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Pyridostigmine

Package insert / prescribing information
Generic name: Pyridostigmine bromide
Dosage form: tablet
Drug class: Cholinergic muscle stimulants

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Aug 1, 2022.

Pyridostigmine Description

Pyridostigmine bromide is an orally active cholinesterase inhibitor. Chemically, Pyridostigmine bromide is 3-hydroxy-1-methylpyridinium bromide dimethylcarbamate. Its structural formula is:

Molecular formula: C9H13BrN2O2

Molecular weight: 261.1 g/mol

Each Pyridostigmine bromide tablets USP, 30 mg for oral administration, contains 30 mg Pyridostigmine bromide, USP and the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, lactose anhydrous, magnesium stearate and stearic acid.

Pyridostigmine - Clinical Pharmacology

Pyridostigmine bromide inhibits the destruction of acetylcholine by cholinesterase and thereby permits freer transmission of nerve impulses across the neuromuscular junction. Pyridostigmine is an analog of neostigmine (Prostigmin®), but differs from it in certain clinically significant respects; for example, Pyridostigmine is characterized by a longer duration of action and fewer gastrointestinal side effects.

Indications and Usage for Pyridostigmine

Pyridostigmine bromide tablets are useful in the treatment of myasthenia gravis.

Contraindications

Pyridostigmine bromide is contraindicated in mechanical intestinal or urinary obstruction, and particular caution should be used in its administration to patients with bronchial asthma. Care should be observed in the use of atropine for counteracting side effects, as discussed below.

Warnings

Although failure of patients to show clinical improvement may reflect underdosage, it can also be indicative of overdosage. As is true of all cholinergic drugs, overdosage of Pyridostigmine bromide may result in cholinergic crisis, a state characterized by increasing muscle weakness which, through involvement of the muscles of respiration, may lead to death. Myasthenic crisis due to an increase in the severity of the disease is also accompanied by extreme muscle weakness, and thus may be difficult to distinguish from cholinergic crisis on a symptomatic basis. Such differentiation is extremely important, since increases in doses of Pyridostigmine bromide or other drugs of this class in the presence of cholinergic crisis or of a refractory or “insensitive” state could have grave consequences. Osserman and Genkins1 indicate that the differential diagnosis of the two types of crisis may require the use of Tensilon® (edrophonium chloride) as well as clinical judgment. The treatment of the two conditions obviously differs radically. Whereas the presence of myasthenic crisis suggests the need for more intensive anticholinesterase therapy, the diagnosis of cholinergic crisis, according to Osserman and Genkins1, calls for the prompt withdrawal of all drugs of this type. The immediate use of atropine in cholinergic crisis is also recommended.

Atropine may also be used to abolish or obtund gastrointestinal side effects or other muscarinic reactions; but such use, by masking signs of overdosage, can lead to inadvertent induction of cholinergic crisis.

For detailed information on the management of patients with myasthenia gravis, the physician is referred to one of the excellent reviews such as those by Osserman and Genkins2, Grob3 or Schwab4,5.

Usage in Pregnancy

The safety of Pyridostigmine bromide during pregnancy or lactation in humans has not been established. Therefore, use of Pyridostigmine bromide in women who may become pregnant requires weighing the drug’s potential benefits against its possible hazards to mother and child.

PRECAUTION

Pyridostigmine is mainly excreted unchanged by the kidney6,7,8. Therefore, lower doses may be required in patients with renal disease, and treatment should be based on titration of drug dosage to effect6,7.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Adverse Reactions

The side effects of Pyridostigmine bromide are most commonly related to overdosage and generally are of two varieties, muscarinic and nicotinic. Among those in the former group are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, increased peristalsis, increased salivation, increased bronchial secretions, miosis and diaphoresis. Nicotinic side effects are comprised chiefly of muscle cramps, fasciculation and weakness. Muscarinic side effects can usually be counteracted by atropine, but for reasons shown in the preceding section the expedient is not without danger. As with any compound containing the bromide radical, a skin rash may be seen in an occasional patient. Such reactions usually subside promptly upon discontinuance of the medication.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Amneal Pharmaceuticals at 1-877-835-5472 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

Pyridostigmine Dosage and Administration

Pyridostigmine bromide is available in tablets, each containing 30 mg Pyridostigmine bromide, USP.

Dosage

The size and frequency of the dosage must be adjusted to the needs of the individual patient.

The average dose is twenty-30 mg tablets, spaced to provide maximum relief when maximum strength is needed. In severe cases as many as 50 tablets a day may be required, while in mild cases two to twelve tablets a day may suffice.

NOTE: For information on a diagnostic test for myasthenia gravis, and for the evaluation and stabilization of therapy, please see product literature on Tensilon® (edrophonium chloride).

How is Pyridostigmine Supplied

Pyridostigmine Bromide Tablets USP, 30 mg are white to off-white, flat-faced, round tablets debossed with "3" on one side and scored on the other side.

They are available as follows:

Bottles of 21 with child-resistant closure: NDC 0115-2134-01

IMPORTANT: These tablets are hygroscopic. Keep in a dry place with the silica gel enclosed.

Dispense in original container.

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15˚ to 30˚C (59˚ to 86˚F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Preserve in a tight, light-resistant container.

KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.

REFERENCES

1. Osserman KE, Genkins G. Studies in myasthenia gravis: Reduction in mortality rate after crisis. JAMA. Jan 1963; 183:97 to 101.

2. Osserman KE, Genkins G. Studies in myasthenia gravis. NY State J Med. June 1961; 61:2076 to 2085.

3. Grob D. Myasthenia gravis. A review of pathogenesis and treatment. Arch Intern Med. Oct 1961; 108:615 to 638.

4. Schwab RS. Management of myasthenia gravis. New Eng J Med. Mar 1963; 268:596 to 597.

5. Schwab RS. Management of myasthenia gravis. New Eng J Med. Mar 1963; 268:717 to 719.

6. Cronnelly R, Stanski DR, Miller RD, Sheiner LB. Pyridostigmine kinetics with and without renal function. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1980; 28: No. 1, 78 to 81.

7. Miller RD. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of anticholinesterase. In: Ruegheimer E, Zindler M, ed. Anesthesiology. (Hamburg, Germany: Congress; Sep 14 to 21, 1980; 222 to 223) (Int Congr. No. 538), Amsterdam, Netherlands: Excerpta Medica; 1981.

8. Breyer-Pfaff U, Maier U, Brinkmann AM, Schumm F. Pyridostigmine kinetics in healthy subjects and patients with myasthenia gravis. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1985; 5:495 to 501.

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Distributed by:
Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC

Bridgewater, NJ 08807

Rev. 04-2022-00

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL

NDC 0115-2134-01

Pyridostigmine Bromide Tablets, USP

30 mg

Rx only

21 Tablets

Amneal Pharmaceuticals LLC

Pyridostigmine BROMIDE
Pyridostigmine bromide tablet
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG LABEL Item Code (Source) NDC:0115-2134
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
Pyridostigmine BROMIDE (Pyridostigmine) Pyridostigmine BROMIDE 30 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE
MAGNESIUM STEARATE
SILICON DIOXIDE
STEARIC ACID
Product Characteristics
Color white (white to off-white) Score 2 pieces
Shape ROUND Size 8mm
Flavor Imprint Code 3
Contains
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description
1 NDC:0115-2134-01 21 TABLET in 1 BOTTLE
Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA040502 08/08/2022
Labeler - Amneal Pharmaceuticals of New York LLC (123797875)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
Amneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC 123797875 analysis(0115-2134), label(0115-2134), manufacture(0115-2134), pack(0115-2134)
Amneal Pharmaceuticals of New York LLC