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Canine Red Blood Cells

This page contains information on Canine Red Blood Cells for veterinary use.
The information provided typically includes the following:
  • Canine Red Blood Cells Indications
  • Warnings and cautions for Canine Red Blood Cells
  • Direction and dosage information for Canine Red Blood Cells

Canine Red Blood Cells

This treatment applies to the following species:
Manufacturer: Animal Blood Resources International



The Package Insert is considered an extension of the blood and component container labels as the space on those labels is very limited.

No MSDS is required for these products. This Package Insert is supplied to conform with applicable government regulations. This document should be kept on file and readily available to personnel involved in the use of this product.

Blood and blood components are biologic products and, in the form of cellular products, living canine tissue intended for use in the treatment of canine patients. Professional judgment based on clinical evaluations determines the selection of components, dosage, the rate of administration and decisions in situations not covered in this general statement.

WARNING. In spite of serological testing, the risk of transmitting infectious agents to the patient is present. Careful donor selection, care, and available laboratory tests do not eliminate the hazard. Also, septic and toxic reactions can result from transfusion of bacterially contaminated blood and components. Such reactions are rare, but may be life threatening. In addition, blood components may contain certain immunizing substances other than those indicated on the label. For example, plasma may contain red blood cells and platelets as well as plasma. Therefore, this Package Insert as a whole or in part cannot be considered or interpreted as an expressed or implied warranty of the safety or fitness of the described blood or blood component when used for their intended purpose. Use of specific blood components as indicated by the individual patients clinical condition is needed to prevent inappropriate transfusion. Please note that whole blood is rarely considered an appropriate choice for transfusion. See the section Whole Blood - Indications, below.

Autologous transfusion techniques (such as intraoperative salvage and presurgical donation) should be considered whenever feasible in the perioperative setting, to reduce the risks of disease transmission and immune reactions from homologous donations.



Blood and components described in this Package Insert have been collected from canine donors which are maintained in isolated, controlled access colonies. The blood type of each donor is indicated on the product label. The colonies receive on site health care, and all animals are current on immunizations to include: Canine Distemper, Adenovirus type 2, Leptospirosis, Parainfluenza, Canine Parvo Virus, and Rabies.

Blood from donors maintained in controlled access colonies generally carries a lower risk of disease transmission than blood from volunteer donors.

Testing of Donor Blood

Testing of the donor’s blood is required before an animal is admitted into the colony as a donor and annually thereafter. All colony donors must test serologically negative for Canine brucellosis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Dirofilaria immitis. The label on the container indicates whether the donor is DEA 1.1 negative, DEA 1.1 positive, or DEA 4 only.


Labels contain the following information:

1. The proper name, whole blood or component, including an indication of any qualification or modification.

2. The temperature range in which the component is to be stored.

3. The contents or volume (standard contents, i.e., as prepared according to this Package Insert, is assumed unless otherwise indicated on the label or in Package Insert supplements).

4. The name, address, telephone number and California Biologics registration number (if applicable).

5. The expiration date of the blood component.

6. The donor (serial) identification number.

7. Blood type of the donor.

8. Statement regarding this Package Insert.


The following general instructions pertain to Whole Blood and all the components described in this Package Insert.

1. The intended recipient must be properly identified before the transfusion is started.

2. The plastic blood container must not be vented.

3. Blood and blood components must be administered through an appropriate blood filter. A blood administration set with standard (170-260 µ) clot filter is recommended when administering volumes greater than 50 mL. An 18 micron blood filter (HEMO-NATE® blood filter) is recommended for volumes less than 50 mL.

4. Before use, bags of blood or components should be gently agitated to thoroughly mix contents.

5. No medications or solutions may be added to or infused through the same tubing with blood or components except 0.9% Sodium Chloride, Injection (USP).

6. Lactated Ringer’s, Injection (USP) or other electrolyte solutions containing calcium should NEVER be added to or administered concurrently with blood or components collected in an anticoagulant containing citrate. All of the products described below contain and are collected into anticoagulants which contain citrate.

7. Hemolysis may become evident during the storage of components containing red blood cells. Blood and components should be inspected for bacterial growth. If upon visual inspection the fitness of a component is questioned because of, for example, presence of hemolysis, a significant color change in the contents of the blood bag as compared to the tubing segments, floccular material, cloudy appearance or other problems, the component should not be used. Call Animal Blood Resources at (707) 678-7350 for further evaluation. A slight pink tinge to the supernatant due to some free hemoglobin may be present and is acceptable for transfusion.

8. When thawing frozen products in a water bath, care must be taken to prevent contamination of entry ports. The use of watertight protective plastic over wraps (such as ziplock bags) is recommended.

9. Blood components have been prepared by techniques that aid in pre-serving sterility up to the time of expiration. If the container is entered in a fashion that could contaminate the contents of the container for any reason the component expires 4 hours after entry if maintained at room temperature (20°-24° C), or 24 hours after entry if refrigerated (1°-6° C).

10. Blood and components may be warmed to no more than 37° C during transfusion, if warming is clinically indicated for situations such as hypothermia, blood exchange or massive transfusions.

11. Unless otherwise indicated by the patient’s clinical condition, the rate should be slow, no greater than 0.11 mL / pound of body weight for the first 30 minutes of the transfusion. The patient should be observed during this period since some life threatening reactions occur after the infusion of only a small volume of incompatible blood. If a transfusion reaction occurs, the transfusion should be discontinued immediately and appropriate therapy initiated. The infusion should not be restarted.

12. Completion of the transfusion should be prior to component expiration or within 4 hours, whichever is sooner. If blood or components cannot be infused in 4 hours, they should be divided and stored appropriately in the refrigerator until needed.

13. A crossmatch should be conducted before every transfusion.

14. The blood type of both the donor and the recipient should be known before transfusing whenever possible. When the blood type of the recipient is not known, only blood from type DEA 1.1 NEGATIVE donors should be given. First time transfusions with donors and recipients of unknown blood types should NEVER be considered safe.

15. Blood transfusions should never be considered safe, even under optimum conditions, and should not be given unless there is no other acceptable treatment.



Whole Blood contains the red blood cells and plasma components of donor blood. Platelets and white blood cells in stored blood are usually nonviable after a few days. The usual single unit of Whole Blood with anticoagulant is approximately 125 mL± with a Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of 35-50%±. This assumes a donor PCV of 40-55%±. Whole blood also comes in Double Units of approximately 250 mL and Quad Units of approximately 500 mL. The actual volume of the whole blood (within 10%) can be found on the label. Currently used anticoagulant solutions for the collection of Whole Blood include the anticoagulants Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Solution, USP (CPD); Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine Solution (CPDA-1); and Citrate Phosphate Double Dextrose Solution (CP2D).

The refrigerated shelf life of the Whole Blood is determined by the type of anticoagulant used: CPDA-1 provides a shelf life of 35 days, CPD and CP2D give a shelf life of 21 days. This expiration date is indicated on the product label.


Whole Blood provides red blood cells to carry oxygen to tissues. It also is a blood volume expander and a source of proteins with oncotic and certain non labile coagulation properties.

Canine Red Blood Cells Indications

Whole Blood is indicated only for those patients who have a symptomatic deficit in oxygen carrying capacity combined with hypovolemia of sufficient degree to be associated with shock. If only the former is present, the component of choice is Red Blood Cells. Whole Blood cannot be considered a source of viable platelets, white cells or of therapeutic levels of labile coagulation Factors V and Vlll.


Depending upon the condition of the patient, transfusions containing red cells may not be necessary even with low hemoglobin concentration. Do not use Whole Blood or other red blood cell components if anemia can be treated with specific medications such as iron, vitamin B12, or folic acid, and if the clinical condition of the patient permits sufficient time for these agents to promote erythropoiesis.

Do not use Whole Blood when blood volume can be safely and adequately replaced with other volume expanders such as 0.9% Sodium Chloride, Injection (USP) or Lactated Ringer’s, Injection (USP). Do not use Whole Blood to correct coagulation deficiencies when they can be treated better by appropriate components.

Side Effects and Hazards

The principal side effects and hazards of Whole Blood are:

1. Hemolytic transfusion reactions usually occur when donor red blood cells and recipient plasma are incompatible. Undetected serologic incompatibilities can cause these reactions, but most immediate reactions occur when there is a DEA 1.1 incompatibility. To reduce the risk of transfusion reactions a major and minor crossmatch should be conducted before every transfusion, even when blood is from the same donor and the donor and recipient are the same blood type.

2. The more severe transfusion reactions are characterized by shock, fever, dyspnea, jaundice, cardiac arrhythmias, erratic respiration, salivation, hemoglobinuria, edema, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), abnormal bleeding, vomiting, and urticaria. These reactions may result in death. In anesthetized patients, hypotension and evidence of DIC may be the first indications of a transfusion reaction. Hemoglobinemia, hemoglobinuria and subsequent hyperbilirubinemia are usually detectable. Renal failure may ensue. The transfusion must be stopped. Treatment includes management of shock and the judicious administration of fluids and diuretics.

3. Delayed hemolytic reactions may also occur, usually in patients with antibodies undetectable at the time of transfusion. This type of reaction may mimic autoimmune hemolytic anemia with a positive direct antiglobulin test. The signs may include a progressive unexplained fall in hemoglobin 4-14 days after transfusion or continued anemia despite transfusion therapy, fever, hemoglobinuria and/or hyperbilirubinemia. The usual course of delayed reactions is benign and requires no treatment. Rarely, delayed transfusion reactions may be severe and fatal.

4. Some uncommon causes of acute non-immunologically mediated hemolysis that occur in patients include:

a. administration of a hypotonic fluid

b. bacterial infection of the patient or contamination of the donor blood

c. acute hemolytic anemia from any cause

d. improper handling of the blood, such as overheating or freezing.

When hemolysed blood is transfused, the patient’s course is usually benign, although hemoglobinuria, chills, DIC, renal failure and fever may occur. The characterization of and treatment for the infrequent severe reaction are the same as those for an immediate hemolytic transfusion reaction.

5. Transmission of infectious disease may occur in spite of careful donor selection and testing.

6. Bacterial contamination of blood and components is rare. However, the presence of gram-negative bacilli can cause severe endotoxin reactions, including shock, and rarely, death. When a blood recipient experiences chills, high fever or hypotension during or immediately after the transfusion, the possibility that the transfused product may have been bacterially contaminated should be considered. Septic and toxic reactions may be life threatening, and management must be aggressive. Treatment should be initiated immediately after the collection of recipient blood samples for culturing. Treatment may include broad spectrum antimicrobials, vasopressors to maintain blood pressure and urinary flow, and intravenous fluid therapy to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance.

7. Alloimmunization of the recipient to red blood cell, white blood cell, platelet and protein antigens may be a consequence of transfusion. This complication is usually not life threatening, nor does it cause immediate symptoms; however, blood or components for subsequent transfusions MUST BE CROSSMATCHED to reduce the risk of serious transfusion reactions due to alloimmunization.

8. Febrile reactions may occur rarely and are usually caused by antibodies that agglutinate leukocytes.

9. Allergic reactions manifested by urticaria, wheezing or other angioedematous reactions may occur rarely in recipients. The exact cause of these reactions is unknown; however, they are less frequent when Red Blood Cells are used instead of Whole Blood and may be prevented in patients with a prior history of such reactions by premedication of the patient with an antihistamine. Anaphylactic reactions manifested by bronchiospasm, dyspnea and pulmonary edema may occur in rare individuals. Immediate treatment with adrenaline and corticosteroids is indicated. These patients are not good candidates for further transfusions.

10. Circulatory overload reactions manifested by pulmonary edema occur when excessive volume is administered. This is a particular risk in older patients, in small patients and in patients with chronic severe anemia when there is decreased red blood cell mass and increased plasma volume. Immediate treatment for pulmonary edema should be instituted. Use of Red Blood Cells and careful monitoring of the transfusion volume will minimize the occurrence of these reactions. This is due to the fact that an average Double Unit of Whole Blood contains about 28 mEq of sodium, whereas the equivalent amount of red blood cells in a Single Unit of Red Blood Cells, Adenine-Saline Added, typically contains between 12 and 15 mEq of sodium.

11. Iron overload with resultant hemochromatosis is rare but may occur in patients given repeated transfusions over long periods of time.

12. Clinically significant depletion of coagulation proteins and platelets is a very rare complication of massive transfusion (defined as replacement of more than one blood volume in less than 24 hours). Careful monitoring of patients reveals that reduction of clotting factors below hemostatic levels is unusual but dilutional loss may occur. Treatment with specific components to replace reduced coagulation factors may be useful when bleeding is related to their depletion. If excessive bleeding occurs subsequent to a transfusion, the possibility of a hemolytic reaction complicated by DIC should be considered.

13. Micro aggregates consisting of fibrin, white cells and platelets may develop during storage of blood. The smallest of these particles will not be retained in a standard clot filter (170-260 µ).

14. Metabolic complications of transfusions can occur when very large amounts of blood (equal to or greater than the patient’s blood volume in a few hours) are rapidly infused, or when the patient has sever liver or kidney disease. Following are examples of metabolic complications:

a. Hypothermia with the risk of cardiac arrhythmia may occur in rapid, massive transfusion with cold blood or when cold blood is administered through a central venous pressure line. Hypothermia may complicate other metabolic changes and offset oxygen release from hemoglobin. Warming the blood during its passage through the transfusion set to no more than 37° C can prevent this complication.

b. Citrate toxicity due to complexing of ionized Calcium by the anticoagulant in the blood is very rare. The calcium stores of the body are large, and citrate anticoagulant is usually rapidly metabolized. Symptoms can range from muscle tremors to cardiac arrhythmia, and even cardiac arrest. In the absence of underlying pathology contributing to hypocalcemia, most citrate reactions require no treatment other than slowing or discontinuing the transfusion.

c. Acidosis, which may occur initially during massive transfusion, rarely requires treatment. The citric acid is rapidly converted to pyruvate and bicarbonate, with subsequent metabolic alkalosis.

Dosage and Administration

Whole Blood should not be used unless donor and recipient are of the same blood type or the donor has been blood typed and is known to be DEA 1.1 negative. Crossmatching should be done even when donor and recipient have been blood typed and are known to be of the same blood type. The above criteria should always be met unless withholding blood might result in loss of life. The volume of a transfusion depends on the clinical situation. One mL of whole blood contains enough Red Blood Cells to raise the PCV approximately 1 percentage point per pound of body weight.

The rate of transfusion after an initial slow drip (0.11 mL per pound of body weight over a 30 minute period) should be as fast as tolerated. In an animal with a normal state of hydration, whole blood may be infused at a rate of 10 mL per pound of body weight per 24 hour period. This rate may be significantly increased in hypovolemic patients. Due to the wide range of infusion rates, close monitoring of the patient is essential to determine the rate which is appropriate for that individual, and this rate may need to be adjusted accordingly throughout the transfusion. If the patient requires a slow transfusion rate, then consideration should be given to the transfusion of Red Blood Cells rather than Whole Blood.

Components of Whole Blood are described below.




The component Red Blood Cells is prepared by centrifugal or gravitational separation of the red cells from the plasma.

The usual unit of Red Blood Cells has a PCV of 70-82%±. This assumes a donor PCV of 40-55%±. Red Cells come in Single Units of approximately 125 mL, and Double Units of approximately 250 mL. Some platelets and or white blood cells may have been removed during processing and are nonviable due to refrigerated storage. Red Blood Cell components may be prepared from Whole Blood collected in CPDA-1, CPD or CP2D. RBCs which are not resuspended on Adenine-Saline solution have the same shelf life as the whole blood from which they are removed: CPDA-1 provides 35 days, CPD and CP2D provides 21 days. Red Blood Cells resuspended on Adenine-Saline solution have a shelf life of 42 days and are so identified on the label. The expiration date is indicated on the label.

For Red Blood Cell suspensions prepared with Adenine-Saline solutions, see “Red Blood Cells, Adenine-Saline Added.”


This component increases the oxygen carrying capacity of the recipient’s blood by increasing the circulating red blood cell mass.

Canine Red Blood Cells Indications

Red Blood Cells is the component of choice for virtually all patients with a symptomatic deficit of oxygen carrying capacity. This component may be used to help restore blood volume following significant hypovolemia without significant red cell mass deficit.


Do not use Red Blood Cells when anemia can be corrected with specific medications. See “Whole Blood, Contraindications.”

Side Effects and Hazards

Side effects and hazards of Red Blood Cells (including disease transmission, bacteremia or endotoxemia, and hemolytic transfusion reactions) are similar to those for Whole Blood. However, the incidence of allergic reactions, circulatory overload and metabolic complications is lower because removing plasma reduces volume and the quantity of metabolites and antibodies. The risk of disease transmission remains the same.

Dosage and Administration

The dosage and administration of Red Blood Cells are similar to those for Whole Blood. Immediately before infusion, 30 - 100 mL of 0.9% Sodium Chloride, Injection (USP), may be added to Red Blood Cells. Do not add lactated ringers or any other fluids. When diluted in this manner, the flow rate approximates that for Whole Blood. Red Blood Cells stored in Adenine-Saline (AS) solution do not need further dilution. Modifications of Red Blood Cells are described below.



For this component, whole blood is collected in the standard manner, usually in CPD or CP2D anticoagulant. After removal of most of the plasma the Adenine-Saline solution (AS) is mixed with the red blood cells. Red Blood Cells, Adenine-Saline added, has a PCV of 60-75%±. Typical additive solutions consist of glucose, adenine and sodium chloride in water for injection (USP). Additive Solutions formula one (AS-1) and five (AS-5) also contain mannitol as a red blood cell stabilizing agent. Adenine-Saline formula three (AS-3) contains additional citrate and phosphate and does not contain mannitol.

Units of Red Blood Cells containing Additive Solutions will be labeled as such and the label will indicate which Adenine-Saline solution has been used in preparing the component. A Single Unit contains 100 mL+ of Red Blood Cells in addition to 50 mL of AS, a Double Unit contains 200 mL+ of Red Blood Cells in addition to 100mL of AS. This extra fluid volume should not be included when determining the volume of RBCs needed for transfusion, but must be considered as part of the patients total fluid requirement. Red Cells, AS added, have a shelf life of 42 days.

Actions, Indications and Contraindications

These are identical to those for Red Blood Cells.

Side Effects and Hazards

These are the same as those for Red Blood Cells. One unit of AS-1 Red Blood Cells contains 0.375g of mannitol. The amount of mannitol in approved additive solutions is far below that used to achieve a diuretic effect. It is unlikely that any side effects of the mannitol would be observed.

Dosage and Administration

The dosage and administration of Red Blood Cells, Adenine-Saline added, are essentially the same as for Red Blood Cells, except that because of the predilution with saline, Red Blood Cells, Adenine-Saline added, will have approximately the same flow rate as Whole Blood. No dilution of this component is necessary before or during administration. For patients at risk for circulatory overload, it may be desirable to use Red Blood Cells which do not have Adenine-Saline solution added or to concentrate Red Blood Cells, Adenine-Saline added, by centrifugation or sedimentation before transfusion. (See “Whole Blood, Side Effects and Hazards, Circulatory Overload Reactions.”)




Frozen Plasma consists of the anticoagulated clear portion of blood that is separated by centrifugation or sedimentation no later than 5 days after the expiration date of the Whole Blood. Frozen Plasma may be stored refrigerated for up to 5 days after the expiration date of the whole blood from which it is removed. This freeze by date is indicated on the plasma carton. Frozen Plasma comes in three sizes: a mini unit which contains 50-90+ mL of Frozen Plasma, a standard unit which contains approximately 120-145 mL± of Frozen Plasma and a double unit which contains approximately 240-265 mL± of Frozen Plasma. These ranges are due to differences in donor PCV’s. All stable coagulation factors are present.

Plasma components for transfusion may be prepared from Whole Blood collected in all approved anticoagulant solutions except Heparin Solution.


Frozen Plasma contain plasma proteins, including nonlabile clotting factors such as fibrinogen, Factor VII and Factor IX. Frozen Plasma does not contain the nonlabile clotting Factors V and VIII.

Canine Red Blood Cells Indications

These components are indicated for the treatment of stable clotting factor deficiencies, such as Warfarin poisoning, and plasma protein deficiencies. Note: Plasma is not the first treatment of choice for protein replacement or volume expansion. See contraindications.


Do not use Frozen Plasma when coagulopathy can be corrected more effectively with specific therapy, such as vitamin K.

Do not use Frozen Plasma for replacement of labile coagulation factors such as Factors V and Vlll, including vonWillebrand factor (vWf).

Do not use these components when blood volume can be safely and adequately replaced with other volume expanders such as 0.9% Sodium Chloride, Injection (USP) or Lactated Ringer’s, Injection (USP).

Side Effects and Hazards

As described for Whole Blood, side effects and hazards may include febrile, hemolytic and allergic reactions; circulatory overload; and transmission of infectious diseases. If massive volumes of plasma are used, citrate toxicity, hypothermia and other metabolic problems may occur.

Antibodies in the plasma may react with the recipient’s red cells, causing a positive direct antiglobulin test, possibly hemolysis and, rarely, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema.

Dosage and Administration

A minor crossmatch should always be performed before plasma is administered. Plasma should be DEA 1.1 compatible with the recipient’s red cells.

The volume transfused depends on the clinical situations and patient size. Some literature recommends 2 mL to 5 mL per pound of body weight up to 20 mL per pound of body weight. Dosage should be guided by close patient monitoring. Do not use the Plasma if there is evidence of container breakage or of thawing during storage. Plasma may be thawed at a temperature between 30° and 37° C using gentle agitation. Use a watertight protective plastic overwrap (such as a ziplock bag) if a waterbath is used. Microwaves are not recommended for thawing plasma.



Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) is separated and frozen within 8 hours of collection of whole blood. A Unit of Fresh Frozen Plasma contains the labile plasma coagulation Factors V and Vlll (including vWf). Platelets, if present, are not viable. A standard unit contains approximately 120 mL to 145 mL± of Fresh Frozen Plasma. A double unit which contains approximately 240-265 mL± of Fresh Frozen Plasma. A mini unit contains approximately 60 mL to 90 mL± of Fresh Frozen Plasma. These ranges are due to differences in donor PCV’s.


FFP contains plasma proteins including all coagulation factors both stable and non-stable.

Canine Red Blood Cells Indications

Fresh Frozen Plasma is indicated for use in control of bleeding in patients who require replacement of labile plasma coagulation Factors (V and VIII including vWf) when simultaneous blood volume expansion is required or not a problem. FFP may also be used in cases where Frozen Plasma is indicated. FFP is indicated for patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).


Do not use FFP when coagulopathy can be corrected more effectively with specific therapy, such as vitamin K. Do not use FFP when blood volume can be safely and adequately replaced with other volume expanders such as 0.9% Sodium Chloride, Injection (USP) or Lactated Ringer’s Injection (USP).

Side Effects and Hazards

The side effects and hazards of FFP are similar to those for Frozen Plasma.

Dosage and Administration

The dosage and administration of FFP are the same as for Frozen Plasma. FFP should be used as soon as possible but no more than 24 hours after thawing (stored at 1°-6° C) when administered as a source of labile coagulation factors. Do not refreeze.


A reference list is available upon request from Animal Blood Bank Inc.

Animal Blood Resources International, PO Box 1118, Dixon CA 95620

(800) 243-5759 International

(707) 678-7350

Summary Chart of Blood Components


Major Indications


Not Indicated For

Special Hazards

Rate of Infusion

Whole Blood

Symptomatic anemia with large volume deficit

Restoration of oxygen carrying capacity, restoration of blood volume

Condition responsive to specific component. Labile coagulation factors deteriorate within 24 hour after collection.

Infectious diseases; septic, toxic, allergic, febrile reactions; circulatory overload

For massive loss, fast as patient can tolerate

Red Blood Cells

Symptomatic anemia

Restoration of oxygen carrying capacity

Pharmacologically treatable anemia, Coagulation deficiency

Infectious diseases; septic, toxic, allergic, febrile reactions

As patient can tolerate but less than 4 hours

Red Blood Cells, Adenine-Saline added

Symptomatic anemia

Restoration of oxygen carrying capacity

Pharmacologically treatable anemia, Coagulation deficiency

Infectious diseases; septic, toxic, allergic, febrile reactions; circulatory overload

As patient can tolerate but less than 4 hours

Fresh Frozen Plasma

Deficit of labile and stable plasma coagulation factors and TTP

Source of labile and non-labile plasma factors

Condition responsive to volume replacement

Infectious diseases, allergic reactions, circulatory overload

Less than 4 hours

Liquid and Frozen Plasma

Deficit of stable coagulation factors

Source of non-labile factors

Deficit of labile coagulation factors or volume replacement

Infectious diseases, allergic reactions, circulatory overload

Less than 4 hours

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NAC No.: 1398000.3

P.O. BOX 609, STOCKBRIDGE, MI, 49285
Telephone:   800-2HELPK9 (800-243-5759)
Fax:   517-851-7762
Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the Canine Red Blood Cells information published above. However, it remains the responsibility of the readers to familiarize themselves with the product information contained on the US product label or package insert.

Copyright © 2019 Animalytix LLC. Updated: 2019-01-22