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Cyper WSP

This page contains information on Cyper WSP for veterinary use.
The information provided typically includes the following:
  • Cyper WSP Indications
  • Warnings and cautions for Cyper WSP
  • Direction and dosage information for Cyper WSP

Cyper WSP

This treatment applies to the following species:
Company: Control Solutions

Cypermethrin Insecticide in Water Soluble Packets

A Crack and Crevice and/or Spot Treatment for Residual and Contact Control of Ants, Carpenter Ants, Cockroaches, Crickets, Spiders, and Other Listed Insects.

For use by individuals/firms licensed or registered by the state to apply pesticide products. States may have more restrictive requirements regarding qualifications of persons using this product. Consult the pest control agency of your state prior to use of this product.

EPA Reg. No. 53883-340

EPA EST. NO. 33967-NJ-1

Active Ingredient

(±)-cyano-(3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl (±)-cis, trans-3-(2,2-dichloroethenyl) -2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate*


Other Ingredients:




*Cis/Trans ratio: 45/55 ± 10

1 Synthetic pyrethroid



Si usted no entiende la etiqueta, busque a alguien para que se la explique a usted en detalle. (If you do not understand the label, find someone to explain it to you in detail.)

First Aid

If in Eyes:

● Hold eye open and rinse slowly and gently with water for 15-20 minutes.

● Remove contact lenses, if present, after the first 5 minutes, then continue rinsing.

● Call a poison control center or doctor for treatment advice.

If on Skin or Clothing:

● Take off contaminated clothing.

● Rinse skin with plenty of soap and water for 15-20 minutes.

● Call a poison control center or doctor for treatment advice.

If Swallowed:

● Call a poison control center or doctor immediately for treatment advice.

● Have a person sip a glass of water if able to swallow.

● Do not induce vomiting unless told to do so by the poison control center or doctor.

● Do not give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.

If Inhaled:

● Move person to fresh air.

● If person is not breathing, call 911 or an ambulance, then give artificial respiration, preferably by mouth-to-mouth, if possible.

● Call a poison control center for further treatment advice.

Hot Line Number

Have the product container or label with you when calling a poison control center or doctor, or going for treatment. For information on this product, contact the National Pesticide Information Center, 1-800-858-7378, Monday-Friday, 7:30 AM-3:30 PM PST. You may also contact the National Poison Control Center, 1-800-222-1222, day or night, for emergency medical treatment information [or SafetyCall® at (866) 897-8050]. FOR CHEMICAL EMERGENCY: Spill, leak, fire, exposure, or accident call CHEMTREC 1-800-424-9300.

Precautionary Statements



Causes substantial but temporary eye injury. Harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Avoid contact with skin. Wear protective eyewear (goggles, face shield, or safety glasses). Do not get in eyes or on clothing. Prolonged or frequently repeated skin contact may cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Wash thoroughly with soap and water after handling. Remove contaminated clothing and wash before reuse.

Personal Protective Equipment (ppe)

Some materials that are chemical-resistant to this product are barrier laminate, nitrile rubber > 14 mils neoprene rubber > 14 mils and Viton® > 14 mils. If you want more options follow the instructions for category E on an EPA chemical-resistance category selection chart.

Mixers, loaders, applicators, and other handlers must wear:

● Long-sleeved shirt and long pants

● Shoes plus socks

● Chemical-resistant gloves for mixers, loaders, and applicators using handheld equipment

See Engineering Controls for additional requirements.

Follow manufacturer’s instructions for cleaning/maintaining PPE. If no such instructions for washables exist, use detergent and hot water. Keep and wash PPE separately from other laundry.

Engineering Controls

Mixers and loaders using water-soluble packets must:

● Wear the personal protective equipment required in the PPE section of the labeling for mixers and loaders and

● Be provided and must have immediately available for use in an emergency such as a broken package spill or equipment breakdown a NIOSH-approved respirator with a dust/mist filter with MSHA/NIOSH approval number prefix TC21C or any N, R, P, or HE filter.

User Safety Recommendations

● Users should wash hands before eating, drinking, chewing gum, using tobacco or using the toilet.

● Users should remove clothing/PPE immediately if pesticide gets inside. Then wash thoroughly and put on clean clothing.

● Users should remove PPE immediately after handling this product. As soon as possible, wash thoroughly and change into clean clothing.

Environmental Hazards

This product is extremely toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. To protect the environment, do not allow pesticide to enter or run off into storm drains, drainage ditches, gutters, or surface waters. Applying this product in calm weather when rain is not predicted for the next 24 hours will help to ensure that wind or rain does not blow or wash pesticide off the treatment area. Rinsing application equipment over the treated area will help avoid runoff to water bodies or drainage systems.

This product is highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment on blooming crops or weeds. Do not apply this product or allow it to drift to blooming crops or weeds while bees are actively visiting the treatment area.

Physical And Chemical Hazards

This product is a combustible powder and is incompatible with oxidizing agents. This product can ignite, burn, and form explosive mixtures with air if not handled correctly.

Directions For Use

It is a violation of Federal law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling.

Do not apply this product in a way that will contact any person or pet, either directly or through drift. Keep people and pets out of the area during application. Exit area immediately and remain outside the treated area until sprays have dried.

IMPORTANT: Not for use on plants being grown for sale or other commercial use, or for commercial seed production, or for research purposes. For use on plants intended for aesthetic purposes or climatic modification and being grown in interior plantscapes, ornamental gardens or parks, or on lawns or grounds.

For best results, thoroughly wash out sprayer and screen with water and detergent before using Cyper WSP.


● Do not use water-based sprays in or on conduits, motor housings, junction boxes, or other electrical equipment because of possible shock hazard.

● During any indoor surface application, do not allow dripping or runoff to occur. During any application to ceilings of a structure, cover surface below with plastic shielding or similar material.

● Do not apply this product in any room being used as a living, eating, or recovery area by patients, the elderly, or the infirm when they are in the room.

● Do not apply to classrooms when in use.

● Do not apply to areas of institutions (including libraries sports facilities, etc) when occupants are present in the immediate treatment area.

● Do not use as a space spray. Use only in well-ventilated areas.

● Do not use concentrate or emulsion in fogging equipment.

● Do not use in food areas of food-handling establishments, which includes areas for receiving, serving, storage (dry, cold, frozen raw), packaging (canning, bottling, wrapping, boxing), preparing (cleaning, slicing, cooking, grinding), edible waste storage, enclosed processing systems (mills, dairies, edible oils, syrups). In the home, all food-processing surfaces and utensils should be covered during treatment or thoroughly washed before use. Exposed food should be covered or removed.

● Do not use in warehouses while raw agricultural commodities for food or feed and/or raw or cured tobacco are being stored. Do not use in greenhouses where crops for food or feed are grown.

Pet Restrictions

● Do not apply to pets. Remove birds and other pets before application. Cover any water inhabited by fish (such as aquariums and ornamental fish ponds) during treatment and turn aquarium systems off.


● All outdoor applications must be limited to spot or crack-and-crevice treatments only, except for the following permitted uses.

1. Treatment to soil or vegetation around structures,

2. Applications to lawns, turf, and other vegetation

3. Applications to building foundations up to a maximum height of 3 feet.

● All outdoor applications to impervious surfaces such as sidewalks, driveways, patios porches, and structural surfaces (such as windows, doors, and eaves) are limited to spot treatments or crack-and-crevice applications only.

● Do not apply directly to sewers or drains, or to any area like a gutter where drainage to sewers, storm drains, water bodies, or aquatic habitat can occur.

Applications around Swimming Pools

● Do not apply directly to swimming pools or swimming pool systems.

● This product may be applied as a broadcast treatment to lawns and other vegetated areas around swimming pools, or as a spot treatment or crack-and-crevice treatment to impermeable surfaces (such as tiled walkways) around pools.

Applications in and on Boats

● Do not apply to boat surfaces which contact water. Broadcast applications to exterior surfaces of boats are prohibited Spot treatments may be made to exterior surfaces that do not contact water.

● Use inside boats, ships, and other vessels is permitted. Do not allow product to drain or wash off into water bodies or other aquatic habitat.

Applications near or around Aircraft

● Do not apply to aircraft cabins.

Use Information

For use as a general surface, crack-and-crevice and/or spot treatment for residual and contact pest control in, on, and around buildings and structures and their immediate surroundings and on modes of transport. Permitted areas of use in nonfood/nonfeed areas include, but are not limited to, aircraft (cargo and non-cabin areas only), apartment buildings, boiler rooms, buses, closets, correctional facilities, decks, entries, factories fencing, floor drains (that lead to sewers), food granaries, food grain mills, food manufacturing, processing and serving establishments, furniture, garages, garbage rooms, greenhouses (noncommercial), hospitals (non-patient areas), hotels and motels, houses, industrial buildings, laboratories, landscape vegetation, locker rooms, machine rooms, mausoleums, mobile homes, mop closets, mulch, nursing homes, offices, patios, pet kennels, porches, railcars, restaurants, storage rooms, schools, sewers (dry), stores, trailers, trees, trucks, utility passages, vessels, vestibules, warehouses, wineries and yards.

Food-Handling Establishments (For Use In Non-Food Areas Only):

Cyper WSP may be used as a general spot or crack and crevice treatment in nonfood areas of food handling establishments. Examples of nonfood areas include garbage rooms, lavatories, floor drains (to sewers), entries and vestibules, offices, locker rooms, machine rooms, boiler rooms, garages, mop closets, and storage (after canning or bottling).

Residential Food Areas

In the home, all food processing surfaces and utensils should be covered during treatment or thoroughly washed before use. Exposed food should be covered or removed.

Application Equipment Preparation

For best results thoroughly wash out sprayer and screens with water and detergent before using Cyper WSP. To avoid sprayer clogging, do not use strainers or screens finer than 50 mesh size.

Mixing Procedures

Each foil envelope of Cyper WSP contains water-soluble packets of Cyper wettable powder. The foil envelope must be opened for use.

Because water-soluble packets readily dissolve in the presence of moisture, do not allow them to get wet before adding to the applicator tank. Wear dry gloves when handling the water-soluble packets. Handle with care because excessive handling may cause rupture of the water-soluble packet. Unused water-soluble packets should be stored in the original foil envelope, folded over to minimize exposure to moisture.

Cyper WSP must be diluted with water for applications using hand-held or power-operated application equipment. For best results dilution should be achieved using the following steps.

1. Fill applicator tank 1/2 with water.

2. Add desired Cyper WSP packet(s).

3. Allow 1-2 minutes for dissolution of water-soluble packet(s).

4. Close application equipment and agitate, stir or shake applicator tank.

5. Finish filling applicator tank and agitate again before use to ensure satisfactory suspension.


● Shake or re-agitate application equipment before use if application is interrupted.

● Mix only amount of application volume required for each use.

● Do not store dilution in application equipment overnight.

Tank Mixing

Cyper WSP may be tank mixed with other currently registered pesticides unless expressly prohibited by the product label. A small volume mixing test with the other products is recommended to ensure compatibility. Observe all restrictions and precautions on the label of these products.

Application Procedures

Recommended Application Rates for Structural Pests (Hand Application Equipment)


Concentration of Active Ingredient

Dilution Rate

Ants, Aphids2, Assassin Bugs2, Boxelder Bugs, California Oakworm2, Centipedes, Chiggers2,3, Cockroaches (Maintenance), Crickets, Earwigs, Elm Leaf Beetles2, Firebrats, Fleas3, Flies1, Millipedes, Mites2, Mosquitoes, Pillbugs, Silverfish, Sowbugs, Termites4


1 packet5/1 gal. water

Ants2, Bees, Carpenter Ants, Carpenter Bees, Cockroaches (Cleanout), Fire Ant (Mounds)2, Scorpions, Sod Webworms2, Spiders, Ticks, Wasps


2 packets5/1 gal. water

1Not for indoor use in California for fly control. 2Not registered for use in California. 3Outdoor use only. 4Above ground only. 51 packet = 0.33 oz (9.5 gm) of Cyper WSP

Indoor Surfaces Use

Cyper WSP may be used as a crack-and-crevice and/or spot treatment for indoor surfaces.

Cockroaches, Spiders, Crickets, Scorpions, Silverfish, Ticks And Firebrats

Apply as a coarse, low pressure treatment to areas where these pests hide, such as baseboards, corners, storage areas, closets, around water pipes, doors and windows, attics and eaves, cabinets, sinks, furnaces, stoves, behind and under refrigerators, the underside of shelves, drawers and similar areas. Pay particular attention to cracks and crevices; also see Outdoor Surface Use.


Apply to any trails, around doors and windows and similar areas where ants (including carpenter ants) may be found. Where ants are trailing inside, apply as a residual surface treatment to active areas such as baseboards, corners around pipes, in and behind cabinets, behind and under refrigerators, sinks, furnaces and stoves, cracks and crevices. When combining baits and residual surface insecticides, apply surface insecticides in cracks and crevices, along baseboards, and infested surfaces and outside barrier treatments. Apply perimeter barrier treatments and treat nest to prevent infestation as described below in Outdoor Surface Use.

Assassin Bugs, Boxelder Bugs, Sowbugs, Pillbugs, Millipedes, Elm Leaf Beetle And Centipedes

Apply around doors and windows and similar areas where these, or similar perimeter pests, may be found or where they may enter premises. Treat baseboards, storage areas and other locations. Apply barrier treatments to prevent infestation as described in Outdoor Surface Use.

Outdoor Surface Use

Apply with either hand-held or power application equipment as a residual spray to surfaces of buildings, porches, screens, window frames, eaves, patios, lawns, refuse dumps, garages and other similar areas where these pests are found. Also, may be used as a spot treatment for applications to lawns in landscaped areas in and around residential, commercial, institutional and industrial buildings, and similar areas where these insect pests are active.

Note: The maximum application rate to lawns and other turfgrass is 0.44 lb. ai/A (0.0101 lb. ai/1,000 sq. ft.).

Carpenter Ants

Apply as a coarse wet spray treatment, but avoid runoff around door frames, windows and similar areas where these ants enter premises or hide.

Fire Ants (mounds)

For individual fire ant mounds, apply Cyper WSP as a drench. Gently sprinkle (watering can) a total of one gallon over the surface of mounds up to 12 inches in diameter. Use 2 gallons for larger mounds. Thoroughly wet mound and surrounding area. Treat new mounds as they appear. Pressurized sprays may disturb the ants and cause migration. If possible, applications should be made on warm days after recent rainfall. All colonies in the vicinity should be treated, including those that have not yet constructed a mound.

Bees, Flies, Mosquitoes And Wasps

Apply directly to walls, window screens, and other exterior resting areas as a residual surface treatment. Use caution when treating nests of stinging insects as Cyper WSP does not provide instant knockdown. Protective equipment for the applicator may be required. For best results, treat bee, wasp and hornet nests late in the day when most insects will be present. Allow 2-3 days for the colony to die.

For mosquito control, apply as a general structural perimeter spray to landscape plantings, turf and building foundations to control mosquitoes. Yards or other frequented areas enclosed by landscaping can benefit from the creation of a mosquito barrier to reduce invading mosquitoes by the treatment of perimeter vegetation. For best results, apply Cyper WSP at a rate of 2-5 gallons of water per 1,000 sq. ft. Higher volumes applied result in better coverage and will improve control. Application to vegetation away from the structures may require additional applicator certification, e.g. in turf and ornamental categories. Consult your state regulatory agency for requirements.

Fleas And Ticks

To control nuisance fleas and ticks (e.g. dog ticks) apply to yards, runs and other outside areas where pets may frequent. To control ticks, apply using a coarse fan spray to vegetation, brush, branches, rock walls, and other areas near habitation where ticks may harbor or frequent. Treat entire area rather than making spot treatments, and retreat as necessary to maintain control. Do not apply to pasture or cropland, and do not allow animals and people access to treated areas until the sprays have dried. Applications can begin in the spring and can continue until frost to control both larvae and adult ticks.

Cluster Flies

Make exterior treatments in late summer or early fall before flies are observed alighting on surfaces. Apply thoroughly on siding, under eaves, and around windows and doors paying particular attention to south-facing surfaces. Apply just enough dilution to adequately cover the area without excessive dripping or runoff. Heavy precipitation prior to frost may require retreatment to maintain protection.


Treat and remove accumulations of lumber, firewood and other materials which serve as harborage sites. Apply a coarse spray treatment to the point of drip.

Sod Webworms

Apply as a spot treatment when pests first appear (do not apply as a broadcast spray); retreat when needed. Delay watering or mowing the treated area for 12-24 hrs. after treatment. Use 5 gallons of solution per 800-1,600 sq. ft. when making application.

Outdoor Perimeter Barrier Treatment Around Structures

Applying a continual band of insecticide around building foundation and around windows, doors, service lines, entrances, eaves, vents, and other areas can greatly reduce the potential for entry by crawling pests. To facilitate application, remove debris and leaf litter from next to the foundation, trim vegetation and branches that touch the foundation and move or rake back rocks, deep mulch or other potential pest harborage next to the foundation. To help prevent infestation of buildings, apply as a band to soil and vegetation 6-10 ft. wide around and adjacent to the building. Also, treat the building foundation to a height of 2-3 ft. where pests are active and may find entrance. Apply as a coarse spray treatment to thoroughly and uniformly wet the foundation and/or band area, using 1-5 gals. of treatment solution applied to 800-1600 sq. ft.

Amount of concentration is dependent upon species (see pest table and comments), infestation levels and service interval desired.

Rate Table for Perimeter Barrier Application around Structures

Application Rate Number of Cyper WSP1

Gal of Water2

Area of Coverage (sq. ft.)

1 packet (0.33 oz.)

1-5 gal.

800-1,600 sq. ft.

2 packet (0.66 oz.)

1-5 gal.

800-1,600 sq. ft.

1 Packet = 0.33 oz. (9.5 gms) of Cyper WSP (equivalent to 2 level TB)

2 Application volume may be greater than 5 gal/800-1,600 sq. ft. if

required under heavy vegetative or landscaping materials in order to

obtain desired coverage.

Dilution Examples for Perimeter Barrier Applications around Structures Low Rate (One Packet1/1,000 sq. ft.)


Cyper WSP to Add

Total Mix Volume

Sprayer Output

5 gallons

10 gallons

50 gallons

1 gal/1,000 sq. ft.

5 packets (1.65 oz)

10 packets (3.3 oz)

50 packets (16.5 oz)

2 gal/1,000 sq. ft.

2.5 packets (0.825 oz)

5 packets (1.65 oz)

25 packets (8.25 oz)

5 gal/1,000 sq. ft.

1 packet (0.33 oz)

2 packets (0.67 oz)

10 packets (3.3 oz)

High Rate (Two Packets1/1,000 sq. ft.)


Cyper WSP to Add

Total Mix Volume

Sprayer Output

5 gallons

10 gallons

50 gallons

1 gal/1,000 sq. ft.

10 packets (3.3 oz)

20 packets (6.6 oz)

100 packets (33 oz)

2 gal/1,000 sq. ft.

5 packets (1.65 oz)

10 packets (3.3 oz)

50 packets (16.5 oz)

5 gal/1,000 sq. ft.

2 packets (0.67 oz)

4 packets (1.32 oz)

20 packets (6.6 oz)

1 Packet = 0.33 oz (9.5 gms) of Cyper WSP (equivalent to 2 level TB)

For example: To apply the low-rate of Cyper WSP at a volume of 5 gal/1,000 sq. ft., mix 10 packets of concentrate in 50 gals of water.

To calculate the percentage active ingredient in the finished Cyper WSP spray solution, use the following formula:

No. of Packets Added


No. of Gal. of Total Mix Volume

X 0.1 = % Active Ingredient

Termites Control (not For Soil Treatment)

For control of termites, subterranean aerial colonies, Formosan aerial colonies or drywood termites in localized areas of infested wood structures, apply a 0.1% emulsion to voids and galleries in damaged wood and in spaces between wooden members of a structure and between wood and foundations where wood is vulnerable. Application may be made to inaccessible areas by drilling, and then injecting the emulsion with a crack and crevice injector into the damaged wood or void spaces. Application to attics, crawl spaces, unfinished basements, or man-made voids may be made with a coarse fan spray of 0.1% solution to control workers and winged reproductive forms of termites in mud shelter tubes. This type of application is not intended to be a substitute for soil treatment for extensive infestation of drywood termites or other wood-infesting insects. This treatment is intended to kill localized infestations of workers and winged reproductive forms of termites.

For termites active inside trees, utility poles and/or fence posts, drill to find the interior infested cavity and inject 0.1% solution using treatment tool with a splash back guard.

Termite carton nests in trees or building voids may be injected with 0.25%-0.50% solution using a pointed injection tool. Multiple injection points to varying depths may be necessary. It is desirable to physically remove carton nest material from building voids when such nests are found.

All leaks resulting from the deposition of termiticide in locations other than those prescribed on the label must be cleaned up prior to leaving the application site.

Use anti-backflow equipment or procedures to prevent siphonage of pesticide back into water supplies.

Care should be taken that the treatment solution is not introduced into the gravel and/or pipe drainage system which may be located on the exterior of the foundation in close proximity to the footing of the structure.


● Do not use this product for pre-construction soil treatment under concrete slabs.

● Do not allow people or pets to contact contaminated areas or to reoccupy the contaminated area until the clean-up is completed.

● Do not treat soil that is water-saturated or frozen.

● Do not treat when raining.

● Do not allow treatment to run off from the target area.

● Do not apply within 10 feet of storm drains.

● Do not apply within 25 feet of aquatic habitats (such as, but not limited to lakes, reservoirs, rivers, permanent streams, marshes, or natural ponds, estuaries, and commercial fish farm ponds).

● Do not make on-grade applications when sustained wind speeds are above 10 mph (at application site) at nozzle end height.

Storage And Disposal

Do not contaminate water, food, or feed by storage or disposal. Open dumping is prohibited. Do not reuse empty container.

PESTICIDE STORAGE: Mix only as needed. Do not store diluted material. Do not store near food or feed. In case of spill on floor or paved surfaces, sweep up and remove to chemical waste storage area until proper disposal can be made. Keep water-soluble packets in original foil package and store in a cool, dry place. Do not store below 32° F. Handle carefully when stored at temperatures less than 50° F to avoid breakage of packets.

PESTICIDE DISPOSAL: Wastes resulting from the use of this product may be disposed of on site or at an approved waste disposal facility.

CONTAINER HANDLING: Non-refillable container. Do not reuse or refill this container. Offer for recycling if available or dispose of the empty outer pouch in the trash as long as WSP is unbroken. After insuring that the packet is completely empty, crush and dispose of in trash container.


Read the entire direction for use, conditions of warranties and limitations of liability before using this product. If terms are not acceptable, return the unopened product container at once. By using this product, user or buyer accepts the following CONDITIONS, DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES, and LIMITATIONS OF LIABILITY.

CONDITIONS: The directions for use of this product are believed to be adequate and must be followed carefully. However, it is impossible to eliminate all risk associated with the use of this product. Crop injury, ineffectiveness or other unintended consequences may result because of such factors as weather conditions, presence of other materials, or the manner of use or application, all of which are beyond the control of Control Solutions, Inc. To the extent consistent with applicable law, all such risks shall be assumed by the user or buyer.

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES: To the extent consistent with applicable law, Control Solutions, Inc. makes no other warranties, express or implied, of merchantability or of fitness for a particular purpose or otherwise, that extend beyond the statements made on the label. No agent of Control Solutions, Inc. is authorized to make any warranties beyond those contained herein or to modify the warranties contained herein. To the extent consistent with applicable law, Control Solutions, Inc. disclaims any liability whatsoever for special, incidental or consequential damages resulting from the use or handling of this product.

LIMITATIONS OF LIABILITY: To the extent consistent with applicable law, the exclusive remedy of the user or buyer for any and all losses, injuries or damages resulting from the use or handling of this product, whether in contract, warranty, tort, negligence, strict liability or otherwise, shall not exceed the purchase price paid or at Control Solutions, Inc election, the replacement of product.

Control Solutions, Inc. is a member of the ADAMA Group.

Manufactured for: ADAMA, Control Solutions Inc., 5903 Genoa-Red Bluff, Pasadena, TX 77507-1041



4 X 0.33 oz (9.5 gram) Packets

EPA 041113/080813/REV B

1 pound


CPN: 1511041.0

Telephone:   281-892-2500
Fax:   281-892-2501
THIS SERVICE AND DATA ARE PROVIDED "AS IS". DVMetrics assumes no liability, and each user assumes full risk, responsibility, and liability, related to its use of the DVMetrics service and data. See the Terms of Use for further details.

Copyright © 2023 Animalytix LLC. Updated: 2023-11-27