Metformin / repaglinide and Alcohol/Food Interactions
There are 2 alcohol/food/lifestyle interactions with metformin / repaglinide which include:
Major Food Interaction
Consumer information for this interaction is not currently available.
GENERALLY AVOID: Alcohol can potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism and increase the risk of lactic acidosis. In addition, alcohol may cause hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. Although hypoglycemia rarely occurs during treatment with metformin alone, the risk may increase with acute consumption of alcohol. Even modest amounts can lower blood sugar significantly, especially when the alcohol is ingested on an empty stomach or following exercise. The mechanism involves inhibition of both gluconeogenesis as well as the counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia. Episodes of hypoglycemia may last for 8 to 12 hours after ethanol ingestion. By contrast, chronic alcohol abuse can cause impaired glucose tolerance and hyperglycemia. Moderate alcohol consumption generally does not affect blood glucose levels in patients with well controlled diabetes.
Food may have varying effects on the absorption of metformin from immediate-release versus extended-release formulations. When a single 850 mg dose of immediate-release metformin was administered with food, mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure (AUC) decreased by 40% and 25%, respectively, and time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax) increased by 35 minutes compared to administration under fasting conditions. By contrast, administration of extended-release metformin with food increased AUC by 50% without affecting Cmax or Tmax, and both high- and low-fat meals had the same effect. These data may not be applicable to formulations that contain metformin with other oral antidiabetic agents.
MANAGEMENT: Metformin should be taken with meals, and excessive alcohol intake should be avoided during treatment. Diabetes patients in general should avoid consuming alcohol if their blood glucose is not well controlled, or if they have hypertriglyceridemia, neuropathy, or pancreatitis. Alcohol should not be consumed on an empty stomach or following exercise, as it may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Patients should contact their physician immediately if they experience potential signs and symptoms of lactic acidosis such as malaise, myalgia, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, and nonspecific abdominal distress (especially after stabilization of metformin therapy, when gastrointestinal symptoms are uncommon). With more marked acidosis, there may also be associated hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. Metformin should be withdrawn promptly if lactic acidosis is suspected. Serum electrolytes, ketones, blood glucose, blood pH, lactate levels, and blood metformin levels may be useful in establishing a diagnosis. Lactic acidosis should be suspected in any diabetic patient with metabolic acidosis lacking evidence of ketoacidosis (ketonuria and ketonemia).
- "Product Information. Glucophage (metformin)." Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ.
- "Position Statement: evidence-based nutrition principles and recommendations for the treatment and prevention of diabetes related complications. American Diabetes Association." Diabetes Care 25(Suppl 1) (2002): S50-S60
Moderate Food Interaction
Consumer information for this interaction is not currently available.
MONITOR: Grapefruit juice may increase the plasma concentrations of orally administered drugs that are substrates of the CYP450 3A4 isoenzyme. The proposed mechanism is inhibition of CYP450 3A4-mediated first-pass metabolism in the gut wall by certain compounds present in grapefruit. Because grapefruit juice inhibits primarily intestinal rather than hepatic CYP450 3A4, the magnitude of interaction is greatest for those drugs that undergo significant presystemic metabolism by CYP450 3A4 (i.e., drugs with low oral bioavailability). In general, the effect of grapefruit juice is concentration-, dose- and preparation-dependent, and can vary widely among brands. Certain preparations of grapefruit juice (e.g., high dose, double strength) have sometimes demonstrated potent inhibition of CYP450 3A4, while other preparations (e.g., low dose, single strength) have typically demonstrated moderate inhibition. Pharmacokinetic interactions involving grapefruit juice are also subject to a high degree of interpatient variability, thus the extent to which a given patient may be affected is difficult to predict.
MANAGEMENT: Patients who regularly consume grapefruit or grapefruit juice should be monitored for adverse effects and altered plasma concentrations of drugs that undergo significant presystemic metabolism by CYP450 3A4. Grapefruit and grapefruit juice should be avoided if an interaction is suspected. Orange juice is not expected to interact with these drugs.
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Metformin / repaglinide drug interactions
There are 547 drug interactions with metformin / repaglinide
Metformin / repaglinide disease interactions
There are 7 disease interactions with metformin / repaglinide which include:
- type I diabetes
- lactic acidosis
- cardiovascular risk
- B12 deficiency
- liver disease
- renal impairment
More about metformin / repaglinide
- Side Effects
- During Pregnancy
- Dosage Information
- Imprints, Shape & Color Data
- Drug Interactions
- Drug class: antidiabetic combinations
Related treatment guides
Drug Interaction Classification
|No interaction information available.|