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Alogliptin and metformin (Oral)

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Jun 3, 2022.

Oral route(Tablet)

Lactic AcidosisPostmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. Symptoms included malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Laboratory abnormalities included elevated blood lactate levels, anion gap acidosis, increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; and metformin plasma levels generally greater than 5 mcg/mL.Risk factors include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs, age greater than or equal to 65 years old, radiological studies with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states, excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment. Steps to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided in the Full Prescribing Information.If lactic acidosis is suspected, discontinue alogliptin/metformin and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended .

Commonly used brand name(s)

In the U.S.

  • Kazano

Available Dosage Forms:

  • Tablet

Therapeutic Class: Hypoglycemic

Pharmacologic Class: Alogliptin

Chemical Class: Metformin

Uses for alogliptin and metformin

Alogliptin and metformin combination may be used alone or together with other medicines and with a proper diet and exercise to treat high blood sugar levels caused by type 2 diabetes. Alogliptin helps to control blood sugar levels by increasing substances in the body that make the pancreas release more insulin. It also signals the liver to stop producing sugar (glucose) when there is too much sugar in the blood. Metformin reduces the absorption of sugar from the stomach, reduces the release of stored sugar from the liver, and helps your body use sugar better. Alogliptin and metformin does not help patients who have insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes.

Alogliptin and metformin is available only with your doctor's prescription.

Before using alogliptin and metformin

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For alogliptin and metformin, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to alogliptin and metformin or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of alogliptin and metformin combination in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established.

Geriatric

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of alogliptin and metformin combination in the elderly. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related kidney problems, which may require caution for patients receiving alogliptin and metformin.

Breastfeeding

There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.

Interactions with medicines

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking alogliptin and metformin, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using alogliptin and metformin with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.

  • Acetrizoic Acid
  • Diatrizoate
  • Ethiodized Oil
  • Iobenzamic Acid
  • Iobitridol
  • Iocarmic Acid
  • Iocetamic Acid
  • Iodamide
  • Iodipamide
  • Iodixanol
  • Iodohippuric Acid
  • Iodopyracet
  • Iodoxamic Acid
  • Ioglicic Acid
  • Ioglycamic Acid
  • Iohexol
  • Iomeprol
  • Iopamidol
  • Iopanoic Acid
  • Iopentol
  • Iophendylate
  • Iopromide
  • Iopronic Acid
  • Ioseric Acid
  • Iosimide
  • Iotasul
  • Iothalamate
  • Iotrolan
  • Iotroxic Acid
  • Ioxaglate
  • Ioxitalamic Acid
  • Ipodate
  • Metrizamide
  • Metrizoic Acid
  • Tyropanoate Sodium

Using alogliptin and metformin with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Aspirin
  • Balofloxacin
  • Besifloxacin
  • Bupropion
  • Capmatinib
  • Chloroquine
  • Ciprofloxacin
  • Dasabuvir
  • Dofetilide
  • Dolutegravir
  • Enoxacin
  • Fexinidazole
  • Fleroxacin
  • Flumequine
  • Gatifloxacin
  • Gemifloxacin
  • Hydroxychloroquine
  • Ioversol
  • Lanreotide
  • Levofloxacin
  • Levoketoconazole
  • Lomefloxacin
  • Moxifloxacin
  • Nadifloxacin
  • Norfloxacin
  • Octreotide
  • Ofloxacin
  • Ombitasvir
  • Paritaprevir
  • Pasireotide
  • Pazufloxacin
  • Pefloxacin
  • Pioglitazone
  • Prulifloxacin
  • Rufloxacin
  • Sitagliptin
  • Sparfloxacin
  • Tafenoquine
  • Thioctic Acid
  • Tosufloxacin
  • Vandetanib

Using alogliptin and metformin with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Acebutolol
  • Atenolol
  • Betaxolol
  • Bisoprolol
  • Bitter Melon
  • Carteolol
  • Carvedilol
  • Celiprolol
  • Colesevelam
  • Esmolol
  • Fenugreek
  • Furazolidone
  • Glucomannan
  • Guar Gum
  • Iproniazid
  • Isocarboxazid
  • Labetalol
  • Levobunolol
  • Linezolid
  • Methylene Blue
  • Metipranolol
  • Metoprolol
  • Moclobemide
  • Nadolol
  • Nebivolol
  • Nialamide
  • Oxprenolol
  • Patiromer
  • Penbutolol
  • Phenelzine
  • Pindolol
  • Practolol
  • Procarbazine
  • Propranolol
  • Psyllium
  • Ranolazine
  • Rasagiline
  • Rifampin
  • Safinamide
  • Selegiline
  • Sotalol
  • Timolol
  • Tranylcypromine
  • Verapamil

Interactions with food/tobacco/alcohol

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Other medical problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of alogliptin and metformin. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Adrenal gland problem (underactive) or
  • Alcohol, excessive use or
  • Cardiovascular collapse (shock) or
  • Congestive heart failure, acute or unstable or
  • Dehydration, severe or
  • Heart attack, acute or
  • Heart or blood vessel problems or
  • Hypoxemia (decreased oxygen in the blood) or
  • Liver disease or
  • Poorly nourished condition or
  • Sepsis (severe infection) or
  • Shock (low blood pressure, blood circulation is poor) or
  • Weakened physical condition—Use with caution. May increase the risk of serious side effects.
  • Anemia (low red blood cells) or
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.
  • Angioedema (swelling of the face, lips, tongue, throat, arms, or legs), history with other dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors—Use with caution. May increase the risk of this condition occurring again.
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis or metabolic acidosis (high ketones or acid in the blood) or
  • Kidney disease, severe or
  • Type 1 diabetes—Should not be used in patients with these conditions.
  • Fever or
  • Infection or
  • Surgery or
  • Trauma—Use with caution. These conditions may cause problems with blood sugar control.
  • Gallbladder stones or
  • Hypertriglyceridemia (high triglycerides and fats in the blood) or
  • Pancreas problems, history of—Use with caution. May increase risk for getting pancreatitis (swelling and inflammation of the pancreas).
  • Radiologic procedures (eg, X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs) that require dyes to be injected in your vein—Alogliptin and metformin should be stopped before you have one of these procedures.

Proper use of alogliptin and metformin

Take alogliptin and metformin exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered. To do so may increase the chance of side effects.

Alogliptin and metformin should come with a Medication Guide. Read and follow these instructions carefully. Ask your doctor if you have any questions.

Carefully follow the special meal plan your doctor gave you. This is the most important part of controlling your diabetes, and is necessary if the medicine is to work properly. Exercise regularly and test for sugar in your blood or urine as directed.

Swallow the tablet whole. Do not split, break, or chew it. Take alogliptin and metformin with food.

Dosing

The dose of alogliptin and metformin will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of alogliptin and metformin. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For oral dosage form (tablets):
    • For type 2 diabetes:
      • Adults—At first, 1 tablet 2 times a day. Each tablet contains 12.5 milligrams (mg) of alogliptin and 500 mg of metformin or 12.5 mg of alogliptin and 1000 mg of metformin. Your doctor may adjust your dose as needed. However, the dose is usually not more than 25 mg of alogliptin and 2000 mg of metformin per day.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

Missed dose

If you miss a dose of alogliptin and metformin, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.

Precautions while using alogliptin and metformin

It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure that alogliptin and metformin is working properly and to decide if you should continue to take it. Blood and urine tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects.

Under certain conditions, too much metformin can cause lactic acidosis. It usually occurs when other serious health problems are present, such as a heart attack or kidney failure. Symptoms of lactic acidosis include stomach discomfort, decreased appetite, diarrhea, fast or shallow breathing, a general feeling of discomfort, muscle pain or cramping, and unusual sleepiness, tiredness, or weakness. If you have more than one of these symptoms together, you should get immediate emergency medical help.

Do not let yourself get dehydrated. Be sure to drink extra fluids when you exercise or increase your activity, or if you have vomiting or diarrhea.

Pancreatitis (swelling and inflammation of the pancreas) may occur while you are using alogliptin and metformin. Check with your doctor right away if you have a sudden and severe stomach pain, chills, constipation, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fever, or lightheadedness.

Check with your doctor right away if you have chest pain or tightness, decreased urine output, dilated neck veins, extreme fatigue, irregular breathing, irregular heartbeat, swelling of the face, fingers, feet, or lower legs, trouble breathing, or weight gain. These may be signs of heart failure.

Alogliptin and metformin may cause serious allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, angioedema, or certain skin conditions (eg, Stevens-Johnson syndrome), which can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention. Call your doctor right away if you have blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin, chest tightness, chills, cough, diarrhea, difficulty swallowing, dizziness, fast heartbeat, hives, itching, skin rash, joint or muscle pain, large, hive-like swelling on face, eyelids, lips, tongue, throat, hands, legs, feet, or sex organs, puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue, red irritated eyes, red skin lesions, often with a purple center, sore throat, sores, ulcers, or white spots in the mouth or on the lips, or unusual tiredness or weakness while you are using alogliptin and metformin.

Check with your doctor right away if you have pain or tenderness in the upper stomach, pale stools, dark urine, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, or yellow eyes or skin. These could be symptoms of a serious liver problem.

Make sure any doctor or dentist who treats you knows that you are using alogliptin and metformin. You may need to stop using alogliptin and metformin before having a major surgery or diagnostic tests, especially tests that use a contrast dye.

It is very important to carefully follow any instructions from your health care team about:

  • Alcohol—Drinking alcohol may cause severe low blood sugar. Discuss this with your health care team.
  • Other medicines—Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This especially includes nonprescription medicines, such as aspirin, and medicines for appetite control, asthma, colds, cough, hay fever, or sinus problems.
  • Counseling—Other family members need to learn how to prevent side effects or help with side effects if they occur. Also, patients with diabetes may need special counseling about the changes in the dosing of their diabetes medicine that might occur with lifestyle changes, such as changes in exercise or diet. Furthermore, counseling on contraception and pregnancy may be needed, because of the problems that can occur in patients with diabetes during pregnancy.
  • Travel—Keep a recent prescription and your medical history with you. Be prepared for an emergency as you would normally. Make allowances for changing time zones and keep your meal times as close as possible to your usual meal times.
  • In case of emergency—There may be a time when you need emergency help for a problem caused by your diabetes. You need to be prepared for these emergencies. It is a good idea to wear a medical identification (ID) bracelet or neck chain at all times. Also, carry an ID card in your wallet or purse that says you have diabetes and that lists all of your medicines.

Alogliptin and metformin may cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar). This is more common when alogliptin and metformin is taken together with certain medicines. Low blood sugar must be treated before it causes you to pass out (unconsciousness). It is important that you learn which symptoms you usually have so you can treat it quickly. Some symptoms of low blood sugar include: behavior changes that are similar to being drunk, blurred vision, cold sweats, confusion, cool, pale skin, difficulty with thinking, drowsiness, excessive hunger, a fast heartbeat, headaches that continue, nausea, shakiness, slurred speech, or unusual tiredness or weakness. Talk to your doctor about how to treat low blood sugar.

Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) may occur if you do not take enough or skip a dose of your medicine, overeat or do not follow your meal plan, have a fever or infection, or do not exercise as much as usual. High blood sugar can be very serious and must be treated right away. It is important that you learn which symptoms you have in order to treat it quickly. Talk to your doctor about the best way to treat high blood sugar.

Alogliptin and metformin may cause severe and disabling joint pain. Call your doctor right away if you have severe joint pain while using alogliptin and metformin.

Alogliptin and metformin may cause bullous pemphigoid. Tell your doctor right away if you have large, hard skin blisters while you are using alogliptin and metformin.

Limit the amount of alcohol you drink while you are using alogliptin and metformin. Heavy alcohol use can increase your chances of serious side effects.

Alogliptin and metformin may cause some women who do not have regular monthly periods to ovulate. This can increase the chance of pregnancy. If you are a woman of childbearing potential, you should discuss birth control options with your doctor.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

Alogliptin and metformin side effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

More common

  • Blurred vision
  • dizziness
  • headache
  • nervousness
  • pounding in the ears
  • slow or fast heartbeat

Less common

  • Anxiety
  • bladder pain
  • bloody or cloudy urine
  • chest pain or tightness
  • chills
  • cold sweats
  • coma
  • confusion
  • cool, pale skin
  • decreased urine output
  • depression
  • difficult, burning, or painful urination
  • dilated neck veins
  • frequent urge to urinate
  • increased hunger
  • irregular heartbeat
  • lower back or side pain
  • nausea
  • nightmares
  • seizures
  • shakiness
  • slurred speech
  • swelling of the face, fingers, feet, or lower legs
  • trouble breathing
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
  • weight gain

Rare

  • Blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin
  • bloating
  • constipation
  • cough
  • darkened urine
  • diarrhea
  • difficulty with swallowing
  • fever
  • hives or itching
  • indigestion
  • joint or muscle pain
  • large, hive-like swelling on the face, eyelids, lips, tongue, throat, hands, legs, feet, or sex organs
  • loss of appetite
  • pains in the stomach, side, or abdomen, possibly radiating to the back
  • puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  • red skin lesions, often with a purple center
  • red, irritated eyes
  • sore throat
  • sores, ulcers, or white spots in the mouth or on the lips
  • vomiting
  • yellow eyes or skin

Incidence not known

  • Dark-colored urine
  • general feeling of tiredness or weakness
  • large, hard skin blisters
  • light-colored stools
  • redness of the skin
  • severe joint pain
  • stomach pain, continuing
  • swelling of the body

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common

  • Body aches or pain
  • ear congestion
  • loss of voice
  • muscle aches
  • sneezing
  • stuffy or runny nose

Less common

  • Back pain

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.