Skip to main content

Quinora Side Effects

Generic name: quinidine

Medically reviewed by Last updated on Aug 6, 2023.

Note: This document contains side effect information about quinidine. Some dosage forms listed on this page may not apply to the brand name Quinora.

Applies to quinidine: tablet, tablet extended release.


Oral route (Tablet)

Many trials of antiarrhythmic therapy for non-life threatening arrhythmias, has resulted in increased mortality; the risk of active therapy is probably greatest in patients with structural heart disease. In the case of quinidine used to prevent or defer recurrence of atrial flutter/fibrillation, meta-analysis data has shown that the mortality associated with the use of quinidine was more than three times greater than placebo. Another meta-analysis showed that in patients with various non-life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, the mortality associated with the use of quinidine was consistently greater than that associated with the use of any of a variety of alternative antiarrhythmics.

Oral route (Tablet)

Active antiarrhythmic therapy has resulted in increased mortality; the risk of active therapy is probably greatest in patients with structural heart disease. In a meta-analysis, the mortality associated with the use of quinidine was more than 3 times as great as the mortality associated with the use of placebo. Another meta-analysis showed that in patients with various non-life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, the mortality associated with the use of quinidine was consistently greater than that associated with the use of alternative antiarrhythmics.

Oral route (Tablet, Extended Release)

Active antiarrhythmic therapy has resulted in increased mortality; the risk is probably greatest in patients with structural heart disease.

Serious side effects of Quinora

Along with its needed effects, quinidine (the active ingredient contained in Quinora) may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking quinidine:

Less common


Other side effects of Quinora

Some side effects of quinidine may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects.

Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common

For Healthcare Professionals

Applies to quinidine: compounding powder, injectable solution, oral tablet, oral tablet extended release.


Quinidine side effects have varied from vague neurological and gastrointestinal complaints to myocardial toxicity. The most frequently reported symptoms have been diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. The risk of toxicity is greater when plasma quinidine (the active ingredient contained in Quinora) concentrations exceed 4 mg/L.

Dose-related cinchonism may be the first sign of quinidine toxicity. Cinchonism refers to a syndrome caused by any of the cinchona alkaloids, including quinidine. It most often is a sign of chronic toxicity, but may occur after a single moderate dose in sensitive patients.[Ref]

Cinchonism may be classified as mild, moderate, or severe depending on symptoms. Mild cinchonism includes symptoms of blurred vision, transient deafness, anorexia, nausea, weakness, vertigo, tinnitus, diarrhea, and headache. Mild cinchonism does not always occur with higher dosages, nor does it preclude further quinidine therapy. Moderate cinchonism includes vomiting, hypotension, a 25% to 50% increase in QRS duration, and rare premature ventricular contractions. Severe cinchonism is characterized by myocardial toxicity such as malignant arrhythmias, QRS duration greater than 50%, high degree AV heart block, or cardiac arrest.[Ref]


Cardiovascular side effects have included hypotension, syncope, increased QRS duration (500 to 600 msec), and myocardial toxicity. Tachyarrhythmia has occurred in approximately 2% of patients. Quinidine-induced long QT syndrome has resulted in rare cases of torsades de pointes.

Myocardial toxicity may present as malignant arrhythmias, increased QRS duration of greater than 50%, high degree AV heart block, or cardiac arrest. Quinidine (the active ingredient contained in Quinora) may significantly decrease stroke volume and cardiac output.

Routine use following myocardial infarction is not recommended in view of the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST) data.[Ref]

The use of quinidine to prevent atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation is somewhat controversial. A large, randomized, controlled study comparing quinidine to placebo has shown no difference in efficacy and no demonstrable reduction in overall mortality in treated patients. The crude mortality rate was greater in patients treated with quinidine relative to patients treated with placebo.[Ref]


A 76-year-old man developed progressive dysphagia to solids during quinidine (the active ingredient contained in Quinora) therapy. Upper endoscopy revealed a proximal narrowing, but no findings of cancer or infection. Quinidine pill esophagitis was suspected and the drug was discontinued. The lesion resolved one month later and did not recur.[Ref]

Gastrointestinal side effects have been the most frequently reported adverse effects. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea occurred in up to 30% of patients. Quinidine pill esophagitis has been reported. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may be part of the cinchonism syndrome resulting from dose-related quinidine toxicity.[Ref]

Nervous system

Nervous system side effects have included dizziness, headache, tremor, nervousness and coordination difficulties. Such symptoms may be part of the cinchonism syndrome and signs of quinidine (the active ingredient contained in Quinora) toxicity. The anticholinergic activity of quinidine may exacerbate myasthenia gravis. Convulsions have been reported, but the association with quinidine has not been clearly defined.[Ref]


An 85-year-old man with atrial flutter developed drowsiness, emesis, and icterus associated with elevated liver function tests and marked centrilobular cholestasis with mild bile duct inflammation per liver biopsy within ten days after beginning quinidine (the active ingredient contained in Quinora) therapy. There was no evidence of biliary obstruction per ultrasound. The signs and symptoms of hepatitis resolved after discontinuation of quinidine.

A 58-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation developed fever, lethargy, nausea, and abdominal pain associated with elevated liver function tests and no serological evidence of a viral etiology within ten days after beginning quinidine therapy. No liver biopsy was performed. The signs and symptoms of hepatitis began to resolve within three days after discontinuation of quinidine.

Rare cases of reversible granulomatous hepatitis, presenting as fever, urticarial rash, elevated liver function tests, and mild thrombocytopenia have been associated with quinidine. In a long-term study of 15 patients with a history of quinidine-associated hepatitis, no persistent liver function abnormalities were observed.[Ref]

Hepatic toxicity associated with quinidine is believed primarily due to hypersensitivity to quinidine. Hypersensitivity-induced hepatitis has occurred in approximately 2% of patients, usually within the first two weeks of therapy. Jaundice occurred rarely. Resolution was complete in most cases within 4 to 8 weeks following discontinuation. Not all cases have resolved. Granulomatous hepatitis has been reported.[Ref]


A 66-year-old man with coronary artery disease developed photophobia and blurred vision while taking quinidine (the active ingredient contained in Quinora) metoprolol, furosemide, isosorbide, and digoxin. Slit-lamp examination revealed superficial granular deposits within the corneal epithelium; the epithelial surface was smooth and did not contain fluorescein upon staining. The corneal deposits disappeared within two months after discontinuing quinidine.[Ref]

Ocular side effects have included mydriasis, color perception changes, night blindness, scotomata, optic neuritis, and visual field loss. Blurred vision, diplopia, and photophobia may be part of the dose-related cinchonism syndrome. Quinidine keratopathy, an extremely rare ocular side effect, has been reported.[Ref]


Cases of an IgG antibody requiring the presence of quinidine (the active ingredient contained in Quinora) with activity against leukocytes and platelets have been reported. In some cases, significant infection or hemorrhage resulted.

A 60-year-old man developed malaise, weakness, chills, and oral ulcerations within three days of beginning quinidine and digoxin for atrial fibrillation. Laboratory examination revealed a profoundly low leukocyte count and bone marrow aspiration revealed a hypocellular myeloid line. The neutrophil count returned to baseline within three days after discontinuation of quinidine and continuation of digoxin. The authors found eight other such cases in a review of medical literature.[Ref]

Hematologic abnormalities including leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and rare cases of leukocytosis have occurred.[Ref]


A 52-year-old man developed malaise, an extensive maculopapular rash, palpable purpura, mental status changes, rigors, nausea, and night sweats during therapy with quinidine (the active ingredient contained in Quinora) and digoxin. Laboratory findings included proteinuria, elevated liver function tests, eosinophilia, an elevated antinuclear antibody titer, and renal biopsy findings consistent with allergic granulomatous angiitis. The syndrome worsened following quinidine discontinuation, but resolved gradually with steroid therapy. Because allergic reactions to digoxin are rare, the authors implicated quinidine. Rechallenge was not performed.

A 54-year-old man with a history of atrial fibrillation, treated with digoxin and quinidine sulfate, developed fever and malaise associated with nodular infiltrates on chest X-ray. His condition worsened despite treatment with an oral cephalosporin. A diagnostic evaluation ruled out heart failure; tests for typical and atypical infections were negative. Pulmonary function testing revealed mild restriction. Two days after stopping quinidine the signs and symptoms of pneumonitis resolved. Bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy revealed changes consistent with allergic pneumonitis. Rechallenge with quinidine resulted in recurrent signs and symptoms of allergic pneumonitis.[Ref]

Hypersensitivity-induced hepatitis has occurred in approximately 2% of patients, usually within the first two weeks of therapy. Hypersensitivity reactions including of uveitis, allergic vasculitis, lymphadenopathy, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, bronchospasm, pneumonitis and photosensitive dermatitis psoriaform rash, angioedema, sicca syndrome, arthralgia, myalgia, and elevated levels of skeletal muscle enzymes have been reported.[Ref]


Dermatologic side effects including photosensitive rashes, psoriasis, abnormal pigmentation, and actinic dermatitis have been reported. Quinidine (the active ingredient contained in Quinora) has been identified as a possible cause of lichen planus in susceptible patients.[Ref]

A 57-year-old man with premature ventricular depolarizations developed a papular rash on his back and chest. Resolution was complete within four weeks of discontinuation of therapy. The patient was on no other oral medications.

An 83-year-old man developed a bluish-grey discoloration involving his skin, oral mucosa, and nailbeds which resolved over four months following discontinuation of quinidine. Other medications were continued.

A 64-year-old man with a history of convalescent psoriasis vulgaris experienced an exacerbation of psoriasis within 72 hours after initiating quinidine therapy. The psoriasis was refractory to aggressive PUVA therapy and resolved only when quinidine was discontinued.[Ref]


Immunologic side effects including systemic lupus erythematosus have been rarely associated with quinidine (the active ingredient contained in Quinora) therapy. Rare cases of quinidine-induced polyarthropathy without development of antinuclear antibodies have been reported.[Ref]

Approximately 30 cases of quinidine-induced systemic lupus erythematosus have been reported. The majority of patients were Caucasian and elderly, without gender difference. The most frequent complaint was polyarthralgias (87%).[Ref]


A 64-year-old woman developed edema, proteinuria (3 grams per 24 hours), hypercholesterolemia, elevated complement levels, and elevated antinuclear antibody titers within three months after beginning digoxin and quinidine (the active ingredient contained in Quinora) Signs of the nephrotic syndrome resolved within seven days after discontinuation of quinidine, but continuation of digoxin. Rechallenge with quinidine resulted in fatigue, myalgias, arthralgias, anorexia, and weakness. The author believed this case represented quinidine-induced nephrotic syndrome or a quinidine-induced lupus erythematosus-like illness complicated by renal disease.

A 63-year-old man receiving allopurinol for gout developed progressive uremia, proteinuria, edema, and purpura after beginning quinidine therapy. The patient required hemodialysis secondary to biopsy-proven, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. A macrophage migration-inhibition test was negative in the presence of both quinidine and allopurinol. Such tests may be falsely negative in the presence of uremia. The authors believed quinidine caused Henoch-Schonlein purpura in this patient based on a chronologic association and lack of allopurinol-associated problems following chronic therapy.[Ref]

Renal side effects have been limited to rare reports of quinidine-induced nephrotic syndromes.[Ref]


Psychiatric side effects of depression have been associated with quinidine (the active ingredient contained in Quinora) Rare cases of acute psychosis and psychomotor agitation have been reported with subtherapeutic quinidine levels in elderly patients.[Ref]

A 73-year-old man with supraventricular tachycardia developed visual hallucinations, delusions, and psychomotor agitation within 90 minutes of the initial dose of quinidine. A serum quinidine level at the time was 0.8 mg/L (therapeutic 3 to 6 mg/L). The patient's mental status returned to baseline after discontinuation of quinidine.

A 67-year-old man with a supraventricular arrhythmia and hypertension developed psychosis and psychomotor hyperactivity within two hours after starting quinidine. A serum quinidine level at the time was 1 mg/L (therapeutic 3 to 6 mg/L). The patient's mental status returned to baseline after discontinuation of quinidine.[Ref]


Musculoskeletal effects including a case of profound musculoskeletal weakness has been reported.[Ref]

A 68-year-old woman with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation developed progressive proximal limb muscle weakness within two weeks after starting quinidine. Symptoms resolved upon discontinuation of therapy. Rechallenge was associated with recurrent weakness and a diffuse, pruritic rash. A diagnostic evaluation failed to reveal evidence of myasthenia gravis.[Ref]


1. "Product Information. Quinidex Extentabs (quiNIDine)." Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories

2. "Multum Information Services, Inc. Expert Review Panel"

3. Sokolow M, Perloff DB (1961) "The clinical pharmacology and use of quinidine in heart disease." Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 3, p. 316-30

4. Conn HL, Luchi RJ (1961) "Some quantitative aspects of the binding of quinidine and related quinoline compounds by human serum albumin." J Clin Invest, 40, p. 509-16

5. Woo E, Greenblatt DJ (1978) "A reevaluation of intravenous quinidine." Am Heart J, 96, p. 829-32

6. Kessler KM, Leech RC, Spann JF (1979) "Blood collection techniques, heparin and quinidine protein binding." Clin Pharmacol Ther, 25, p. 204-10

7. Kirch W, Halabi A, Hinrichsen H (1992) "Hemodynamic effects of quinidine and famotidine in patients with congestive heart failure." Clin Pharmacol Ther, 51, p. 325-33

8. Reimold SC, Chalmers TC, Berlin JA, Antman EM (1992) "Assessment of the efficacy and safety of antiarrhythmic therapy for chronic atrial fibrillation: observations on the role of trial design and implications of drug-related mortality." Am Heart J, 124, p. 924-32

9. Bauman JL, Bauernfeind RA, Hoff JV, et al. (1984) "Torsade de pointes due to quinidine: observations in 31 patients." Am Heart J, 107, p. 425-30

10. Koenig W, Schinz AM (1983) "Spontaneous ventricular flutter and fibrillation during quinidine medication." Am Heart J, 105, p. 863-5

11. Wasty N, Saksena S, Barr MJ (1985) "Comparative efficacy and safety of oral cibenzoline and quinidine in ventricular arrhythmias: a randomized crossover study." Am Heart J, 110, p. 1181-8

12. Morganroth J, Horowitz LN (1985) "Incidence of proarrhythmic effects from quinidine in the outpatient treatment of benign or potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmias." Am J Cardiol, 56, p. 585-7

13. Swerdlow CD, Yu JO, Jacobson E, et al. (1983) "Safety and efficacy of intravenous quinidine." Am J Med, 75, p. 36-42

14. Swiryn S, Kim SS (1983) "Quinidine-induced syncope." Arch Intern Med, 143, p. 314-6

15. Au PK, Bhandari AK, Bream R, et al. (1987) "Proarrhythmic effects of antiarrhythmic drugs during programmed ventricular stimulation in patients without ventricular tachycardia." J Am Coll Cardiol, 9, p. 389-97

16. Raehl CL, Patel AK, LeRoy M (1985) "Drug-induced torsade de pointes." Clin Pharm, 4, p. 675-90

17. Oberg KC, Otoole MF, Gallastegui JL, Bauman JL (1994) "''late'' proarrhythmia due to quinidine." Am J Cardiol, 74, p. 192-4

18. Bhavnani SM, Preston SL (1995) "Monitoring of intravenous quinidine infusion in the treatment of plasmodium falciparum malaria." Ann Pharmacother, 29, p. 33-5

19. Dhein S, Schott M, Gottwald E, Klaus W (1995) "Electrocardiological profile and proarrhythmic effects of quinidine, verapamil and their combination: a mapping study." Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 352, p. 94-101

20. Hohnloser SH, Vandeloo A, Baedeker F (1995) "Efficacy and proarrhythmic hazards of pharmacologic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: prospective comparison of sotalol versus quinidine." J Am Coll Cardiol, 26, p. 852-8

21. Deisseroth A, Morganroth J, Winokur S (1972) "Quinidine-induced liver disease." Ann Intern Med, 77, p. 595-7

22. Chajek T, Lehrer B, Geltner D, Levij IS (1974) "Quinidine-induced granulomatous hepatitis." Ann Intern Med, 81, p. 774-6

23. Handler SD, Hirsch NR, Haas K, Davidson FZ (1975) "Quinidine hepatitis." Arch Intern Med, 135, p. 871-2

24. Herman JE, Bassan HM (1975) "Liver injury due to quinidine." JAMA, 234, p. 310-11

25. Wong RK, Kikendall JW, Dachman AH (1986) "Quinaglute-induced esophagitis mimicking an esophageal mass." Ann Intern Med, 105, p. 62-3

26. Zahger D, Gilon D, Gotsman MS (1992) "Delayed quinidine-induced diarrhea after five years of treatment ." Chest, 101, p. 296

27. Romankiewicz JA, Reidenberg M, Drayer D, Franklin JE (1978) "The noninterference of aluminum hydroxide gel with quinidine sulfate absorption: An approach to control quinidine-induced diarrhea." Am Heart J, 96, p. 518-20

28. Stoffer SS, Chandler JH (1980) "Quinidine-induced exacerbation of myasthenia gravis in patient with Graves' disease ." Arch Intern Med, 140, p. 283-4

29. Fisher CM (1981) "Visual disturbances associated with quinidine and quinine." Neurology, 31, p. 1569-71

30. Hogan DB, Morin J, Crilly RG (1984) "Unusual hepatotoxic reaction to quinidine ." Can Med Assoc J, 130, p. 973

31. Slezak P (1981) "Quinidine hepatotoxicity ." Med J Aust, 1, p. 139

32. Zaidman GW (1984) "Quinidine keratopathy." Am J Ophthalmol, 97, p. 247-9

33. Caraco Y, Arnon R, Raveh D (1992) "Quinidine-induced uveitis." Isr J Med Sci, 28, p. 741-3

34. Eisner EV, Carr RM, MacKinney AA (1977) "Quinidine-induced agranulocytosis." JAMA, 238, p. 884-6

35. Castro O, Nash I (1977) "Quinidine leukopenia and thrombocytopenia with a drug-dependent leukoagglutinin." N Engl J Med, 296, p. 572

36. Bedell SE, Kang JL (1984) "Leukocytosis and left shift associated with quinidine fever." Am J Med, 77, p. 345-6

37. Garty M, Ilfeld D, Kelton JG (1985) "Correlation of a quinidine-induced platelet-specific antibody with development of thrombocytopenia." Am J Med, 79, p. 253-5

38. LeBlanc KE (1980) "A second case of quinidine-induced thrombocytopenia with pulmonary hemorrhage ." Arch Intern Med, 140, p. 1250-1

39. Chong BH, Berndt MC, Koutts J, Castaldi PA (1983) "Quinidine-induced thrombocytopenia and leukopenia: demonstration and characterization of distinct antiplatelet and antileukocyte antibodies." Blood, 62, p. 1218-23

40. Nieminen U, Kekomaki R (1992) "Quinidine-induced thrombocytopenic purpura: clinical presentation in relation to drug-dependent and drug-independent platelet antibodies." Br J Haematol, 80, p. 77-82

41. Salom IL (1991) "Purpura due to inhaled quinidine ." JAMA, 266, p. 1220

42. Danielson DA, Douglas SW 3d, Herzog P, et al. (1984) "Drug-induced blood disorders." JAMA, 252, p. 3257-60

43. Vincent PC (1980) "In vitro study of drug-induced granulocytopenia ." N Engl J Med, 302, p. 1151

44. Sureda A, Hernandez Madrid A, Perez Vaquero MA, et al. (1990) "Quinidine-induced agranulocytosis of abrupt onset." Acta Haematol, 84, p. 43-4

45. Ascensao JL, Flynn PJ, Slungaard A, et al. (1984) "Quinidine-induced neutropenia: report of a case with drug-dependent inhibition of granulocyte colony generation." Acta Haematol, 72, p. 349-54

46. Cines DB, Laposata M, Schaefer PW, Margolin DH (1995) "A 70-year-old woman with atrial fibrillation and the rapid onset of hemorrhagic manifestations - quinidine-induced thrombocytopenia. cerebral hemorrhage." N Engl J Med, 332, p. 1363-70

47. Hustead JD (1991) "Granulomatous uveitis and quinidine hypersensitivity ." Am J Ophthalmol, 112, p. 461-2

48. Marx JL, Eisenstat BA, Gladstein AH (1983) "Quinidine photosensitivity." Arch Dermatol, 119, p. 39-43

49. Bramlet DA, Posalaky Z, Olson R (1980) "Granulomatous hepatitis as a manifestation of quinidine hypersensitivity." Arch Intern Med, 140, p. 395-7

50. Knobler H, Levij IS, Gavish D, Chajek-Shaul T (1986) "Quinidine-induced hepatitis: a common and reversible hypersensitivity reaction." Arch Intern Med, 146, p. 526-8

51. Shalit M, Flugelman MY, Harats N, et al. (1985) "Quinidine-induced vasculitis." Arch Intern Med, 145, p. 2051-2

52. Naschitz JE, Yeshurun D (1983) "Quinidine induced sicca syndrome." J Toxicol Clin Toxicol, 20, p. 367-71

53. Aviram A (1980) "Henoch-Schonlein syndrome associated with quinidine ." JAMA, 243, p. 432-3

54. Quin J, Adamski M, Howlin K, et al. (1988) "Quinidine-induced allergic granulomatous angiitis: an unusual cause of acute renal failure." Med J Aust, 148, p. 145-6

55. Poukkula A, Paakko P (1994) "Quinidine-induced reversible pneumonitis." Chest, 106, p. 304-6

56. Lipsker D, Walther S, Schulz R, Nave S, Cribier B (1998) "Life threatening vasculitis related to quinidine occurring in a healthy volunteer during a clinical trial." Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 54, p. 815

57. Burkhart CG (1981) "Quinidine-induced acne ." Arch Dermatol, 117, p. 603-4

58. Lim HW, Buchness MR, Ashinoff R, Soter NA (1990) "Chronic actinic dermatitis: study of the spectrum of chronic photosensitivity in 12 patients." Arch Dermatol, 126, p. 317-23

59. Manzi S, Kraus VB, St Clair EW (1989) "An unusual photoactivated skin eruption: quinidine-induced livedo reticularis." Arch Dermatol, 125, p. 417-8

60. Mahler R, Sissons W, Watters K (1986) "Pigmentation induced by quinidine therapy." Arch Dermatol, 122, p. 1062-4

61. Harwell WB (1983) "Quinidine-induced psoriasis ." J Am Acad Dermatol, 9, p. 278

62. Birek C, Main JH (1988) "Two cases of oral pigmentation associated with quinidine therapy." Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol, 66, p. 59-61

63. Brenner S, Cabili S, Wolf R (1993) "Widespread erythematous scaly plaques in an adult. Psoriasiform eruption induced by quinidine." Arch Dermatol, 129, 1331-2,

64. Katta R (2000) "Lichen planus." Am Fam Physician, 61, 3319-24, 3327-8

65. Kendall MJ, Hawkins CF (1970) "Quinidine-induced systemic lupus erythematosus." Postgrad Med J, 46, p. 729-31

66. Anderson FP, Wanerka GR (1972) "Drug induced systemic lupus erythematosus due to quinidine." Conn Med, 36, p. 84-5

67. Bar-El Y, Shimoni Z, Flatau E (1986) "Quinidine-induced lupus erythematosus." Am Heart J, 111, p. 1209-10

68. Gay RG, Fielder KL, Grogan TM (1987) "Quinidine-induced reactive lymphadenopathy." Am J Med, 82, p. 143-5

69. West SG, McMahon M, Portanova JP (1984) "Quinidine-induced lupus erythematosus." Ann Intern Med, 100, p. 840-2

70. Cohen MG, Kevat S, Prowse MV, Ahern MJ (1988) "Two distinct quinidine-induced rheumatic syndromes." Ann Intern Med, 108, p. 369-71

71. Amadio P Jr, Cummings DM, Dashow L (1985) "Procainamide, quinidine, and lupus erythematosus ." Ann Intern Med, 102, p. 419

72. Lau CP, Wong KL, Wong CK, Leung WH (1990) "Acute lymphadenopathy complicating quinidine therapy." Postgrad Med J, 66, p. 406-7

73. Sukenik S, Horowitz J, Katz A, et al. (1987) "Quinidine-induced lupus erythematosus-like syndrome: three case reports and a review of the literature." Isr J Med Sci, 23, p. 1232-4

74. Alloway JA, Salata MP (1995) "Quinidine-induced rheumatic syndromes." Semin Arthritis Rheum, 24, p. 315-22

75. Chisholm JC, Jr (1985) "Quinidine-induced nephrotic syndrome." J Natl Med Assoc, 77, p. 920-2

76. Deleu D, Schmedding E (1987) "Acute psychosis as idiosyncratic reaction to quinidine: report of two cases." Br Med J, 294, p. 1001-2

77. Billig N, Buongiorno P (1985) "Quinidine-induced organic mental disorders." J Am Geriatr Soc, 33, p. 504-6

78. Hall CD, Malouf N (1987) "Skeletal muscle weakness resulting from quinidine ingestion." South Med J, 80, p. 403-4

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Some side effects may not be reported. You may report them to the FDA.