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Levobunolol

Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on Sep 28, 2020.

Pronunciation

(lee voe BYOO noe lole)

Index Terms

  • l-Bunolol Hydrochloride
  • Levobunolol Hydrochloride

Dosage Forms

Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult specific product labeling. [DSC] = Discontinued product

Solution, Ophthalmic, as hydrochloride:

Betagan: 0.5% (5 mL [DSC], 10 mL [DSC], 15 mL [DSC])

Generic: 0.5% (5 mL, 10 mL [DSC], 15 mL [DSC])

Brand Names: U.S.

  • Betagan [DSC]

Pharmacologic Category

  • Beta-Adrenergic Blocker, Nonselective
  • Ophthalmic Agent, Antiglaucoma

Pharmacology

Blocks both beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors and reduces intraocular pressure by reducing aqueous humor production or possibly increases the outflow of aqueous humor.

Onset of Action

Within 1 hour; Peak effect: 2 to 6 hours

Duration of Action

Up to 24 hours

Use: Labeled Indications

Elevated intraocular pressure: Treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or chronic open-angle glaucoma

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to levobunolol or any component of the formulation; bronchial asthma or history of bronchial asthma; severe COPD; sinus bradycardia; second- or third-degree atrioventricular block; overt heart failure; cardiogenic shock

Documentation of allergenic cross-reactivity for ophthalmic beta-adrenergic blocking agents is limited. However, because of similarities in chemical structure and/or pharmacologic actions, the possibility of cross-sensitivity cannot be ruled out with certainty.

Dosing: Adult

Elevated intraocular pressure: Ophthalmic: Instill 1 to 2 drops into affected eye(s) once daily; may increase to 1 drop twice daily in patients with severe or uncontrolled glaucoma. Doses >1 drop twice daily are generally not more effective.

Dosage adjustment for concomitant therapy: Significant drug interactions exist, requiring dose/frequency adjustment or avoidance. Consult drug interactions database for more information.

Dosing: Geriatric

Refer to adult dosing.

Administration

For topical ophthalmic use only. Wash hands before and after use. Some solutions contain benzalkonium chloride; remove contact lens prior to administration. Wait 15 minutes before reinserting. Do not touch tip of applicator to eye or other surfaces. Do not administer 2 or more ophthalmic beta-adrenergic blocking agents simultaneously.

Storage

Store at 15°C to 25°C (59°F to 77°F). Protect from light.

Drug Interactions

Beta2-Agonists: Beta-Blockers (Nonselective) may diminish the bronchodilatory effect of Beta2-Agonists. Avoid combination

Bradycardia-Causing Agents: May enhance the bradycardic effect of other Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Monitor therapy

Bupivacaine: Beta-Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Bupivacaine. Monitor therapy

Ceritinib: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the bradycardic effect of Ceritinib. Management: If this combination cannot be avoided, monitor patients for evidence of symptomatic bradycardia, and closely monitor blood pressure and heart rate during therapy. Exceptions are discussed in separate monographs. Consider therapy modification

Cholinergic Agonists: Beta-Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Cholinergic Agonists. Of particular concern are the potential for cardiac conduction abnormalities and bronchoconstriction. Monitor therapy

Dronedarone: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Dronedarone may increase the serum concentration of Beta-Blockers. This likely applies only to those agents that are metabolized by CYP2D6. Management: Use lower initial beta-blocker doses; adequate tolerance of the combination, based on ECG findings, should be confirmed prior to any increase in beta-blocker dose. Consider therapy modification

EPINEPHrine (Nasal): Beta-Blockers (Nonselective) may enhance the hypertensive effect of EPINEPHrine (Nasal). Monitor therapy

EPINEPHrine (Oral Inhalation): Beta-Blockers (Nonselective) may enhance the hypertensive effect of EPINEPHrine (Oral Inhalation). Monitor therapy

Epinephrine (Racemic): Beta-Blockers (Nonselective) may enhance the hypertensive effect of Epinephrine (Racemic). Monitor therapy

EPINEPHrine (Systemic): Beta-Blockers (Nonselective) may enhance the hypertensive effect of EPINEPHrine (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Ergot Derivatives: Beta-Blockers may enhance the vasoconstricting effect of Ergot Derivatives. Management: Avoid coadministration of beta-blockers and ergot derivatives whenever possible. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor patients closely for evidence of excessive peripheral vasoconstriction. Exceptions: Lisuride; Nicergoline. Consider therapy modification

Etofylline: Beta-Blockers may diminish the therapeutic effect of Etofylline. Avoid combination

Fexinidazole [INT]: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Fexinidazole [INT]. Avoid combination

Fingolimod: Beta-Blockers may enhance the bradycardic effect of Fingolimod. Management: Avoid the concomitant use of fingolimod and beta-blockers if possible. If coadministration is necessary, patients should have overnight continuous ECG monitoring conducted after the first dose of fingolimod. Monitor patients for bradycardia. Consider therapy modification

Floctafenine: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Beta-Blockers. Avoid combination

Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract): Beta-Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract). More specifically, Beta-Blockers may inhibit the ability to effectively treat severe allergic reactions to Grass Pollen Allergen Extract (5 Grass Extract) with epinephrine. Some other effects of epinephrine may be unaffected or even enhanced (e.g., vasoconstriction) during treatment with Beta-Blockers. Management: Consider alternatives to either grass pollen allergen extract (5 grass extract) or beta-blockers in patients with indications for both agents. Canadian product labeling specifically lists this combination as contraindicated. Consider therapy modification

Ivabradine: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the bradycardic effect of Ivabradine. Monitor therapy

Lacosamide: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the AV-blocking effect of Lacosamide. Monitor therapy

Lidocaine (Systemic): Beta-Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Lidocaine (Systemic). Monitor therapy

Lidocaine (Topical): Beta-Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Lidocaine (Topical). Monitor therapy

Mepivacaine: Beta-Blockers may increase the serum concentration of Mepivacaine. Monitor therapy

Methacholine: Beta-Blockers may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Methacholine. Monitor therapy

Methoxyflurane: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Midodrine: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Monitor therapy

NIFEdipine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Beta-Blockers. NIFEdipine may enhance the negative inotropic effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (Topical): May diminish the therapeutic effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Regorafenib: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Reserpine: May enhance the hypotensive effect of Beta-Blockers. Monitor therapy

Rivastigmine: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Beta-Blockers. Avoid combination

Ruxolitinib: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Management: Ruxolitinib Canadian product labeling recommends avoiding use with bradycardia-causing agents to the extent possible. Monitor therapy

Siponimod: Bradycardia-Causing Agents may enhance the bradycardic effect of Siponimod. Management: Avoid coadministration of siponimod with drugs that may cause bradycardia. Consider therapy modification

Terlipressin: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Monitor therapy

Theophylline Derivatives: Beta-Blockers (Nonselective) may diminish the bronchodilatory effect of Theophylline Derivatives. Monitor therapy

Tofacitinib: May enhance the bradycardic effect of Bradycardia-Causing Agents. Monitor therapy

Adverse Reactions

>10%: Ophthalmic: Burning sensation of eyes (≤33%), stinging of eyes (≤33%)

1% to 10%: Ophthalmic: Blepharoconjunctivitis (5%)

Frequency not defined:

Cardiovascular: Bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac failure, cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular accident, chest pain, heart block, hypotension, palpitations, syncope

Central nervous system: Ataxia (transient), confusion, depression, dizziness, exacerbation of myasthenia gravis, foreign body sensation of eye, headache, lethargy, paresthesia

Dermatologic: Alopecia, pruritus, skin rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, urticaria

Endocrine & metabolic: Hypoglycemia (masked)

Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, nausea

Genitourinary: Impotence

Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity reaction

Neuromuscular & skeletal: Weakness

Ophthalmic: Blepharoptosis, decreased corneal sensitivity, diplopia, iridocyclitis, keratitis, ocular allergy, visual disturbance

Respiratory: Bronchospasm, dyspnea, nasal congestion, respiratory failure

Warnings/Precautions

Concerns related to adverse events:

• Anaphylactic reactions: Instill with caution in patients with history of severe anaphylaxis to a variety of allergens; patients taking beta-blockers may become more sensitive to repeated challenges. Treatment of anaphylaxis (eg, epinephrine) in patients taking beta-blockers may be ineffective or promote undesirable effects.

• Choroidal detachment: Beta-blockade and/or other aqueous suppressive therapy has been associated with choroidal detachment following filtration procedures.

Disease-related concerns:

• Cerebrovascular disease: Use with caution in cerebrovascular insufficiency; consider alternative therapy for patients with signs/symptoms of decreased cerebral blood flow after therapy initiation.

• Diabetes: Use with caution in patients with diabetes mellitus (especially labile diabetes); may potentiate hypoglycemia and/or mask signs and symptoms.

• Heart failure: Use with caution in patients with compensated heart failure and monitor for a worsening of the condition; may lead to heart failure in patients without a history of heart failure (discontinue use at first sign or symptoms of heart failure). Use is contraindicated in overt heart failure. In a scientific statement from the AHA, levobunolol has been determined to be an agent that may exacerbate underlying myocardial dysfunction (magnitude: major) (AHA [Page 2016]).

• Myasthenia gravis: Use with caution in patients with myasthenia gravis; may worsen disease or other myasthenic symptoms (eg, diplopia, ptosis, generalized weakness).

• Peripheral vascular disease and Raynaud disease: Can precipitate or aggravate symptoms of arterial insufficiency in patients with peripheral vascular disease or Raynaud disease. Use with caution and monitor for progression of arterial obstruction.

• Respiratory disease: In general, patients with bronchospastic disease should not receive beta-blockers; if used at all, should be used cautiously with close monitoring. Severe respiratory reactions, including fatalities due to bronchospasm in patients with asthma, have been reported with ophthalmic use. Use is contraindicated in bronchial asthma or history of bronchial asthma and severe COPD.

• Thyroid disease: May mask signs of hyperthyroidism (eg, tachycardia). If thyrotoxicosis is suspected, carefully manage and monitor; abrupt withdrawal may exacerbate symptoms of hyperthyroidism or precipitate thyroid storm.

Special populations:

• Contact lens wearers: Some products may contain benzalkonium chloride, which may be absorbed by soft contact lenses. Remove lens prior to administration and wait 15 minutes before reinserting.

Dosage form specific issues:

• Metabisulfite: Ophthalmic solutions may contain metabisulfite, which may cause allergic reactions in susceptible individuals.

Other warnings/precautions:

• Absorption: Systemic absorption of levobunolol and adverse effects may occur with ophthalmic use, including respiratory and cardiovascular effects (including bradycardia and/or hypotension). Beta-blocker therapy should not be withdrawn abruptly in order to avoid acute tachycardia, hypertension, and/or ischemia.

• Appropriate use: Should not be used alone in angle-closure glaucoma (has no effect on pupillary constriction). Concomitant use of 2 topical beta-blockers is not recommended. Multidose vials have been associated with development of bacterial keratitis; avoid contamination.

• Surgery: May block systemic effects of beta agonists (eg, epinephrine, norepinephrine); notify anesthesiologist if patient is receiving ophthalmic beta-blocker therapy. Patients undergoing planned major surgery should be gradually tapered off therapy (if possible) prior to procedure. If necessary during surgery, effects of beta-blocker therapy may be reversed by adrenergic agonists.

Monitoring Parameters

Intraocular pressure, heart rate, funduscopic exam, visual field testing

Pregnancy Considerations

The same adverse effects observed with systemic administration of beta-blockers may occur following ophthalmic use of levobunolol. If ophthalmic agents are needed for the treatment of glaucoma during pregnancy, the minimum effective dose should be used in combination with punctal occlusion to decrease potential exposure to the fetus (Johnson 2001; Salim 2014; Samples 1988).

Patient Education

What is this drug used for?

• It is used to treat glaucoma.

• It is used to lower high eye pressure.

All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if any of these side effects or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

• Burning

• Stinging

WARNING/CAUTION: Even though it may be rare, some people may have very bad and sometimes deadly side effects when taking a drug. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms that may be related to a very bad side effect:

• Vision changes

• Eye pain

• Severe eye irritation

• Muscle weakness

• Severe dizziness

• Passing out

• Slow heartbeat

• Shortness of breath

• Excessive weight gain

• Swelling of arms or legs

• Signs of an allergic reaction, like rash; hives; itching; red, swollen, blistered, or peeling skin with or without fever; wheezing; tightness in the chest or throat; trouble breathing, swallowing, or talking; unusual hoarseness; or swelling of the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Note: This is not a comprehensive list of all side effects. Talk to your doctor if you have questions.

Consumer Information Use and Disclaimer: This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a limited summary of general information about the medicine's uses from the patient education leaflet and is not intended to be comprehensive. This limited summary does NOT include all information available about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. For a more detailed summary of information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine, please speak with your healthcare provider and review the entire patient education leaflet.

Further information

Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.