Primaquine Side Effects
For the Consumer
Applies to primaquine: oral tablet
As well as its needed effects, primaquine may cause unwanted side effects that require medical attention.
If any of the following side effects occur while taking primaquine, check with your doctor immediately:More common:
- Back, leg, or stomach pains
- dark urine
- loss of appetite
- pale skin
- unusual tiredness or weakness
- Bluish fingernails, lips, or skin
- difficulty breathing
- dizziness or lightheadedness
- Sore throat and fever
Some primaquine side effects may not need any medical attention. As your body gets used to the medicine these side effects may disappear. Your health care professional may be able to help you prevent or reduce these side effects, but do check with them if any of the following side effects continue, or if you are concerned about them:More common:
- nausea or vomiting
For Healthcare Professionals
Applies to primaquine: compounding powder, oral tablet
Hemolytic anemia in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) and methemoglobinemia in patients with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide methemoglobin reductase deficiency have been reported.
Patients from Africa, Southern Europe, Mediterranean region, Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Oceania had a greater tendency to develop hemolytic anemia (due to congenital deficiency of erythrocytic G6PD) while using this drug.
Leukopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported in patients taking very high doses (120 mg/day for 14 days).[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Hemolytic anemia, hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, mild anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia[Ref]
Common (1% to 10%): Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, abdominal pains
Frequency not reported: Epigastric distress[Ref]
Gastrointestinal symptoms were dose related.[Ref]
Common (1% to 10%): Dizziness, headache[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Cardiac arrhythmia, QT interval prolongation, hypertension[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Increased methemoglobin level
Hypersensitivity skin rashes have been reported in AIDS patients using this drug with clindamycin for treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia.[Ref]
Frequency not reported: Hypersensitivity skin rashes[Ref]
1. Kantor GS "Primaquine-induced methemoglobinemia during treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia ." N Engl J Med 327 (1992): 461
2. World Health Organization "Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria – Third edition. Available from: URL: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/162441/1/9789241549127_eng.pdf?ua=1" (2015):
3. Ziai M, Amirhakimi GH, Reinhold JG, Tabatabee M, Gettner ME, Bowman JE "Malaria prophylaxis and treatment in G-6-PD deficiency. An observation on the toxicity of primaquine and chloroquine." Clin Pediatr (Phila) 6 (1967): 42-3
4. Fryauff DJ, Baird JK, Basri H, Sumawinata I, Purnomo, Richie TL, Ohrt CK, Mouzin E, Church CJ, Richards AL, Subianto B, Sand "Randomised placebo-controlled trial of primaquine for prophylaxis of falciparum and vivax malaria." Lancet 346 (1995): 1190-3
5. Reeve PA, Toaliu H, Kaneko A, Hall JJ, Ganczakowski M "Acute intravascular haemolysis in Vanuatu following a single dose of primaquine in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency." J Trop Med Hyg 95 (1992): 49-51
6. Cerner Multum, Inc. "Australian Product Information." O 0
7. George JN, Sears DA, McCurdy PR, Conrad ME "Primaquine sensitivity in Caucasians: hemolytic reactions induced by primaquine in G-6-PD deficient subjects." J Lab Clin Med 70 (1967): 0-93
8. "Product Information. Primaquine (primaquine)." Sanofi Winthrop Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY.
9. Kay R, DuBois RE "Clindamycin/primaquine therapy and secondary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS." South Med J 83 (1990): 03-4
10. Ruf B, Rohde I, Pohle HD "Efficacy of clindamycin/primaquine versus trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in primary treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia." Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 10 (1991): 07-10
11. Freedman DO "Clinical practice. Malaria prevention in short-term travelers." N Engl J Med 359 (2008): 603-12
12. Bolchoz LJC, Budinsky RA, McMillan DC, Jollow DJ "Primaquine-induced hemolytic anemia: formation and hemotoxicity of the arylhydroxylamine metabolite 6-methoxy-8-hydroxylaminoquinoline." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 297 (2001): 509-15
13. Baird JK, Fryauff DJ, Basri H, Bangs MJ, Subianto B, Wiady I, Purnomo, Leksana B, Masbar S, Richie TL, Jones TR, Tjitra E, "Primaquine for prophylaxis against malaria among nonimmune transmigrants in irian jaya, indonesia." Am J Trop Med Hyg 52 (1995): 479-84
14. Black JR, Feinberg J, Murphy RL, Fass RJ, Finkelstein D, Akil B, Safrin S, Carey JT, Stansell J, Plouffe JF, He WL, Shelto "Clindamycin and primaquine therapy for mild-to-moderate episodes of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS: AIDS clinical trials group 044." Clin Infect Dis 18 (1994): 905-13
It is possible that some side effects of primaquine may not have been reported. These can be reported to the FDA here. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.
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