prior to procedure may reduce the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw.1 Base management of patients requiring dental treatment on an individual assessment of risks and benefits.1

Musculoskeletal Pain

Severe and occasionally incapacitating bone, joint, and/or muscle pain reported infrequently with bisphosphonate therapy.1 7 18 Time to onset varied from 1 day to years (mean onset about 3 months) after treatment initiation.1 7 20 If severe symptoms occur, consider discontinuing drug.1 Such pain generally improves following discontinuance, but may recur upon subsequent rechallenge with the same drug or another bisphosphonate.1 7 18

Atypical Fracture of the Femur

Atypical (subtrochanteric or diaphyseal) femur fractures reported rarely with long-term use (>3 years) of bisphosphonates, mostly in patients receiving these drugs for osteoporosis.28 29 30 31 Often occurs with minimal or no trauma, and may be bilateral.26 27 28 30 33 Causality not established; atypical fractures also occur in osteoporotic patients not receiving bisphosphonates.28 29 30 31 Risk may be increased with concomitant use of glucocorticoid, estrogen, and proton-pump inhibitor therapy.30 32 33 35

Evaluate patients who present with new thigh or groin pain for possibility of an atypical femoral fracture; include assessment of the contralateral limb.26 27 28 30 Consider interruption of bisphosphonate therapy in patients with manifestations of possible femoral fracture; weigh risks versus benefits of continued treatment.26 27 30 Discontinue if a femoral shaft fracture is confirmed.28 29 30

Atrial Fibrillation

Although data are conflicting, possible increased risk of atrial fibrillation with use of bisphosphonates.21 22 23 FDA analysis of data from long-term (6 months to 3 years) controlled trials identified a higher rate of atrial fibrillation in patients receiving bisphosphonates (alendronate, ibandronate, risedronate, or zoledronic acid) versus placebo; however, only a few events reported in each study.23 FDA is continuing to monitor this safety concern.23

Potential Risk of Esophageal Cancer

Some evidence (from postmarketing experience and observational studies) suggests a possible association between use of oral bisphosphonates and an increased risk of esophageal cancer.25 36 37 However, because of conflicting data,37 38 39 additional study needed to confirm such findings.36

FDA states that benefits of oral bisphosphonates continue to outweigh their potential risks in patients with osteoporosis; it is important to consider that esophageal cancer is rare, especially in women.36 37

Avoidance of oral bisphosphonates in patients with Barrett’s esophagus, a known precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma, has been recommended.25

Renal Effects

Possible renal toxicity (e.g., deterioration of renal function and, rarely, renal failure) with bisphosphonates.7 12 Risk may be greater in patients with coexisting conditions associated with renal impairment, concomitant therapy with other nephrotoxic drugs, preexisting renal disease, dehydration, dosage, infusion volume and rate, and multiple cycles of treatment.4 7 9 10 11 Assess renal function in such patients.7

Use not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (Clcr <30 mL/minute).1 7

Measure Scr prior to each IV dose.7 Withhold treatment if deterioration of renal function occurs.7

Sensitivity Reactions

Hypersensitivity

Hypersensitivity reactions, including fatal anaphylaxis in patients who received ibandronate injection, reported.1 7 (See Contraindications under Cautions and see IV Administration under Dosage and Administration.)

Specific Populations

Pregnancy

No data in pregnant women to inform any drug-associated risks.1 In reproductive animal studies, maternal and fetal toxicity (including postimplantation loss, developmental anomalies, and deaths) observed.1

Lactation

Distributed into milk in rats; not known whether distributed into human milk.1 7 Also not known whether the drug has any effects on the nursing infant or milk production.1

Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy not established in children.1 7 18 Not indicated for use in children.18

Geriatric Use

No substantial differences in safety and efficacy relative to younger adults, but increased sensitivity cannot be ruled out.1 7 Consider age-related decreases in renal function.18

Renal Impairment

Use not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr <30 mL/minute).1 7 18

Common Adverse Effects

Oral: Back pain,1 dyspepsia,1 2 pain in the extremities,1 diarrhea,1 headache,1 myalgia.1

IV: Arthralgia,7 16 17 back pain,7 abdominal pain.7

Interactions for Boniva

Does not induce or inhibit CYP isoenzymes (i.e., CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, or 3A4)4 7 and is not metabolized.1 4

Antacids or Mineral Supplements Containing Divalent Cations

Pharmacokinetic interaction (decreased absorption of ibandronate) when tablets are used concomitantly with antacids or mineral supplements containing divalent cations (e.g., aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron).1 Administer tablets ≥60 minutes prior to such drugs or supplements.1

Drugs Affecting Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes

Pharmacokinetic interactions unlikely.1

Drugs Excreted through Renal Tubular Transport

Based on limited data in animals, not excreted through renal tubular transport.1 4 7 Pharmacokinetic interaction unlikely.1 4

Nephrotoxic Agents

Potential pharmacologic interaction (increased risk of renal toxicity). 4 9 10 11 12 Assess patients taking concomitant nephrotoxic agents.1 (See Renal Effects under Cautions.)

Specific Drugs and Tests

Drug

Interaction

Comments

Bone-imaging agents

Potential to interfere with use of bone-imaging agents1

Histamine H2-receptor antagonists

Increased oral bioavailability of ibandronate1 4

No evidence of increased adverse upper GI effects1 18

Not considered clinically important1 4

Melphalan

Pharmacokinetic interaction unlikely with IV ibandronate7

NSAIAs

No evidence of increased adverse upper GI effects1

Use concomitantly with caution1

Prednisolone

Pharmacokinetic interaction unlikely with IV ibandronate7

Tamoxifen

Pharmacokinetic interaction unlikely with IV ibandronate7

Boniva Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Bioavailability

Absolute (compared with IV administration) oral bioavailability about 0.6%.1 4 16

Onset

Reduction in bone turnover evident within 1–3 months of treatment initiation; maximal effects observed at 6 months.1 7

Food

Bioavailability decreased by 90% when administered with a standard breakfast compared with administration under fasting conditions.1 Bioavailability and effect on BMD reduced when food and beverages taken <60 minutes following oral administration.1

Special Populations

In patients with renal impairment (Clcr 40–70 mL/minute), AUC is increased by 55% compared with that in patients with normal renal function (Clcr >90 mL/minute).7 Patients with severe renal impairment (Clcr <30 mL/minute) had >2-fold increase in AUC compared with exposure for healthy individuals.7

Distribution

Extent

Widely distributed throughout the body and redistributed to bone.4 Subsequently, the drug is released systemically via bone turnover.1 4 Not known whether distributed into milk.7

Plasma Protein Binding

84–99.5% at therapeutic drug concentrations.1 4

Elimination

Metabolism

No evidence of metabolism.7 16

Elimination Route

Excreted in urine (50–60% of circulating dose) as unchanged drug and in feces (unabsorbed drug).1 4

Half-life

Apparent oral terminal half-life is 37–157 hours; dose-dependent.1

Apparent IV terminal half-life is 4.6–25.5 hours; dose-dependent.7

Special Populations

Pharmacokinetic differences based on race not evaluated.1 Pharmacokinetics not affected by gender.1

Pharmacokinetics not evaluated in pediatric patients.1 Pharmacokinetics in patients with hepatic impairment not studied as ibandronate is not metabolized in the liver.1

Stability

Storage

Oral

Tablets

25°C (may be exposed to 15–30°C).1

Parenteral

Injection

25°C (may be exposed to 15–30°C).7

Compatibility

For information on systemic interactions resulting from concomitant use, see Interactions.

Parenteral

Do not admix with calcium-containing solutions or other IV drugs.7

Actions

  • Incorporates into bone and selectively inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner.1 4

  • Reduces biochemical markers of bone resorption in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.1

  • Maintains or increases BMD1 2 3 13 and increases bone mass in postmenopausal women.1 4

Advice to Patients

  • Importance of providing patient with a copy of the manufacturer’s patient information.1 7

  • Importance of adhering to recommended life-style modifications (e.g., exercise, calcium and vitamin D supplementation).1

  • Importance of correct oral administration (e.g., avoiding foods and beverages other than plain water [including mineral water] prior to administration, not lying down for ≥60 minutes following administration).1 18

  • Importance of not taking vitamins, calcium, or antacids ≤60 minutes of taking oral ibandronate.1

  • Necessity of swallowing tablets whole, without chewing or sucking.1

  • Importance of reviewing how to resume therapy in the event of a missed dose.1

  • Importance of discontinuing oral ibandronate and informing clinician if symptoms of esophageal disease (e.g., new or worsening dysphagia, difficulty or pain on swallowing, retrosternal pain, heartburn) develop.1

  • Importance of informing a clinician if severe bone pain, joint pain, muscular pain, or jaw problems develop.1

  • Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or to plan to breast-feed.1

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs (vitamins, supplements, antacids), as well as any concomitant illnesses (e.g., preexisting dysphagia, esophageal disorders, renal impairment).1

  • Importance of advising patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)

Preparations

Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

Please refer to the ASHP Drug Shortages Resource Center for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations.

* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name

Ibandronate Sodium

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Oral

Tablets, film-coated

150 mg (of ibandronate)*

Boniva

Genentech

Ibandronate Sodium Tablets

Injection, for IV use only

1 mg (of ibandronate) per mL*

Boniva (available in prefilled syringe with needle and swabs)

Genentech

Ibandronate Sodium Injection

AHFS DI Essentials. © Copyright 2018, Selected Revisions March 12, 2018. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 4500 East-West Highway, Suite 900, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

† Use is not currently included in the labeling approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

References

1. Genentech. Boniva (ibandronate sodium) tablets prescribing information. South San Francisco, CA; 2016 Dec.

2. McClung MR, Wasnich RD, Recker R et al. Oral daily ibandronate prevents bone loss in early postmenopausal women without osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res. 2004; 19:11-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14753731?dopt=AbstractPlus

3. Chesnut CH, Skag A, Christiansen C et al. Effect of oral ibandronate administered daily or intermittently on fracture risk in postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res. 2004; 19:1241-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15231010?dopt=AbstractPlus

4. Barrett J, Worth E, Bauss F et al. Ibandronate: a clinical pharmacological and pharmacokinetic update. J Clin Pharmacol. 2004; 44:951-65. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15317823?dopt=AbstractPlus

5. Watts NB, Bilezikian JP, Camacho PM et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the diagnosis and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocr Pract. 2010 Nov-Dec; 16 Suppl 3:1-37. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21224201?dopt=AbstractPlus

6. Cosman F, de Beur SJ, LeBoff MS et al. Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2014; 25:2359-81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25182228?dopt=AbstractPlus

7. Genentech. Boniva (ibandronate sodium) injection prescribing information. South San Francisco, CA; 2016 Dec.

9. Major P, Lortholary A, Han J et al. Zoledronic acid is superior to pamidronate in the treatment of hypercalcemia of malignancy: a pooled analysis of two randomized, controlled clinical trials. J Clin Oncol. 2001; 19:558-67. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11208851?dopt=AbstractPlus

10. Brown DL, Robbins R. Developments in the therapeutic applications of bisphosphonates. J Clin Pharmacol. 1999; 39:651-60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10392318?dopt=AbstractPlus

11. Cheer SM, Noble S. Zoledronic acid. Drugs. 2001; 61:799-805. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11398911?dopt=AbstractPlus

12. Rosen LS, Gordon D, Kaminski M et al. Zoledronic acid versus pamidronate in the treatment of skeletal metastases in patients with breast cancer or osteolytic lesions of multiple myeloma: a phase III, double-blind, comparative trial. Cancer J. 2001; 7:377-87. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11693896?dopt=AbstractPlus

13. Migliorati CA, Casiglia J, Epstein J et al. Managing the care of patients with bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis: an American Academy of Oral Medicine position paper. J Am Dent Assoc. 2005; 136:1658-68. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16383047?dopt=AbstractPlus

15. Reginster JY, Adami S, Lakatos P et al. Efficacy and tolerability of once-monthly oral ibandronate in postmenopausal osteoporosis: 2 year results from the MOBILE study. Ann Rheum Dis [serial online]. January 26, 2006. Available at http://www.annrheumdis.com.

16. Reginster JY. Oral and intravenous ibandronate in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a comprehensive review. Curr Pharm Des. 2005; 11:3711-28. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16305506?dopt=AbstractPlus

17. Delmas PD, Adami S, Strugala C et al. Intravenous ibandronate injections in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: one-year results form the dosing intravenous administration study. Arthritis Rheum. 2006; 54:1838-46. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16729277?dopt=AbstractPlus

18. Roche Pharmaceuticals, Nutley, NJ: Personal communication.

19. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration. FDA Alert: Information on bisphosphonates (marketed as Actonel, Actonel+Ca, Aredia, Boniva, Didronel, Fosamax, Fosamax+D, Reclast, Skelid, and Zometa. 2008 Jan 7. Available from FDA website. Accessed 2008 Oct 28. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm101551.htm

20. Wysowski DK, Chang JT. Alendronate and risedronate: reports of severe bone, joint, and muscle pain. Arch Intern Med. 2005; 165:346-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15710802?dopt=AbstractPlus

21. Black DM, Delmas PD, Eastell R et al. Once-yearly zoledronic acid for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356:1809-22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17476007?dopt=AbstractPlus

22. Cummings SR, Schwartz AV, Black DM. Alendronate and atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356:1895-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17476024?dopt=AbstractPlus

23. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration. Update of safety review follow-up to the October 1, 2007 early communciation about the ongoing safety review of bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates: alendronate (Fosamax, Fosamax plus D) etidronate (Didronel), ibandronate (Boniva), Pamidronate (Aredia), risedronate (Actonel, Actonel w/calcium), tiludronate (Skelid), and zoledronic acid (Reclast, Zometa). 2008 Nov 12. Available from FDA website. Accessed 2008 Nov 21. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/DrugSafetyInformationforHeathcareProfessionals/ucm136201.htm

25. Wysowski DK. Reports of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonate use. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360:89-90. Letter. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19118315?dopt=AbstractPlus

26. Food and Drug Administration. Boniva (ibandronate sodium) tablets [2010 Oct 13: Hoffman-LaRoche]. Safety labeling change and REMS notification. Silver Spring, MD; 2010 Oct 13). From FDA web site. (http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/UCM229237.pdf).

27. Food and Drug Administration. Boniva (ibandronate sodium) injection [2010 Oct 13: Hoffman-LaRoche]. Safety labeling change and REMS notification. Silver Spring, MD; 2010 Oct 13. From FDA web site. (http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/UCM229236.pdf).

28. Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: Safety update for osteoporosis drugs, bisphosphonates, and atypical fractures. Silver Spring, MD; 2010 Oct 13. From FDA web site. (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm229009.htm). Accessed 2010 Nov 4.

29. Food and Drug Administration. FDA MedWatch label change: Atypical fracture update for bisphosphonates (osteoporosis drugs) including alendronate (marketed as Fosamax), alendronate with cholecalciferol (marketed as Fosamax plus D), risedronate (marketed as Actonel and Atelvia), risedronate with calcium carbonate (marketed as Actonel with Calcium), ibandronate (marketed as Boniva), and zoledronic acid (marketed as Reclast). Silver Spring, MD; 2010 Oct 13. From FDA web site. (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm229244.htm). Accessed 2010 Nov 4.

30. Shane E, Burr D, Ebeling PR et al. Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures: Report of a task force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. J Bone Miner Res. 2010; 25:2267-94. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20842676?dopt=AbstractPlus

31. Food and Drug Administration. FDA News Release: Possible increased risk of thigh bone fracture with bisphosphonates. Silver Spring, MD; 2010 Oct 13. From FDA web site. (http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm229171.htm). Accessed 2010 Nov 4.

32. Giusti A, Hamdy NA, Papapoulos SE. Atypical fractures of the femur and bisphosphonate therapy: A systematic review of case/case series studies. Bone. 2010; 47:169-80. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20493982?dopt=AbstractPlus

33. Girgis CM, Sher D, Seibel MJ. Atypical femoral fractures and bisphosphonate use. N Engl J Med. 2010; 362:1848-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20463351?dopt=AbstractPlus

34. Sellmeyer DE. Atypical fractures as a potential complication of long-term bisphosphonate therapy. JAMA. 2010; 304:1480-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20924014?dopt=AbstractPlus

35. Schmidt GA, Horner KE, McDanel DL et al. Risks and benefits of long-term bisphosphonate therapy. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2010; 67:994-1001. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20516469?dopt=AbstractPlus

36. Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: Ongoing safety review of oral osteoporosis drugs (bisphosphonates) and potential increased risk of esophageal cancer. Rockville, MD; 2011 July 21. Available from FDA website. Accessed 2011 Sept 12. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm263320.htm

37. Green J, Czanner G, Reeves G et al. Oral bisphosphonates and risk of cancer of oesophagus, stomach, and colorectum: case-control analysis within a UK primary care cohort. BMJ. 2010; 341:c4444. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20813820?dopt=AbstractPlus http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2933354&blobtype=pdf

38. Cardwell CR, Abnet CC, Cantwell MM et al. Exposure to oral bisphosphonates and risk of esophageal cancer. JAMA. 2010; 304:657-63. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20699457?dopt=AbstractPlus http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3513370&blobtype=pdf

39. Abrahamsen B, Eiken P, Eastell R. More on reports of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonate use. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360:1789; author reply 1791-2.

40. Abrahamsen B, et al. The risk of oesophageal and cancer incidence and mortality in alendronate users: a national cohort study. Presented at the 3rd Joint Meeting of the European Calcified Tissue Society and the International Bone and Mineral Society. Athens, Greece: May 10, 2011. Abstract No. 0C29.

41. Solomon DH, Patrick A, Brookhart MA. More on reports of esophageal cancer with oral bisphosphonate use. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360:1789-90; author reply 1791-2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19391255?dopt=AbstractPlus

45. Ringe JD, Dorst A, Faber H et al. Intermittent intravenous ibandronate injections reduce vertebral fracture risk in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis: results from a long-term comparative study. Osteoporos Int. 2003; 14:801-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14610641?dopt=AbstractPlus

46. Ringe JD, Dorst A, Faber H et al. Three-monthly ibandronate bolus injection offers favourable tolerability and sustained efficacy advantage over two years in established corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003; 42:743-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12730532?dopt=AbstractPlus

622. Buckley L, Guyatt G, Fink HA et al. 2017 American College of Rheumatology Guideline for the Prevention and Treatment of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017; 69:1521-1537. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28585373?dopt=AbstractPlus

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